Rubus is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae. Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The Rubus fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets.
The blackberries, as well as various other Rubus species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called brambles. However, this name is not used for those like the raspberry that grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species.
The genus Rubus is believed to have existed since at least 23.7 to 36.6 million years ago.
Examples of the hundreds, if not thousands, of species of Rubus include:
Molecular data has backed up classifications based on geography and chromosome number, but following morphological data such as the structure of the leaves and stems does not appear to produce a phylogenetic classification.
The classification presented below recognizes 13 subgenera within Rubus, with the largest subgenus (Rubus) in turn divided into 12 sections. Representative examples are presented, but there are many more species not mentioned here.
Phylogeny and biogeography of Pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: investigating the Origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei (1).
Apr 01, 2003; Abstract The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to...