Santiago

Santiago

[san-tee-ah-goh; Sp. sahn-tyah-gaw]
Santiago, city (1990 est. pop. 4,395,000), central Chile, capital of Chile and of Metropolitana de Santiago region, on the Mapocho River. It is the political, commercial, and financial heart of the nation, although Valparaiso has been the seat of the Chilean congress since 1990. Much of Chile's industry is distributed among other cities, but Santiago is an active manufacturing center. Textiles, foodstuffs, clothing, footwear, and other goods are produced. There are also large iron and steel foundries in the city, which has a subway and an international airport.

The city was founded and named Santiago de Nueva Estremadura on Feb. 12, 1541, by Pedro de Valdivia. Laid out according to Valdivia's plan in a gridiron pattern between the hill of Santa Lucía and the Mapocho, a mountain torrent, Santiago has spread over a broad valley plain and is today one of the largest cities in South America. Low foothills encompass the valley, and the snowcapped Andes, forming a superb backdrop, rise in the eastern distance. For most of the year the capital (alt. c.1,700 ft/520 m) has a nearly perfect climate—warm days and cool nights.

While some structures from the colonial era remain, the atmosphere of Santiago is fairly modern (much construction took place in the late 19th cent.), with neoclassical government offices, modern office buildings, and sumptuous residences. Spacious parks, plazas, gardens, and wide avenues (the Avenida Bernardo O'Higgins extends 2 mi/3.2 km in a straight line through the city) are characteristic features. The city also has a zoo, camping grounds, and several sports stadiums. Focal point of the intellectual and cultural development of Chile from colonial times to the present, Santiago has many national establishments—the library, the museum, the theater, and (besides other institutions of higher learning) the National Univ., which is the successor to the Univ. of San Felipe, founded by a royal decree of 1758.

Santiago has experienced several catastrophes. In Sept., 1541, the indigenous Mapuche peoples nearly wiped out the new settlement; it was completely leveled by an earthquake in 1647; and the Mapocho has frequently flooded the city. In 1863 the Campañía Church, with doors that opened inward, caught fire from a falling lamp, and 2,000 worshipers perished.

Santiago, city (1990 pop. 60,959), W central Panama. Santiago is a communications and commercial center in the Pacific lowlands. It is a provincial and district capital.
Santiago, Río Grande de, river, Mexico: see Lerma.
Ramón y Cajal, Santiago, 1852-1934, Spanish histologist. He was a university professor at Valencia (1881-86), at Barcelona (1886-92), and at Madrid (1892-1922), where he founded the Cajal Institute. He described the terminal branchings of neurons, devised a method of staining nerve tissues, and made numerous discoveries in the structure of the nervous system. For this work he shared with Camillo Golgi the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. His works include Studies of the Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System (tr. 1928) and the classic Histology (tr. 1933).

See his autobiography (tr. 1937, repr. 1966); biography by D. F. Cannon (1949).

Calatrava, Santiago, 1951-, Spanish architect, b. Benimamet, near Valencia. He studied at the Institute of Architecture, Valencia (grad. 1974), and at the Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Ph.D., 1981). He opened his own architectural and engineering practice in Zürich in 1981 and later expanded to Valencia and Paris. Influenced by the work of Eero Saarinen, Calatrava has become known for the arching sculptural forms of his large public buildings. These structures—railway stations, bridges, airports, and museums—are built of concrete, metal, and glass and are rarely completely enclosed. The unusual spaces and swooping shapes of these works, which often seem poised for flight, reflect a refined aesthetic sensibility informed by engineering skill. Among his most notable commissions are the Stadelhofen Railway Station, Zürich (1984); Lyons Airport Terminal, France (1994); Campo Volantin Footbridge, Bilbao, Spain (1998); Science City, Valencia, Spain (2000); and the opera house, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands (2003). Motion is often important in his work, as in his first American building, the Milwaukee Art Museum's Quadracci Pavilion (2001), which includes louvered sunscreens that rise from the building like giant wings, opening and closing to control light. Calatrava is also known for his drawings and sculpture, which have been exhibited in numerous galleries since 1985.

See his Dynamic Equilibrium, Recent Projects (1996) and Conversations with Students: The MIT Lectures (2002); studies by D. Sharp, ed. (1994), K. Frampton, ed. (1996), S. Polano (1996, tr. 1999), A. Tzonis (1996), S. van Moos, ed. (1998), L. Molinari, ed. (1999); P. Jodidio (2001), A. Cuito, ed. (2002), and M. Levin (2002).

Seaport city (pop., 1994 est.: 440,000), eastern Cuba. The second largest city in Cuba, it was founded in 1514 and moved to its present site in 1522. It commanded a strategic location on the northern Caribbean Sea in the early colonial period and was the capital of Cuba until 1589. It was a focal point of the Spanish-American War, and in 1898 the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed near its coast. In 1953 it was the scene of Fidel Castro's attack against the Moncada army barracks. It is the centre of an agricultural and mining region and exports copper, iron, manganese, sugar, and fruit.

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City (pop., 2001: 90,188), capital of Galicia autonomous community (comunidad autonóma), northwestern Spain. Santiago de Compostela contains a Romanesque cathedral completed in 1211 that was built on what was said to be the tomb of Jesus' apostle St. James. This tomb, discovered in the 9th century, became the most important Christian pilgrimage site in Europe after Rome. The town that grew up around the tomb was destroyed in 997 by the Moors and was rebuilt in the Middle Ages. Chief economic activities include agriculture, silverwork, wood engraving, and the manufacture of linen and paper. The city is home to several colleges and a university.

Learn more about Santiago de Compostela with a free trial on Britannica.com.

City (pop., 2004 est.: 505,600), north-central Dominican Republic. It was founded circa 1500; it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1562 and rebuilt a few miles away. Ruins of the old city are still visible in the district of San Francisco de Jacagua. It is the country's second largest city; its economy depends mainly on the production of pharmaceuticals, cigarettes, rum, and coffee.

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City (pop., 2002 prelim.: 4,630,000), capital of Chile. It is located in central Chile, on the Mapocho River at an elevation of about 1,700 ft (520 m). Founded in 1541 by the Spanish, the city has suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, floods, and civil disorder. It was only slightly damaged during the War of Independence (1810–18) and became the capital of an independent Chile at the war's end. It is the country's economic and cultural centre and principal industrial city, producing textiles, footwear, and foodstuffs. The city boasts a cosmopolitan cultural life and is the home of the University of Chile.

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Santiago is the name of:

In Argentina:

In Brazil:

In Cape Verde:

In Chile:

In Colombia:

In Costa Rica:

In Cuba:

In Dominican Republic:

In Ecuador:

In Guatemala:

In Jamaica:

  • Jamaica, formerly known as Santiago
  • Spanish Town, Jamaica, formerly known as Santiago de la Vega

In Mexico:

In Nicaragua:

In Panama:

In Paraguay:

In Peru:

In the Philippines:

In Portugal:

In Spain:

In the United States:

In Uruguay:

  • Montevideo, originally called San Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo

In Venezuela:

  • Caracas, originally called Santiago de León de Caracas

In geography:

Santiago is the name of:

Fictional people:

  • Dominic Santiago, a fictional character from Gears of War
  • Santiago Arnavisca, a fictional character from Rainbow Six: Covert Operations Essentials
  • Santiago, the name of a character in Chronicle of a Death Foretold by Gabriel García Márquez
  • Santiago, the titular character of Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea
  • Luis Santiago, a fictional character in the television series Babylon 5
  • Santiago (The Vampire Chronicles), character in Anne Rice's novel Interview with the Vampire
  • Santiago, the main character of Paulo Coelho's book The Alchemist

In history:

In music:

  • Santiago (band), an indie/punk band from Santa Rosa, California, USA
  • Santiago, a 1996 album by The Chieftains
  • "Santiago", the title of one of Loreena McKennitt's songs from her album The Mask and Mirror

Santiago may also refer to:

See also

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