Sequence numbers are almost always non-negative, and typically start at zero or one.
Many computer programs come with serial numbers, often called "Compact Disc keys", and the installers often require the user to enter a valid serial number to continue. These numbers are verified using a certain algorithm to avoid usage of counterfeit keys.
The International Standard Serial Number or ISSN seen on magazines and other periodicals, an equivalent to the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) applied to books, is serially assigned but takes its name from the library science use of serial to mean a periodical.
The term "serial number" is also used in military formations as an alternative to the expression "service number". In air forces the serial number is used to uniquely identify individual aircraft and is usually painted on both sides of the aircraft fuselage, most often in the tail area, although in some cases the serial is painted on the side of the aircraft's fin/rudder(s).
In the case of the UK Royal Air Force (RAF) the "Serial" takes the form of two letters followed by three numbers, e.g., BT308—the prototype Avro Lancaster, or XS903—an English Electric Lightning F.6 at one time based at RAF Binbrook During the Second World War RAF aircraft carrying secret equipment or that were in themselves secret had "/G" added to the end of the serial, the "G" signifying "Guard", denoting that the aircraft was to have an armed guard at all times while on the ground, e.g., LZ548/G—the prototype de Havilland Vampire jet fighter, or ML926/G—a de Havilland Mosquito XVI experimentally fitted with H2S radar. Prior to this two-letter, three-number scheme, the RAF and preceding Royal Flying Corps (RFC) utilised a serial consisting of a letter followed by four figures, e.g., D8096 - a Bristol F.2 Fighter currently owned by the Shuttleworth Collection, or K5054 - the prototype Supermarine Spitfire. The serial number follows the aircraft throughout its period of service.
Serial numbers are often used in network protocols. However, most sequence numbers in computer protocols are limited to a fixed number of bits, and will wrap around after a sufficiently many numbers have been allocated. Thus, recently-allocated serial numbers may duplicate very old serial numbers, but not other recently-allocated serial numbers. To avoid ambiguity with these non-unique numbers, RFC 1982, "Serial Number Arithmetic" defines special rules for calculations involving these kinds of serial numbers.
Lollipop sequence number spaces are a more recent and sophisticated scheme for dealing with finite-sized sequence numbers in protocols.