The Rubicon Hydroelectric Scheme is located on the Rubicon River and Royston Rivers, north east of Melbourne, 40 km south-west of Alexandra, Victoria, Australia. The Scheme commenced in 1922, and was the first state-owned hydroelectric scheme to generate electricity in mainland Australia, and among the first in the world to be remotely controlled. For the first ten years of its operation it supplied on average 16.9% of electricity generated by the State Electricity Commission of Victoria. The Scheme is on the Victorian Heritage Register, and the Register of the National Estate and continues to operate under the management of AGL Energy.
Known as the Sugarloaf - Rubicon Project, the proposed plan involved five power stations, with of turbine capacity, the largest power station on the State Rivers and Water Supply Commission storage Sugarloaf reservoir at what is now Lake Eildon, and four others, two on the Rubicon, one on the Royston, and a third on Snob's Creek. These plans were later altered, the Snob's Creek station deleted, and an additional station provided at Rubicon Falls, bringing the installed turbine capacity to over . The Sugarloaf Power Station was used during the irrigation season from October to April, when water released from this dam could be used for power generation. The other four stations were used during the rainy seasons of winter and spring.
Work started in 1922, and by 1928 the mountain stream section of the project was complete, the Sugarloaf power station on the Eildon following in 1929. Rubicon 'A' power station had a pipeline with a drop over its length. This station also remotely controlled the other power stations in the project. Minor enlargements were carried out at one station in 1954-55.