Safad: see Zefat, Israel.

City (pop., 2004 est.: 27,300), northern Israel. Located near Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee), it is one of the four holy cities of Judaism. It was fortified in the 1st century AD by Flavius Josephus and in the Middle Ages by the Crusaders (see Crusades). It was the seat of an important school of Jewish mysticism (see Kabbala) in the 16th century, and it became part of the modern State of Israel in 1948. It is now an artists' colony, with an economy based on light industry and tourism.

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