See biography by E. M. Damon (1957).
(born April 23, 1844, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands—died June 9, 1926, Honolulu) Hawaiian politician. The son of U.S. missionaries, he served in Hawaii's legislature (1884–87) and on its supreme court (1887–93). He led the committee formed by local sugar interests that overthrew Queen Liliuokalani (1893) and sought annexation by the U.S.; he then served as the first president of the Republic of Hawaii (1894–1900). Though U.S. Pres. Grover Cleveland demanded the queen's restoration, Dole pressed successfully for annexation (1900) and afterward served as governor of the Territory of Hawaii (1900–03). He later became a federal district judge (1903–15).
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The monarchy ended in January 1893 after a coup d'etat organized by many of the same actors involved in the 1887 revolt. The U.S. Minister to Hawaii John L. Stevens, returning on the U.S.S. Boston while these events were in progress, requested the landing of U.S. Marines and bluejackets in Honolulu the day before the Provisional Government was declared, "for the purpose of protecting our legation, consulate, and the lives and property of American citizens, and to assist in preserving public order." Historian Russ Kuykdendall states, "the troops did not cooperate with the committee, and the committee had no more knowledge than did the Queen's Government where the troops were going nor what they were going to do. The Provisional Government that was formed after the coup was led by President Dole, and was recognized within 48 hours by all nations with diplomatic ties to the Kingdom of Hawaii as the legitimate government of the islands. With Grover Cleveland's election as President of the United States, the Provisional Government's hopes of annexation were derailed for a time. Indeed, Cleveland tried to directly help reinstate the monarchy, after an investigation led by James Henderson Blount. The Blount Report of July 17, 1893, commissioned by President Cleveland, concluded that the Committee of Safety conspired with U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens to land the United States Marine Corps, to forcibly remove Queen Liliuokalani from power, and declare a Provisional Government of Hawaii consisting of members from the Committee of Safety.
On November 16 1893, Albert Willis presented the Queen with Cleveland's request that she grant amnesty to the Revolutionists in return for reinstatement. The Queen refused, demanding capital punishment for those involved. On December 23, unaware that Cleveland had referred the matter to Congress, Willis presented the Provisional Government with Cleveland's demand to restore the queen to the throne the Provisional Government refused.
The Morgan Report of February 26 1894, concluded that the overthrow was locally based, motivated by a history of corruption of the monarchy, and that American troops only served to protect American property and citizens and had no role in the end of the Hawaiian Monarchy.
After an unsuccessful attempt at armed rebellion on January 6 1895, the Queen abdicated and swore allegiance to the Republic of Hawaii on January 24 1895. While under arrest, she wrote, "I hereby do fully and unequivocally admit and declare that the Government of the Republic of Hawaii is the only lawful Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and that the late Hawaiian monarchy is finally and forever ended, and no longer of any legal or actual validity, force or effect whatsoever.
Dole's government weathered several attempts to restore the monarchy, including an attempted armed rebellion in which Robert William Wilcox participated; Wilcox and the other conspirators had their sentences reduced or commuted by Dole after being sentenced to death. Dole was successful as a diplomat - every nation that recognized the Kingdom of Hawaii also recognized the Republic of Hawaii.
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