The city was founded and named Santiago de Nueva Estremadura on Feb. 12, 1541, by Pedro de Valdivia. Laid out according to Valdivia's plan in a gridiron pattern between the hill of Santa Lucía and the Mapocho, a mountain torrent, Santiago has spread over a broad valley plain and is today one of the largest cities in South America. Low foothills encompass the valley, and the snowcapped Andes, forming a superb backdrop, rise in the eastern distance. For most of the year the capital (alt. c.1,700 ft/520 m) has a nearly perfect climate—warm days and cool nights.
While some structures from the colonial era remain, the atmosphere of Santiago is fairly modern (much construction took place in the late 19th cent.), with neoclassical government offices, modern office buildings, and sumptuous residences. Spacious parks, plazas, gardens, and wide avenues (the Avenida Bernardo O'Higgins extends 2 mi/3.2 km in a straight line through the city) are characteristic features. The city also has a zoo, camping grounds, and several sports stadiums. Focal point of the intellectual and cultural development of Chile from colonial times to the present, Santiago has many national establishments—the library, the museum, the theater, and (besides other institutions of higher learning) the National Univ., which is the successor to the Univ. of San Felipe, founded by a royal decree of 1758.
Santiago has experienced several catastrophes. In Sept., 1541, the indigenous Mapuche peoples nearly wiped out the new settlement; it was completely leveled by an earthquake in 1647; and the Mapocho has frequently flooded the city. In 1863 the Campañía Church, with doors that opened inward, caught fire from a falling lamp, and 2,000 worshipers perished.
See his autobiography (tr. 1937, repr. 1966); biography by D. F. Cannon (1949).
See his Dynamic Equilibrium, Recent Projects (1996) and Conversations with Students: The MIT Lectures (2002); studies by D. Sharp, ed. (1994), K. Frampton, ed. (1996), S. Polano (1996, tr. 1999), A. Tzonis (1996), S. van Moos, ed. (1998), L. Molinari, ed. (1999); P. Jodidio (2001), A. Cuito, ed. (2002), and M. Levin (2002).
Seaport city (pop., 1994 est.: 440,000), eastern Cuba. The second largest city in Cuba, it was founded in 1514 and moved to its present site in 1522. It commanded a strategic location on the northern Caribbean Sea in the early colonial period and was the capital of Cuba until 1589. It was a focal point of the Spanish-American War, and in 1898 the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed near its coast. In 1953 it was the scene of Fidel Castro's attack against the Moncada army barracks. It is the centre of an agricultural and mining region and exports copper, iron, manganese, sugar, and fruit.
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City (pop., 2001: 90,188), capital of Galicia autonomous community (comunidad autonóma), northwestern Spain. Santiago de Compostela contains a Romanesque cathedral completed in 1211 that was built on what was said to be the tomb of Jesus' apostle St. James. This tomb, discovered in the 9th century, became the most important Christian pilgrimage site in Europe after Rome. The town that grew up around the tomb was destroyed in 997 by the Moors and was rebuilt in the Middle Ages. Chief economic activities include agriculture, silverwork, wood engraving, and the manufacture of linen and paper. The city is home to several colleges and a university.
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City (pop., 2004 est.: 505,600), north-central Dominican Republic. It was founded circa 1500; it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1562 and rebuilt a few miles away. Ruins of the old city are still visible in the district of San Francisco de Jacagua. It is the country's second largest city; its economy depends mainly on the production of pharmaceuticals, cigarettes, rum, and coffee.
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City (pop., 2002 prelim.: 4,630,000), capital of Chile. It is located in central Chile, on the Mapocho River at an elevation of about 1,700 ft (520 m). Founded in 1541 by the Spanish, the city has suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, floods, and civil disorder. It was only slightly damaged during the War of Independence (1810–18) and became the capital of an independent Chile at the war's end. It is the country's economic and cultural centre and principal industrial city, producing textiles, footwear, and foodstuffs. The city boasts a cosmopolitan cultural life and is the home of the University of Chile.
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