Rzeszów

Rzeszów

[zhe-zhoof]
Rzeszów, city (1992 est. pop. 156,000), capital of Podkarpackie prov., SE Poland. It is a railway junction and an important industrial center, whose major industries produce metals, rolling stock, machinery, textiles, and foodstuffs. An old commercial settlement, Rzeszów was chartered c.1340. Casimir the Great of Poland later awarded the city to a nobleman in return for military service during Mongol raids. Rzeszów passed to Austria in 1772; it reverted to Poland in 1919. Its many historic buildings include a 17th-century castle and an 18th-century town hall. It also has two colleges and many cultural facilities.

Rzeszów (Ряшiв, Reichshof, Resovia, ריישע-Reisha) is a city in south-eastern Poland with a population of 170,722 (2008), granted a town charter in 1354, the capital and largest city of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously of Rzeszów Voivodeship (1945–1998).

Rzeszów is served by an international airport, is a member of Eurocities, and is home to a number of large universities, company headquarters, and foreign consulates.

Location

Rzeszów is located on both sides of the Wisłok river. It is located in the heartland of the Sandomierska valley. Rzeszów is also the capital of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship, and seat of the Rzeszów County.

History

Rzeszów was founded in 1354 by king Casimir III of Poland. For a long time it was just a domain of the noble family of Lubomirski, one of the most important in Poland. Besides having a famous annual market, Rzeszów remained only another city on the trade route to Hungary. In 1658 Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski established the Piarist school, the second secondary school in Poland. During the XIX century Rzeszów began to lose significance in favour of Przemyśl. Development of Rzeszów started when in 1937 military industry was located in the city: Państwowe Zakłady Lotnicze, producing aircraft engines, and a cannon factory — a branch of Hipolit Cegielski factory.

Until on the outbreak of WW2 the Jews of Rzeszów numbered 15,000, more than one-third of the total population. The town was occupied by the German Army on 10 September 1939. German persecution of the Jews of began almost immediately, by the end of 1939, there were 10 forced labour camps in the Rzeszów region and many Jews became slave labourers in the region. Jewish were forced to live in the Gestapo controlled ghetto. Many Jews managed to flee to Soviet occupied Poland. By June 1940, the number of Jews in Rzeszów had decreased to 11,800, of whom 7,800 were pre-war residents of the city the rest were refugees from surrounding villages. Life in the ghetto was impossible and hundreds died. During WWII some 20,000 Jews were murdered in the ghetto in Rzeszów. This number includes thousands who were sent to Rzeszów only to be deported or murdered soon after arrival. Of 15,000 Rzeszów Jews, merely 100 survived the war; in Rzeszów itself, in hiding all over Poland, and in various camps. After the war an additional 600 Rzeszów Jews returned from the Soviet Union. Almost all of them subsequently left the city and the country.

In 2004, Rzeszów hosted the Central European Olympiad in Informatics (CEOI).

Education

Universities:

  • Rzeszów University (established in 2001 from a number of smaller schools)
  • Rzeszów University of Technology (formed from The Higher Engineering School in 1974) website
  • University of Information Technology and Management (established in 1996) website
  • Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania
  • Wyższa Szkoła Administracji i Zarządzania in Przemyśl, branch in Rzeszów (established in 1995) website

Notable High Schools:

Transport

Transit

Ropczyce is located on the main West-East European E40 Highway, which goes from Calais in France via Belgium, across Germany, Poland, Ukraine and onto Russia and Kazakhstan. Traffic is therefore high, but as the city has a ring road through its southern districts, transit does not have to pass through the city centre. Other Polish cities located by the E40 highway are Wrocław, Opole, Katowice, Kraków, Tarnów, Dębica, Ropczyce and Przemyśl.

In recent years, communication has been improved by modernisation of the roads within the city. SCATS traffic system has been implemented.

Highway A4 is planned to be built as a beltway of the city, running through the northern districts of Rzeszów.

Airport

Rzeszów-Jasionka Airport (Port Lotniczy Rzeszów-Jasionka) is located in the village of Jasionka north of the city. Scheduled passenger services include flights to: Warsaw (WAW), Dublin, London (Stansted), Bristol, UK, Birmingham, UK, New York (JFK Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport).

Buses

The city operates 49 bus lines including night and airport buses. Rzeszów is also a gateway to Bieszczady mountains, many buses heading for Sanok.

Railway

Rzeszów is a stop on the main railway from Silesia to the Polish eastern border and further on to Ukraine. Its main railway station was established in the XIX. century. There is also a unique, non-electrified railway to Jasło.

Culture

Theaters

  • Theatre of Wanda Siemaszkowa (est. 1944)
  • Theatre Maska

Museums

  • Etnographic Museum
  • Museum of the City of Rzeszów
  • Diocesan Museum

Other

  • Philharmonic Hall of Artur Malawski

Economy

Industry

At Widelka substation, situated approximately 20 kilometres northnortheast of Rzeszów, the only 750 kV powerline in Poland, coming from Khelmitiskaja in Ukraine ends.

Tourist attractions

  • palace of Lubomirski family from XVIII cent.
  • main square
  • town hall, established in 1591
  • synagogues: "Small" (XVII cent.), "Big" (XVIII cent., restored 1954-63)
  • Łańcut palace
  • Podziemia, underground tunnel.

Sports

Notable People

As the largest city of the region Rzeszów has a diverse set of notable people associated with it. Singer Justyna Steczkowska, general Józef Zając, and leading theater director Jerzy Grotowski, among others, were born in the city. Polish prime minister and commander-in-chief general Władysław Sikorski studied there while the pioneer of the oil industry Ignacy Łukasiewicz spent much of his life in Rzeszów. Renowned Polish jazz trumpet player Tomasz Stanko is also from Rzeszów.

Media

Radio

  • Radio Rzeszów
  • Radio Eska Rzeszów
  • Akademickie Radio Centrum
  • Katolickie Radio Via
  • Radio RES

Press

  • Gazeta Codzienna NOWINY
  • Super Nowości

Television

  • Polish Television (TVP) branch in Rzeszów
  • Rzeszów's cable television
  • Local television Vectra (old DAMI)
  • Municipal television Rzeszów

Sister Cities/Twin Towns

Rzeszów is twinned with

External links

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