List of civil wars
. There were several Roman civil wars
, especially during the time of the late Republic
Founded in 509 BC
- Social War (91–88 BC), between Rome and the Italian nations - Roman victory.
- Sulla's first civil war (88–87 BC), between Lucius Cornelius Sulla's supporters and Gaius Marius' forces - victory to Sulla.
- Sertorius' revolt in Hispania (83–72 BC), between Rome and the provinces of Hispania under the leadership of Sertorius - Roman victory.
- Sulla's second civil war (82–81 BC), between Sulla and Marius' supporters - Sullan victory.
- Third Servile War (73–71 BC), between Rome and a slave insurrection in Italy led by Spartacus - Roman victory.
- Catiline Conspiracy (63–62 BC), between the Senate and the dissatisfied followers of Lucius Sergius Catilina - Senatorial victory.
- Caesar's civil war (49–45 BC), between Julius Caesar and the optimates (conservative republicans), initially led by Pompey - Caesarean victory.
- Post-Caesarian civil war (44 BC), between the Senate army (led first by Cicero and then by Octavian) and the army of Antony, Lepidus, and their colleagues - Truce results in union of forces.
- Liberators' civil war (44–42 BC), between the Second Triumvirate and the Liberators (Brutus and Cassius, Caesar's assassins) - Triumvirate victory.
- Sicilian revolt (44–36 BC), between the Second Triumvirate (particularly Octavian and Agrippa) and Sextus Pompeius, the son of Pompey - Triumvirate victory.
- Fulvia's civil war (41–40 BC), between the forces of Lucius Antonius and Fulvia Antonia (the younger brother and wife of Mark Antony) and Octavian - Octavian victory.
- Final war of the Roman Republic (32–30 BC), between the Western provinces (under the leadership of Octavian and Agrippa) and the East (under Mark Antony and Cleopatra) - Western victory.
After 30 BC, the Republic was unified under leadership of Octavian. In 27 BC
Octavian was granted the title of Augustus
by the Senate. These two dates are considered to mark the end of the Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire
. The period of rule by the Caesars was known as the "Pax Augusti" (peace of Augustus), and was the beginning of the era known as the "Pax Romana
" (Roman Peace). The next Roman civil war would not be fought until after Nero
's suicide in 68 AD
, the year before the year of the four emperors