City (pop., 2000: 562,587), capital of Coahuila state, northeastern Mexico. Founded in 1575, it was the first Spanish settlement in the area. In 1824–36 it was the capital of a vast province that included what is now Texas and other areas of the American Southwest. It is now a commercial, communications, and manufacturing centre; its products include woolen fabrics, knitted goods, and flour. Gold, silver, lead, and coal are mined in the nearby mountains. Located at an elevation of about 5,250 ft (1,600 m), it has a cool, dry climate that has made it a summer resort.
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There were 47 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.0% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.7% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.74.
In the town the population was spread out with 19.6% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 22.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 105.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $22,500, and the median income for a family was $51,250. Males had a median income of $38,125 versus $21,042 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,253. There were 9.1% of families and 12.1% of the population living below the poverty line, including 16.7% of under eighteens and 20.8% of those over 64.