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Sanctorius

Sanctorius

Sanctorius, Ital. Santorio, 1561-1636, Italian physiologist. He was a professor at Padua (1611-24). By his quantitative experiments in temperature, respiration, and weight, he measured what he called "insensible perspiration" and laid the foundation for the study of metabolism. Among the instruments that he designed was a clinical thermometer. He wrote De statica medicina (1614; tr. 5th ed. 1737).
Latin Sanctorius

(born March 29, 1561, Capodistria—died Feb. 22, 1636, Venice) Italian physician. He adapted several of Galileo's inventions to develop a medical thermometer and a pulse clock. To test Galen's assertion that respiration also occurs through the skin as “insensible perspiration,” Santorio built a large scale on which he frequently ate, worked, and slept, so he could study his body-weight changes in relation to his solid and liquid intake and output. After 30 years, he found the total of visible excreta was less than the amount ingested; his study marked the introduction of quantitative procedure into medical research. His On Medical Measurement (1614) was the first systematic study of basal metabolism.

Learn more about Santorio, Santorio with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Latin Sanctorius

(born March 29, 1561, Capodistria—died Feb. 22, 1636, Venice) Italian physician. He adapted several of Galileo's inventions to develop a medical thermometer and a pulse clock. To test Galen's assertion that respiration also occurs through the skin as “insensible perspiration,” Santorio built a large scale on which he frequently ate, worked, and slept, so he could study his body-weight changes in relation to his solid and liquid intake and output. After 30 years, he found the total of visible excreta was less than the amount ingested; his study marked the introduction of quantitative procedure into medical research. His On Medical Measurement (1614) was the first systematic study of basal metabolism.

Learn more about Santorio, Santorio with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Santorio Santorio (March 29 1561 KoperFebruary 22 1636 Venice), also called Santorio Santorii, Sanctorius of Padua, and various combinations of these names, was an Italian physiologist, physician, and professor. From 1611 to 1624 he was a professor at Padua where he performed experiments in temperature, respiration and weight. Sanctorius studied what he termed insensible perspiration and originated the study of metabolism.

For a period of thirty years Sanctorius weighed himself, everything he ate and drank, as well as his urine and feces. He compared the weight of what he had eaten to that of his waste products, the latter being considerably smaller. He produced his theory of insensible perspiration as an attempt to account for this difference. His findings had little scientific value, but he is still celebrated for his empirical methodology. The "weighing chair", which he constructed and employed during this experiment, is also famous.

He is credited with the design of the clinical thermometer, which he introduced in his Sanctorii Sanctorii Commentaria in primam fen primi libri Canonis Avicennae, a commentary on Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine. He invented a device which he called the pulsilogium for measuring the pulse which was the first machine system in medical history. A century later another physician, de la Croix, used the pulsilogium to test cardiac function. Sanctorius also invented an early waterbed. In 1614, he wrote De statica medicina, a medical text that saw five publications through 1737.

References and external links

  • Santorio Sanctorius at the Science & Society Picture Library.
  • The first man/machine interaction in medicine: the pulsilogium of Sanctorius of Padua, J. Levett and G. Agarwal, Medical instrumentation 13 (Jan.-Feb. 1979), #1, 61–63. Abstract at PubMed
  • Sanctorius in the Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (via Infoplease.)
  • Santorio Santorio at The Galileo Project

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