Robert

Robert

[rob-ert]
Parsons, Robert: see Persons, Robert.
Dinwiddie, Robert, 1693-1770, colonial governor of Virginia (1751-58), b. near Glasgow, Scotland. He was collector of customs (1727-38) for Bermuda and surveyor general (1738-51) for the Bahamas, Jamaica, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Appointed lieutenant governor of Virginia in 1751, he was really the chief executive of the colony, always known as governor, since the two men who held the titular office during his term never came to Virginia. Dinwiddie favored an aggressive policy to forestall the French in the Ohio valley, and late in 1753 he sent George Washington on a mission to Fort Le Boeuf, c.12 mi (19 km) south of the site of Erie, Pa., to warn the French to withdraw from the territory claimed by the British. The French declined to heed Washington's demand, and early in 1754 Dinwiddie dispatched a force of workmen to build a fort at the junction of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, generally called the forks of the Ohio. Washington, made a lieutenant colonel of the colonial militia, soon followed with a detachment to protect them. The French drove the workmen away before Washington arrived and then defeated him on July 3, 1754, at Fort Necessity. Hostilities in the last of the French and Indian Wars had begun. Dinwiddie worked energetically preparing for Gen. Edward Braddock's campaign and the others that followed, but failed to win the full cooperation of other colonies that he constantly sought. His exertions finally ruined his health, and he left Virginia in 1758.

See biography by L. K. Koontz (1970).

Dodsley, Robert, 1703-64, English publisher and author. He wrote occasional verses, and also several plays, including The King and the Miller of Mansfield (1737); a ballad opera, The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (1741); and the tragedy Cleone (1758). He is best known, however, as the publisher of works by Pope, Johnson, Gray, and Goldsmith and as the editor of A Select Collection of Old Plays (12 vol., 1744) and A Collection of Poems by Several Hands (6 vol., 1748-58). He founded with Burke the Annual Register (1758), which still exists.
Wilson, Robert, 1941-, dramatist, director, and designer, b. Waco, Tex. He began his arts career as a painter. A leading figure in postmodern theater since 1963, when he arrived in New York City, he has created lengthy, often controversial multimedia events that combine drama, dance, and stylized gesture with contemporary instrumental music, opera, and art. Extending the tradition of surrealism, exploring the theatrical parameters of time and space, and usually created in collaboration with other artists, his theater art pieces frequently include visually dazzling tableaux and stylized presentations of text or song.

Wilson's works include the 12-hour Life and Times of Joseph Stalin (1973); the five-hour Einstein on the Beach (1976, rev. 1984), a collaboration with Philip Glass and his best-known work; the day-long Civil Wars (1984), with Glass, David Byrne, and others; 1990s operatic extravaganzas (again with Glass), including White Raven and The Palace of the Arabian Nights; The Days Before: Death, Destruction, and Detroit III (1999), a collaborative multimedia meditation on the Apocalypse; and I La Galigo (2004), a three-and-a-half-hour adaptation of an ancient Indonesian epic. Working in Europe and the United States, Wilson has been a phenomenally prolific director, mounting brilliantly strange productions of various classics, including Wagner's Parsifal, Büchner's Danton's Death, Shakespeare's King Lear, and La Fontaine's Fables.

See C. Nelson, ed., Robert Wilson, The Theater of Images (1984); L. Shyer, Robert Wilson and His Collaborators (1989); A. Holmberg, The Theatre of Robert Wilson (1996); K. Otto-Bernstein, dir., Absolute Wilson (documentary film, 2006).

Wodrow, Robert, 1679-1734, Scottish ecclesiastical historian. His principal work is The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution (1721-22).
Brown, Robert, 1773-1858, Scottish botanist and botanical explorer. In 1801 he went as a naturalist on one of Matthew Flinders's expeditions to Australia, returning (1805) to England with valuable collections. In his Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen (1810) he described Australian flora. A leading botanist of his day, he served as librarian to the Linnaean Society and to Sir Joseph Banks and later as curator at the British Museum. He observed Brownian movement in 1827, discovered the cell nucleus in 1831, and was the first to recognize gymnosperm as a distinct angiosperm. His studies of several plant families and of pollen were also notable.
Browne, Robert, c.1550-1633, English clergyman and leader of a group of early separatists popularly known as Brownists. Browne conceived of the church as a self-governing local body of experiential believers in Jesus. Preaching without a license, Browne attacked the forms of government and the discipline of the Established Church; he gathered a congregation at Norwich c.1580. In 1581 he and his followers sought refuge in Holland. There he published (1582) several treatises that are generally regarded as the first expression of the principles of Congregationalism. Circulation in England of these tracts was punishable by death. Upon his return to England in 1584, Browne was imprisoned and later excommunicated. But by 1586 he was sufficiently reconciled with the Church of England to be made master of the Stamford grammar school, and in 1591 he submitted to episcopal ordination and became rector of Adchurch, Northamptonshire.
Browning, Robert, 1812-89, English poet. His remarkably broad and sound education was primarily the work of his artistic and scholarly parents—in particular his father, a London bank clerk of independent means. Pauline, his first poem, was published anonymously in 1833. In 1834 he visited Italy, which eventually became his second homeland. He won some recognition with Paracelsus (1835) and Sordello (1840). In 1837, urged by William Macready, the Shakespearean actor, Browning began writing for the stage. Although not especially successful, he wrote eight verse plays during the next nine years, two of which were produced—Strafford in 1837 and A Blot in the 'Scutcheon in 1843. The narrative poem Pippa Passes appeared in 1841; it and subsequent poems were later published collectively as Bells and Pomegranates (1846). Included were "My Last Duchess" and "Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister," both dramatic monologues; this form proved to be the ideal medium for Browning's poetic genius. Other notable poems of this kind are "Fra Lippo Lippi," "Andrea del Sarto," and "The Bishop Orders His Tomb." In 1846, after a romantic courtship, Browning secretly married the poet Elizabeth Barrett and took her to Italy, where they lived for 15 happy years. There he wrote Christmas Eve and Easter Day (1850) and Men and Women (1855). In 1861, after the death of his wife, he returned to England, where he wrote Dramatis Personae (1864). This was followed by what is considered his masterpiece, the murder story The Ring and the Book (4 vol., 1868-69). Set in 17th-century Italy, the poem reveals, through a series of dramatic dialogues, how a single event—a murder—is perceived by different people. Browning gained recognition slowly, but after the publication of this work he was acclaimed a great poet. Societies were instituted for the study of his work in England and America. His later works include Dramatic Idyls (2 vol., 1879-80) and Asolando (1889). Browning's thought is persistently optimistic. He believed in commitment to life. His psychological portraits in verse, ironic and indirect in presentation, and his experiments in diction and rhythm have made him an important influence on 20th-century poetry. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

See variously published volumes of his letters; complete works, ed. by R. A. King (5 vol., 1967-82); biographies by M. Ward (2 vol., 1967-69), B. Miller (1952, repr. 1973), and W. Irvine and P. Honan (1974); studies by R. Langbaum (1963), P. Drew (1966 and 1970), R. E. Gridley (1972), T. Blackburn (1967, repr. 1973), and J. Woolford (1988).

Creeley, Robert, 1926-2005, American poet, b. Arlington, Mass. He lived in Asia, Europe, and Latin America and taught at various universities in the United States. With Charles Olson, he was a leading member of the Black Mountain school of poetry and for a time (1954-57) was editor of the Black Mountain Review. Creeley's poems have an effect of purity and elegance, with their combination of emotional directness and reticence, their conversational tone, brevity of development, and spare lyricism. His works include the poetry of Pieces (1969), Selected Poems (1976), Memory Gardens (1986), Echoes (1994), Life & Death (1998), Just in Time (2001), and the posthumously published On Earth (2006), and a novel, The Island (1963). Creeley was also a short-story writer and essayist. In addition, from the 1960s on he collaborated on a variety of projects with such artists as Robert Indiana, Georg Baselitz, R. B. Kitaj, Alex Katz, and Susan Rothenberg. Creeley's collected poems were published in 1982 and 1998 and his collected prose in 1984.

See his Autobiography (1990); correspondence with Charles Olson, ed. by G. F. Butterick (8 vol., 1980-87); correspondence with Irving Layton, ed. by E. Faas and S. Reed (1990); studies by A. Mandel (1974), C. D. Edelberg (1978), A. L. Ford (1978), J. Wilson, ed. (1987), T. Clark (1993), A. Cappellazzo and E. Licata, ed. (1999), and L. Rifkin (2000).

Leighton, Robert, 1611-84, Scottish prelate and classical scholar. After several years in France, where he seems to have developed an admiration for the Jansenists, he became (1641) a Presbyterian minister in Midlothian and signed the Covenant in 1643 (see Covenanters). A noted preacher, he was made principal of the Univ. of Edinburgh in 1653 and professor of divinity. With the Restoration, Charles II attempted to force episcopacy on the Church of Scotland, and the king persuaded Leighton to accept (1661) the bishopric of Dunblane. Leighton's attempts to find a basis for union between Presbyterianism and episcopacy led to accusations of treason by the Covenanters and to lukewarm feelings on the part of the Episcopal party. Temperamentally unfitted for his work and grieved by the government's persecution of the Covenanters, he tried to resign, only to be appointed (1670) archbishop of Glasgow. In 1674 he retired to private life. Leighton's collected writings, including many of his sermons, appeared posthumously in several editions.

See study by E. A. Knox (1930).

Southey, Robert, 1774-1843, English author. Primarily a poet, he was numbered among the so-called Lake poets. While at Oxford he formed (1794) a friendship with Coleridge and joined with him in a plan for an American utopia along the Susquehanna River that was never actualized. Southey married in 1795, made several trips to Portugal, and in 1803 settled with his wife and the Coleridges near Keswick in the Lake District. A prolific writer, he enjoyed great popularity and renown in his day and was made poet laureate in 1813. Today, however, his reputation as a poet rests upon his friendships with Coleridge and Wordsworth and a handful of short poems, notably "The Battle of Blenheim," "The Holly Tree," and the epic Vision of Judgment (1821). As a prose writer, however, his reputation has increased. Included among his prose works are biographies of Nelson (1813) and Wesley (1820), several histories, ecclesiastical writings, and translations from the French and Spanish.

See his letters (ed. by J. Simmons, 1951); study by G. Carnall (1960); L. Madden, ed., Robert Southey: The Critical Heritage (1972).

Southwell, Robert, 1561?-1595, English Jesuit poet, venerated by Roman Catholics as a martyr, b. Norfolk. He was brought up a Catholic and educated abroad, mainly at Douai. In 1580 he made his simple vows as a Jesuit, and in 1586 at his own request, desiring martyrdom as he said, he was sent to England with Father Garnett to minister to the oppressed Catholics. For six years he was active in the south of England as their pastor, but in 1592 he was arrested and imprisoned. After being tortured he was tried for treason, and on admitting his priesthood he was hanged. His poetry is deeply religious, extolling the beauty and magnificence of the spiritual in contrast to the material. Southwell's major work is St. Peter's Complaint (1595), but he also wrote several fine short devotional poems, such as "The Burning Babe."

See his complete poems (1872, repr. 1971); biography by C. Devlin (new ed. 1967).

Bourassa, Robert, 1933-96, Canadian political leader. He received a law degree from the Univ. of Montreal (1957) and later studied at Oxford and Harvard. He was elected to the Quebec Legislative Assembly in 1966. In 1970 he became leader of the Quebec Liberal Party and then premier of the province. He was reelected in 1973, but in 1976 his party was defeated by the Parti Québécois. He returned to politics in 1983 as leader of the Liberal party, subsequently serving again as premier (1985-93). Bourassa was an advocate of Quebec autonomy within a sovereign Canada and a strong supporter of the failed Meech Lake Accord (1990) and subsequent unsuccessful attempts to redefine provincial rights in the Canadian constitution.
Boyle, Robert, 1627-91, Anglo-Irish physicist and chemist. The seventh son of the 1st earl of Cork, he was educated at Eton and on the Continent and conducted most of his researches at his own laboratories at Oxford (1654-68) and London (1668-91). He invented a vacuum pump and used it in the discovery (1662) of what is now known as Boyle's law (see gas laws). Boyle is often referred to as the father of modern chemistry; he separated chemistry from alchemy and gave the first precise definitions of a chemical element, a chemical reaction, and chemical analysis. He also made studies of the calcination of metals, combustion, acids and bases, the nature of colors, and the propagation of sound. Although he was especially noted for his experimental work, Boyle also contributed to physical theory, supporting an early form of the atomic theory of matter, which he called the corpuscular philosophy, and using it to explain many of his experimental results. His extensive writings contributed greatly to the dominance of the mechanistic theory following Newton's work. Boyle was one of the group at Oxford that later became the Royal Society, but he refused the presidency of the society in 1680, as well as many other honors.

See his works, ed. by T. Birch (6 vol., 1772; repr. 1965-66); biography by R. E. W. Maddison (1969); study by M. B. Hall (1958, repr. 1968).

Laurent, Robert, 1890-1970, American sculptor, b. France. He emigrated to the United States in 1902 and later studied in Rome. Progressing from early decorative works, he developed a monumental, dignified figural style. His works are exhibited in many American museums. Among Laurent's sculptures in many media are Goose Girl (Radio City Music Hall, New York City), Awakening (Whitney Mus., New York City), and Spanning the Continent (Fairmount Park, Philadelphia). His Spirit of Drama and Spirit of Music are at Indiana Univ., where he taught (1942-60).
Manning, Robert: see Mannyng, Robert.
Mannyng or Manning, Robert, fl. 1298-1338, English poet, b. Brunne (modern Bourne), Lincolnshire; also called Robert of Brunne. He was a monk in the Gilbertine order. Mannyng is known chiefly for his Handling Sin, a lively religious manual adapted from William of Wadington's Manuel des péchés. Illustrating the vices and weaknesses of man, this work is an excellent reflection of the manners of the time. Mannyng is also the author of a chronicle of England based on Wace and de Langtoft.
Mapplethorpe, Robert, 1946-89, American photographer, b. New York City. He is known for his elegantly expressive black-and-white studies of male and female nudes, flowers, and celebrity portraits. He credited sculpture as an influence on his work and used traditional techniques of direct lighting and sharp focus to produce sleekly ravishing effects and gleaming surfaces. His photographs include homoerotic and sadomasochistic images, often glamorized and disturbing, which made him a controversial figure. Soon after his death from AIDS, the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C., canceled a traveling retrospective of his work in an unsuccessful attempt to avoid a debate in Congress over public funding by the National Endowment for the Arts of works deemed "objectionable" by fundamentalist religious groups and political conservatives. In 1990 a Cincinnati jury found that city's Contemporary Arts Center and its director not guilty of obscenity for exhibiting Mapplethorpe's photographs. His works are included in such volumes as Lady: Lisa Lyon (1983) and Robert Mapplethorpe: Certain People (1985).

See biography by P. Morrisoe (1995); studies by R. Marshall (1988) and A. C. Danto (1995); The Perfect Moment (CD-ROM, 1995).

Hofstadter, Robert, 1915-90, American physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Princeton, 1938. He taught at Princeton from 1938 to 1950 and also worked at the National Bureau of Standards during World War II. In 1950 he joined the faculty at Stanford and remained there until his retirement in 1985. Hofstadter shared the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics with Rudolf Mössbauer for his pioneering work in uncovering the structure and composition of neutrons and protons, the particles that make up the nuclei of atoms. He was the first to discover that atomic particles have definite shapes and sizes, and he pinpointed the distribution of charge and magnetic moment in atomic nuclei.
Emmet, Robert, 1778-1803, Irish nationalist and revolutionary. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin, but left in 1798 because of his nationalist sympathies. In 1800 he went to France, where with exiled United Irishmen he planned a French-aided uprising in Ireland. Returning (1802) to Ireland, he scheduled the uprising for the summer of 1803. The insurrection, which took place in July, 1803, ended in utter confusion. Emmet himself, who had attempted a march on Dublin Castle with about 100 men, fled. However, he returned to Dublin soon after, partly to be near Sarah Curran, daughter of John Philpot Curran. He was captured, tried, and hanged. Leonard MacNally, his attorney, was in the pay of the crown, and many of Emmet's associates were informers for the British government. Emmet became a hero of Irish nationalists, largely on the basis of his stirring speech from the scaffold.

See biography by L. O'Broin (1958); study by H. Landreth (1964).

Chambers, Robert, 1802-71: see Chambers, William.
Musil, Robert, 1880-1942, Austrian novelist. His style, which has been compared to Proust's, is marked by subtle psychological analysis. This is evident in the novel Young Törless (1906, tr. 1955) and in his chief work, Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften (3 vol., 1930-42; tr. The Man without Qualities, 1953-60 and 1995), widely considered one of the masterpieces of 20th-century literature. Many of his stories have been translated and published in such posthumous collections as Tonka and Other Stories (tr. 1965) and Three Short Stories (1970).

See his diaries, ed. by M. Mirsky (tr. 1998); studies by B. Pike (1961, repr. 1971); L. Appiqnanesi (1973); P. Payne (2d rev. ed. 1989); and C. Rogowski (1994).

De Niro, Robert, 1943-, American film actor, b. New York City. After studying for the stage, he acted in films directed by Brian De Palma. In 1973 he made his first major movies, Bang the Drum Slowly and Mean Streets. In these and other motion pictures he has shown an impressive dramatic range and expressiveness. His other films include The Godfather Part II (1974; Academy Award), Taxi Driver (1976), The Deer Hunter (1979), Raging Bull (1980; Academy Award), Goodfellas (1990), Cape Fear (1991), Casino (1995), Wag the Dog (1997), and The Good Shepherd (2006), a finely crafted espionage drama that De Niro also directed.
Desnos, Robert, 1900-1945, French poet. Among the best-known surrealist poets, he was one of the chief proponents of so-called automatic writing. He put himself in a trance before writing many of his works. They include La Liberté ou l'amour [liberty or love] (1927), Corps et Biens [bodies and blessings] (1930), État de veille [wakefulness] (1943), Contrée [thwarted] (1944), Félix Labisse (1945), and Choix de poems [choice of poems] (1945). He also wrote a novel, Le Vin est tiré [the wine is killed] (1943), and a surrealistic drama, La Place de L'étoile (1945). During World War II, Desnos died as a prisoner in the Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Devereux, Robert: see Essex, Robert Devereux, 2d earl of.
Walker, Robert, d. 1658?, English painter, a follower of Van Dyck and favorite portraitist of Oliver Cromwell. His portraits of Cromwell and his family and followers are convincing studies of Puritan temperament. Examples are in the National Portrait Gallery, London, and the Metropolitan Museum.
Walpole, Robert, 1st earl of Orford, 1676-1745, English statesman.

Early Life and Career

He was the younger son of a prominent Whig family of Norfolk. After the death of his father and elder brothers he was returned (1701) to Parliament from the family borough of Castle Rising, and in 1702 he took the seat for King's Lynn, from which he was regularly returned thereafter. Walpole soon made his mark as a hardworking administrator. In 1708 he was appointed secretary of war and later (1710-11) was treasurer of the navy. As a Whig, he led the opposition in Parliament to the Tory administration of 1710-14 and as a consequence was falsely convicted (1712) of corruption and spent some months in the Tower of London.

The accession of George I (1714) returned the Whigs to power, and Walpole served variously as paymaster of the forces, first lord of the treasury, and chancellor of the exchequer (1715) under his brother-in-law, Viscount Townshend, and James Stanhope (later 1st Earl Stanhope). The dismissal of Townshend led to Walpole's resignation (1717), and together they formed an opposition nominally headed by the prince of Wales (later George II). The two returned to office in 1720.

The Height of Power

Soon after Walpole's return to office in 1720, he was called upon to salvage the financial wreckage resulting from the South Sea Bubble, in which he himself lost a substantial amount of money. This marked the turning point of his career. His successful handling of this matter led to his appointment (1721) as first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer. He shared power with John Carteret (later 1st Earl Granville) until 1724 and with Townshend, whom he left in charge of foreign affairs, until 1730, but thereafter his ascendancy was complete until 1742.

He enjoyed the confidence of both George I and George II, influencing the latter through his friendship with the queen, Caroline of Ansbach, and handled Parliament with unprecedented skill. His control of Parliament was due partly to the dispensation of royal patronage, partly to the electoral management of Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of Newcastle, but also to Walpole's own debating skills and the popularity of many of his policies.

In financial policy, his strongest point, he created the sinking fund to reduce the national debt. He mollified the largely Tory gentry by reduction of the land tax and promoted trade by awarding bonuses for exports and encouraging the production of raw materials by the colonies. Walpole's plan to reduce smuggling and make London a free port by replacing tariffs on wine and tobacco with an excise tax was defeated in 1733, largely because of widespread popular prejudice against excise. After this debacle Walpole dismissed all the officeholders who had voted against him, an action that created a much stronger opposition group than he had previously faced.

It was on foreign policy that the opposition against him finally coalesced. Walpole had pursued a policy of friendship with France and avoidance of war, and he had managed (against fierce opposition) to keep Great Britain neutral during the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35). In 1739, however, the war party forced him into the War of Jenkins's Ear (1739-41; see Jenkins's Ear, War of), which in turn involved Britain in a general European war (see Austrian Succession, War of the). Military reverses increased the opposition, and Walpole was forced to resign in 1742. Walpole was created earl of Orford and remained politically powerful until his death.

Legacy

Walpole is usually described as the first prime minister of Great Britain, but he was not a prime minister in the modern sense. Although management of Parliament, and particularly the House of Commons, was an essential part of his power, so too was royal favor, on which he ultimately depended. The purge of his ministry in 1733, sometimes hailed as a major step in the development of cabinet solidarity, could not have been accomplished without royal support. Moreover, the contention that there was any idea of cabinet solidarity is refuted by the fact that when Walpole left office his most important colleagues remained in the ministry. Walpole's primacy was achieved and maintained through his own political talents and the circumstances of the time; he made little impact on constitutional development.

Bibliography

See biographies by C. R. Stirling Taylor (1931) and J. H. Plumb (2 vol., 1956-61, repr. 1973); study by H. T. Dickinson (1973); bibliography by A. Downie (1990).

Abbe, Robert, 1851-1928, American surgeon, b. New York City, M.D. Columbia, 1874; brother of Cleveland Abbe. He was especially noted as a plastic surgeon and was a pioneer in the use of catgut sutures. A friend of the Curies, Abbe was also one of the first in the United States to use radium in treating cancer.
Frost, Robert, 1874-1963, American poet, b. San Francisco. Perhaps the most popular and beloved of 20th-century American poets, Frost wrote of the character, people, and landscape of New England. He was taken to Lawrence, Mass., his family's home for generations, at the age of 10. After studying briefly at Dartmouth, he worked as a bobbin boy in a cotton mill, as a cobbler, a schoolteacher, and a journalist; he later entered Harvard but left after two years to try farming. In 1912 he went to England, where he received his first acclaim as a poet. After the publication of A Boy's Will (1913) and North of Boston (1914), he returned to the United States, settling on a farm near Franconia, N.H. Frost taught and lectured at several universities, including Amherst, Harvard, and the Univ. of Michigan. In later life he was accorded many honors; he made several goodwill trips for the U.S. State Dept., and in 1961 he recited his poem "The Gift Outright" at the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy.

Among Frost's volumes of poetry are New Hampshire (1923), West-running Brook (1928), Collected Poems (1930), A Further Range (1936), A Witness Tree (1942), Steeple Bush (1947), and In the Clearing (1962). A Masque of Reason (1945) and A Masque of Mercy (1947) were blank verse plays. Although his work is rooted in the New England landscape, Frost was no mere regional poet. The careful local observations and homely details of his poems often have deep symbolic, even metaphysical, significance. His poems are concerned with human tragedies and fears, his reaction to the complexities of life, and his ultimate acceptance of his burdens. Frost was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for poetry in 1924, 1931, 1937, and 1943. Frost's critical reputation has recently rebounded after a period when his poetry was often criticized for being old-fashioned.

See his complete poems (1967); his Collected Poems, Prose and Plays (1995), ed. by R. Poirier and M. Richardson; his letters (1972), ed. by A. Grade; biographies by M. L. Mertens (1965), L. R. Thompson (2 vol., 1966-70, vol. III, with R. H. Winnick, 1976), W. H. Pritchard (1985), S. Burnshaw (1986), J. Meyers (1996), and J. Parini (1999); studies by R. A. Brower (1963), F. Lentricchia (1975), and R. Poirier (1977).

Fulton, Robert, 1765-1815, American inventor, engineer, and painter, b. near Lancaster, Pa. He was a man remarkable for his many talents and his mechanical genius. An expert gunsmith at the time of the American Revolution, he later turned to painting (1782-86) landscapes and portraits in Philadelphia. In England and France his painting gained some notice, but he became interested in canal engineering and the invention of machinery. He worked at making underwater torpedoes and submarines as well as other mechanical devices. In 1802 he contracted to build a steamboat for Robert R. Livingston, who held a monopoly on steamboat navigation on the Hudson. In 1807 the Clermont, equipped with an English engine, was launched. A number of men had built steamboats before Fulton (see steamship), including John Fitch and William Symington. Fulton's steamship, however, was the first to be commercially successful in American waters, and Fulton was therefore popularly considered the inventor of the steamboat. He also designed other vessels, among them a steam warship.

See biographies by B. Richnak (1984) and C. O. Philip (1985).

Hunter, Robert, d. 1734, royal governor of New York and New Jersey (1709-19), b. Ayrshire, Scotland. His administration was notably successful. He maintained a vigorous campaign against the French and the Native Americans and cooperated with other colonies in military matters. He allayed the bitter political factionalism that had kept New York and New Jersey in turmoil for several decades, and he also straightened out financial and revenue matters. Hunter was less successful with several thousand Rhenish Palatinate refugees, whom he brought over and settled on the upper Hudson to produce naval stores for England. Unable to secure funds for the project from England or from his assembly, Hunter went in debt to the amount of £21,000 to save the colony. From 1727 until his death he was governor of Jamaica.
Greene, Robert, 1558?-1592, English author. His short romances, written in the manner of Lyly's Euphues, include Pandosto (1588), from which Shakespeare drew the plot for A Winter's Tale, and Menaphon (1589). His best plays, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay (1594) and The Scottish History of James IV (1598), are a potpourri of romance, fantasy, and history. He wrote numerous tracts and pamphlets reflecting his knowledge of the London underworld as well as his own bohemian life. An alleged attack on Shakespeare—one of the earliest references to the man—is in Greene's Groatsworth of Wit Bought with a Million of Repentance (1592). A Quip for an Upstart Courtier (1592), a social allegory, is considered his best pamphlet. Greene's short life ended in dire poverty. After his death he became the subject of a heated quarrel between Gabriel Harvey and Thomas Nashe.

See his Life and Complete Works (ed. by A. B. Grosart, 15 vol., 1881-86; repr. 1964).

Grosseteste, Robert, c.1175-1253, English prelate. Educated at Oxford and probably also at Paris, he became one of the most learned men of his time. He taught at Oxford and later, as rector, made the university an important center of learning. In 1224 he became lector of the Franciscans there and founded the Oxford Franciscan school, which profoundly influenced medieval thought. His most illustrious pupils, Adam Marsh and Roger Bacon, continued Grosseteste's work at Oxford after he was made (1235) bishop of Lincoln, then the most populous see of England.

As bishop, Grosseteste was an indefatigable administrator and zealous reformer, visiting the monasteries, assigning suitable candidates to parish offices, and preaching to the people. Grosseteste fought for the maintenance of the Magna Carta. He thwarted efforts of Henry III to control ecclesiastical appointments, and as a member of the baronial council he supported the reforms of Simon de Montfort (1208-65). Grosseteste did not hestitate to censure Pope Innocent IV for his excessive exactions and for appointing foreigners to rich English benefices; he also attacked the Curia for its corruption and indolence. Some historians see in Grosseteste's protests against Rome an influence upon Wyclif and a foreshadowing of the Reformation.

Grosseteste was a prolific scholar. He knew Greek and probably Hebrew; his translations of, and commentaries on, Aristotle served as a foundation for the scholasticism of Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas. His prolific writing included treatises on physics, optics, light, motion, color, mathematics, astronomy, psychology, pastoral works, and polemical poems in French for the laity. For 50 years after his death he was venerated in his diocese as a saint. In recent years he has been accounted one of the early practitioners of modern scientific method.

Few of Grosseteste'ss writings are available in English. Three treatises are translated in Richard McKeon, Selections from Medieval Philosophers (1928-31). See also S. H. Thomson, The Writings of Robert Grosseteste (1940); J. McEvoy, The Philosophy of Robert Grosseteste (1987); R. Southern, Robert Grosseteste: The Growth of an English Mind in Medieval Europe (1986).

Sanderson, Robert, 1587-1663, English clergyman. Gaining William Laud's favor, he was appointed a royal chaplain in 1631 and regius professor of divinity at Oxford in 1642. Imprisoned during the civil war, he was reinstated to his professorship and named bishop of Lincoln in 1660. The second preface of the Anglican prayer book and the General Thanksgiving are attributed to him. His published writings include Logicae artis compendium (1618) and De obligatione conscientiae praelectiones decem (1660).

See his works (6 vol., 1854).

Morris, Robert, 1734-1806, American merchant, known as the "financier of the American Revolution," and signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Liverpool, England. Morris emigrated to America in 1747 and was soon apprenticed to the merchant Charles Willing in Philadelphia. He showed an unusual aptitude for business and by 1754 became a partner in the firm with the son, Thomas Willing, after the elder Willing's death. He opposed British restrictions prior to the Revolution and served (1775-78) as a member of the Continental Congress. Morris voted against the original motion for independence in July, 1776, as premature, but signed the declaration in August. A member of various committees in Congress, Morris was particularly important in obtaining munitions and other supplies and in borrowing money to finance George Washington's army. Although Morris's vast mercantile interests profited greatly from his congressional activities, both he and his firm were acquitted by Congress of charges of fraud. After leaving Congress, Morris expanded his mercantile and investment operations independently of Willing and by 1781 was almost universally acknowledged as the most prominent merchant in America. The collapse of public credit led to his being appointed superintendent of finance (1781-84) by Congress. Morris labored hard and well in this office; he pressed the states for contributions, retrenched expenditures, took steps toward the establishment of a national mint, guided the organization of a national bank, and extensively used his personal credit to raise funds for the government. He framed, but failed to get Congress to approve, a fiscal program including funding at par of the national debt and the assumption of state debts; it paralleled Alexander Hamilton's program of 1790. Morris was later a member of the U.S. Constitutional Convention (1787) and served (1789-95) as U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania. His private business, continued in his terms of office, ultimately ended in bankruptcy as a result of the collapse of extensive land speculation. Morris was in debtors' prison from 1798 to 1801 and never recovered his fortune.

See biography by E. P. Oberholtzer (1903, repr. 1968); W. G. Sumner, The Financier and the Finances of the American Revolution (1891, repr. 1968); C. L. Ver Steeg, Robert Morris, Revolutionary Financier (1954, repr. 1972).

Morris, Robert, 1931-, American artist, b. Kansas City, Mo. He settled in New York City in 1960 and was allied in his early work with the simple, impersonal forms of minimalism, e.g., an untitled 1965 work consisting of four blocks of gray fiberglass. He also often used mirrored surfaces in his sculpture. Implicit in his work is the idea that art can be made of anything. Morris's style and media have changed many times during his career. He has used nonrigid materials such as felt and even steam—precluding reproducible forms and emphasizing the process of art—and was also involved in conceptual art and land art. He is known for his enormous multipart sculptures of the 1980s, which include a wide variety of materials, notably casts of body parts and skeletons. Morris has also experimented in performance art, incorporating dance, theater, and the plastic arts. He is a rigorous theorist of art and an influential teacher.
Moses, Robert, 1888-1981, U.S. public official, b. New Haven, Conn. He was appointed (1919) by Alfred E. Smith to the committee to study and revamp New York state government machinery, became (1924) chairman of the state council of parks, and served (1927-28) as New York secretary of state until a disagreement with Gov. Franklin Roosevelt forced him from that position. In 1933 he declined the Fusion nomination for mayor of New York City, and in 1934 he was, as Republican candidate for governor, defeated by Herbert H. Lehman. As New York City park commissioner (1934-60) and head of the Triborough Bridge and New York City Tunnel Authority (1946-68), as well as in other municipal offices, Moses was responsible for reorganizing the department of parks and for planning new and improved highways, parks, bridges, and beaches. While he has been widely praised for many of his accomplishments, he has also been criticized for tearing down established neighborhoods and replacing them with soulless towers and expressways in a quest for urban improvement. His books include Working for People (1956).

See R. A. Caro, The Power Broker (1974); H. Ballon and K. T. Jackson, Robert Moses and the Modern City (2007).

Motherwell, Robert, 1915-91, American painter and writer, b. Aberdeen, Wash. Motherwell taught art at several colleges and during the early 1940s he became a cogent theoretician of abstract expressionism. His canvases are characterized by large, amorphous shapes, painted in strong, austere colors. His most famous body of work is a series of over 100 paintings entitled Elegy for the Spanish Republic (1948-90). He also created numerous masterful collages and more than 500 editions of prints. He was married for several years to the painter Helen Frankenthaler. Motherwell edited Documents of Modern Art (15 vol., 1944-61), Modern Artists in America (1952), The Dada Painters and Poets (1951), and Documents of 20th-Century Art (1971-80). His keen critical powers and abundant intellectual gifts are evident in his many essays, brought together in The Collected Writings of Robert Motherwell (1993).

See biographies by H. H. Arnason and S. P. Breckinridge (1982), D. Ashton and J. Flam (1983), and R. S. Mattison (1989); S. Engberg, Robert Motherwell: The Complete Prints 1940-1991 (2004).

Gwathmey, Robert, 1903-88, American painter, b. Richmond, Va. Gwathmey taught at Cooper Union from 1942 to 1968. Among the first white artists to portray African Americans with dignity, he created paintings with flat areas of color that combine empathy for impoverished Southern blacks with intense atmospheric effects of harsh sun and parched earth. Representative of his works, which are found in many museums, is Sowing (Whitney Mus., New York City).

See biography by M. Kammen (1999).

His son, Charles Gwathmey, 1938-2009, b. Charlotte, N.C., was an American architect. He is particularly known for residential structures, from with the small, modernist Hamptons, Long Island, house he designed (1966) early in his career for his parents to the signature mansions he created later. During the 1960s he was one of the "New York Five," which also included John Hejduk, Michael Graves, Peter Eisenman, and Richard Meier, modernist architects inspired by Le Corbusier's purist forms. Throughout the years Gwathmey remained loyal to the high modernist style. In 1968 he and Robert Siegel opened the firm Gwathmey Siegel & Associates. Gwathmey's later buildings include an addition to New York's Guggenheim Museum (1992), the New York Public Library system's Science, Industry, and Business Library (1995), and the addition to Yale's Art and Architecture Building (2008).

Lansing, Robert, 1864-1928, U.S. Secretary of State (1915-20), b. Watertown, N.Y. An authority in the field of international law, he founded the American Journal of International Law in 1907 and remained an editor of it until his death. He served as counsel for the United States in several international disputes, and he became attached (1914) to the Dept. of State. President Wilson appointed him to succeed William Jennings Bryan as Secretary of State after the latter's resignation. Lansing was a strong, although not outspoken, advocate of U.S. participation in World War I on the side of the Allies. Because Wilson largely conducted foreign policy himself with his political confidant Edward M. House, Lansing had little influence in the negotiations that led to the declaration of war against Germany. In 1917, Lansing concluded with Kikujiro Ishii of Japan the Lansing-Ishii agreement, which gave U.S. recognition to Japan's special interests in China, while reaffirming the Open Door policy. Lansing, who was nominal head of the U.S. commission to the Paris Peace Conference, lost Wilson's confidence because he did not regard the Covenant of the League of Nations as essential to the peace treaty. The breach between the two was completed when Wilson learned that during Wilson's illness Lansing had on several occasions called the cabinet together for consultations. In Feb., 1920, at Wilson's request, Lansing resigned. He later returned to his law practice. His writings include The Big Four and Others at the Peace Conference (1921), The Peace Negotiations (1921), and Notes on Sovereignty (1921). The War Memoirs of Robert Lansing (1935) was published posthumously.

See studies by D. M. Smith (1958, repr. 1972) and B. F. Beers (1962).

Hare, Robert, 1781-1858, American chemist, b. Philadelphia. He was professor of chemistry (1819-47) at the medical college of the Univ. of Pennsylvania. Hare made important contributions to early American chemistry. Among his inventions were the oxyhydrogen blowpipe, an electric furnace, and a deflagrator, and his research included work on salts.

See biography by E. F. Smith (1917).

Harley, Robert, 1st earl of Oxford, 1661-1724, English statesman and bibliophile. His career illustrates the power of personal connections and intrigue in the politics of his day. When he entered (1689) Parliament, he was generally associated with the Whigs and introduced (1694) the Triennial Bill (which required new parliamentary elections every three years) in the House of Commons. His sympathies soon shifted, however, and before the accession (1702) of Queen Anne he was a leader of the Tories. He was secretary of state for the north (1704-8) but was forced out of office by John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, because of his intrigues against the predominantly Whig government. His influence on the queen continued, however, through his kinswoman Abigail Masham. The unpopularity of the War of the Spanish Succession and the uproar caused by the trial of Henry Sacheverell brought the fall of the Whigs, and Harley came to power with Henry St. John (later Viscount Bolingbroke) in 1710. He survived an attempt on his life in 1711 and was made earl and lord treasurer. Consolidating his power, he undertook secret peace negotiations that led to the Peace of Utrecht (1713) and founded the South Sea Company (see South Sea Bubble). His position, however, was undermined by the intrigues of St. John, and he lost office just before Queen Anne's death (1714). After the accession of George I, he was imprisoned (1715) and impeached (1716) for his conduct of the peace negotiations and for dealings with the Jacobites, but he was acquitted. The manuscript collection gathered by Harley and his son Edward constitutes the important Harleian Library in the British Museum.

See B. Hill, Robert Harley: Speaker, Secretary of State and Premier (1988); bibliography by A. Downie (1989).

Adam, Robert, 1728-92, and James Adam, 1730-94, Scottish architects, brothers. They designed important public and private buildings in England and Scotland and numerous interiors, pieces of furniture, and decorative objects. Robert possessed the great creative talents, with his brother James serving chiefly as his assistant. Robert Adam designed his buildings to achieve the most harmonious relation between the exterior, the interior, and the furniture. His light, elegant, and essentially decorative style was a free, personal reconstitution of antique motifs. He drew upon numerous sources including earlier English Palladian architecture, French and Italian Renaissance architecture, and the antique monuments themselves as he knew them through publications and personal investigation. Adam himself contributed an important study, Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia (1764). For decorative painting, Adam employed such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Antonio Zucchi. The Adam manner gained great favor in his day, and designs in the Adam style have never ceased to appear. Especially interesting examples of Adam planning and decoration are Osterly Park, Middlesex (1761-80); Syon House, Middlesex (1762-69); and Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire (1768-75). The brothers wrote Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam (3 vol., 1778-1822). Robert was architect to the king from 1762 until 1768, when he was succeeded by James. Robert Adam was buried in Westminster Abbey.

See J. Fleming, Robert Adam and His Circle (1962) and D. Stillman, The Decorative Work of Robert Adam (1966); D. Yarwood, Robert Adam (1970).

Adamson, Robert: see Hill, David Octavius.
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008, American painter, b. Port Arthur, Tex., as Milton Ernest Rauschenberg. He studied at the Kansas City Art Institute, with Josef Albers at Black Mountain College, and at New York's Art Students League. In the late 1950s he came under the influence of Marcel Duchamp. With his friend Jasper Johns, Rauschenberg became a pivotal figure in the emerging pop art movement, and together they were vital to initiating a new era of experimentation in American art. A constant innovator and improviser, Rauschenberg moved from style to style and medium to medium, blurring the lines between painting, sculpture, photography, printmaking, and even performance and dance.

Rauschenberg's enormously inventive paintings, some of which incorporate silkscreen, include everyday images and objects and are executed in a loose, spontaneous style. He also experimented extensively with assemblage. Gloria (1956; Cleveland Mus. of Art), Canyon (1959), Summer Rental III (1960; Whitney Mus., New York City), and the famous Monogram (1959; Moderna Museet, Stockholm), which incorporates a whole stuffed Angora goat encircled by an automobile tire, are characteristic of the three-dimensional collages, known as "combines," which he created from 1954 to 1964. Major works of the 1980s and 90s are mainly large constructions. Rauschenberg began using photographs in the 1950s, but photographic images are particularly prevalent in his later works, as in the massive "Scenarios" paintings of the early 2000s, which also make use of computers and digital printers. One of contemporary American art's most prolific and influential figures, he also collaborated with artists in other fields, such as composer John Cage and choreographers Merce Cunningham, Paul Taylor, and Trisha Brown.

See catalogs of his work ed. by L. Alloway (1976), W. Hopps et al. (1997), and P. Schimmel (2005); S. Hunter, ed., Robert Rauschenberg: Works, Writing, Interviews (2007); biography by M. L. Kotz (1994, rev. ed. 2004); studies by C. Tomkins (1980, repr. 2005), M. Ormond (1985), B. Rose (1987), L. Steinberg (2000), B. W. Joseph (2002 as ed., 2003), R. S. Mattison (2004), and B. W. Joseph (2007).

Redfield, Robert, 1897-1958, American anthropologist and sociologist, b. Chicago, grad. Univ. of Chicago (B.A., 1920; Ph.D., 1928). He began teaching at the Univ. of Chicago in 1928, later becoming professor of anthropology and dean of the social science division. His field research in Mexico in the 1920s resulted in Tepoztlán (1930), a pioneer case study of a folk community that was the forerunner of a series of important studies. As research associate (1930-47) at the Carnegie Institution he directed anthropological investigations in Yucatán and Guatemala and evolved the concepts of folk society and folk culture, borrowing from sociological methods and concepts. He attempted a closer integration of the social sciences and the humanities. In his later years he turned increasingly to the comparative study of civilizations. His writings include The Folk Culture of Yucatán (1941), The Primitive World and Its Transformations (1953), and The Little Community (1955).
Redford, Robert (Charles Robert Redford, Jr.), 1937-, American actor and director, b. Santa Monica, Calif. Blond, with a perennially boyish handsomeness and an appeal that has lasted several decades, he is one of Hollywood's superstars. He began his acting career in 1959, scoring his first big success in Neil Simon's Broadway hit Barefoot in the Park (1963) and moving toward stardom in its film version (1967). Teaming with Paul Newman in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969) and The Sting (1973), Redford became a genuine star with his portrayal of lovably roguish, tough yet tender crooks.

Redford's other movies include The Candidate (1972), The Way We Were (1973), Three Days of the Condor (1975), The Great Gatsby (1974), All the President's Men (1976), The Natural (1984), Out of Africa (1985), Havana (1990), Sneakers (1992), Indecent Proposal (1993), and The Last Castle (2001). As a director, his films include Downhill Racer (1969); Ordinary People (1980), for which he won the Academy Award; The Milagro Beanfield War (1988); A River Runs through It (1993); and Quiz Show (1994). An activist in liberal and environmental causes, Redford also founded (1981) the Sundance Institute, which encourages young filmmakers, helps to finance new films, and showcases independent films in the annual Sundance Festival.

Fortune, Robert, 1813-80, British botanist. He traveled in Asia for the Royal Horticultural Society and later for the East India Company and brought back to England a number of chrysanthemums, the Japanese anemone, tree peonies, the kumquat, and other plants. Fortune introduced the tea plant into India from China.
Nanteuil, Robert, 1623?-1678, French draftsman and engraver. His pastel portraits gained him popularity, and in 1658 Louis XIV made him draftsman to the royal cabinet. His 221 extant portrait engravings excel in the vivacity and precision of their characterization. Nanteuil was especially successful in creating a three-dimensional effect in his works. He made portraits of almost all the important personages at the court. Among the finest are the portraits of Jean Loret, Gilles Ménage, and the Marquis de Maisons. He made 11 portraits of Louis XIV and 14 of Mazarin.
Raikes, Robert, 1735-1811, English philanthropist. In 1780 he organized a Sunday school, primarily for poor children, who were taught to read and to spell to enable them to read the Bible. The Raikes system spread rapidly through England and he became known as the founder of Sunday schools, although others had been concerned with similar undertakings. Raikes gave his project publicity in the Gloucester Journal, which he had inherited from his father.

See biography by J. H. Harris (1899).

Hooke, Robert, 1635-1703, English physicist, mathematician, and inventor. He became curator of experiments for the Royal Society (1662), professor of geometry at Gresham College (1665), and city surveyor of London after the great 1666 fire. Considered the greatest mechanic of his age, he made many improvements in astronomical instruments and in watches and clocks, was the first to formulate the theory of planetary movements as a mechanical problem, and anticipated universal gravitation. In 1684 he devised a practicable system of telegraphy. He invented the spiral spring in watches and the first screw-divided quadrant and constructed the first arithmetical machine and Gregorian telescope. He also stated Hooke's law (see elasticity), and in his pioneering book Micrographia (1665) he described his microscopic observations of plant tissues and coined the term cell.

See biography by L. Jardine (2004); studies by M. 'Espinasse (1956) and F. F. Centore (1970).

Beverley, Robert, 1673-1722, Virginia colonial historian, author of The History and Present State of Virginia (1705). A substantial planter and colonial official, he wrote his book after finding numerous errors in the manuscript of a book on Virginia written by an Englishman. Vigorous, honest, and not without humor, his history was an immediate success; reprinted a number of times, it served to attract immigrants to Virginia.

See edition by L. B. Wright (1947, repr. 1968).

Fludd or Flud, Robert, 1574-1637, English mystic philosopher. Educated at Oxford and on the Continent, he became a London physician. Strongly influenced by the mystical doctrines of Paracelsus, he attempted to reconcile these speculations with the new science of the 17th cent. From his study of Paracelsus he arrived at the theory that spiritual and physical truth are identical. His mystical pantheism centered in God as the all-pervading form of which the world and man are manifestations. He held that the dualism of light and darkness is inherent in all things. The best-known English representative of the Rosicrucians, he spread their ideas in a number of medico-theosophical books. His major works include Utriusque cosmi, maioris scilicet et minoris, metaphysica, physica atque technica historia (1617-21) and Philosophia Moysaica (1638; tr. Mosaicall Philosophy, 1659).

See F. A. Yates, Theatre of the World (1969); W. Huffman, Robert Fludd and the End of the Renaissance (1989).

Nelson, Robert, 1794-1873, Canadian rebel, b. Montreal; brother of Wolfred Nelson. Like his brother, he was a surgeon in the War of 1812, and with him he entered the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada in 1827 as a supporter of Louis Joseph Papineau. Although Robert Nelson took no active part in the rebellion of 1837, after its collapse he organized in the United States a band of adventurers with whom he invaded Canada in 1838, proclaiming it a republic and himself president of the provisional government. The invasion was quickly put down, and Nelson fled to Vermont.
Nozick, Robert, 1938-2002, American political philosopher, b. Brooklyn, N.Y.; grad. Columbia Univ. (B.A., 1959), Princeton (M.A., 1961; Ph.D., 1963). After teaching at Princeton and Rockefeller Univ., he became (1969) a philosophy professor at Harvard, where he was named a university professor in 1998. Once a campus radical, Novick soon veered rightward, becoming a staunchly conservative opponent of the kind of liberalism represented by his Harvard colleague, John Rawls. Nozick's first book, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974; National Book Award), a critique of Rawls, has became a key work in contemporary political philosophy. Castigating the paternalism of the welfare state, supporting the primacy of the individual, and defending capitalism, he called for the most minimal of governments, one that would protect its members against violence, theft, and breach of contract and do very little more. Nozick also explored a wide range of other philosophical subjects and their connections to various disciplines. Among his other books are Philosophical Explanations (1981), The Examined Life (1989), The Nature of Rationality (1995), and Invariances: The Structure of the Objective World (2001).

See studies by J. Paul, ed. (1981), S. Luper-Foy (1987), J. S. Corlett, ed. (1991), J. Wolff (1991), S. A. Hailwood (1996), A. Pampathy Rao (1998), and A. R. Lacey (2001).

Capa, Robert, 1913-54, American war photographer, b. Hungary as Andre Friedmann. He came to Paris in 1933 and from that time on recorded with profound concern the spectacle of humanity caught in war. In 1936 he covered the Spanish civil war, taking the photograph of a Loyalist at the instant of death that has become a classic. In 18 years he covered five wars; the result is a powerful and very personal indictment of war. In 1946, Capa helped found Magnum, a select agency for photojournalists. His books include Death in the Making (1938) and Images of War (1964). Capa was killed in Vietnam by a Viet Minh land mine while photographing French combat troops.

See biography, Blood and Champagne (2003), by A. Kershaw.

Carr, Robert: see Somerset, Robert Carr, earl of.
Maillart, Robert, 1872-1940, Swiss engineer, renowned for his inventive and beautiful reinforced-concrete bridges. Maillart's basic structural principles—integration of the supporting arch, the stiffening wall, and the traffic platform into one cohesive unit—were applied as early as 1901 in a bridge at Zuoz, Switzerland. These ideas were further refined in Maillart's later works. The Schwandbach Bridge (1933) is constructed on a curving plan to facilitate traffic movement over a mountain gorge. Maillart was also an innovator in the development of reinforced-concrete beamless floor slab (mushroom-column) construction, which has been used in warehouses, factories, and other multistoried buildings.
Schuman, Robert, 1886-1963, French statesman and lawyer, b. grand duchy of Luxembourg. A member of the Catholic Mouvement Républicain Populaire (MRP), he was finance minister (1946, 1947) and premier (1947-48). He continued as foreign minister (1948-53), and as such, did much to promote European unity. In 1950 he proposed the creation of a West European coal and steel pool. This so-called Schuman Plan, which had been drafted by Jean Monnet, became effective in 1952 with the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the first step toward the creation of the European Union. Schuman was president (1958-60) of the European Parliamentary Assembly.
Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey, 1725-74, British soldier and statesman. He went to India in 1743 as a clerk for the British East India Company and entered the military service of the company in 1744; he soon distinguished himself in the fighting against the French. Clive's brilliant capture of Arcot (1751) and the relief of the siege of Trichinopoly (1752) thwarted Dupleix, who had been on the verge of achieving French hegemony in S India. In 1757, Clive, then governor of Fort St. David near Madras (now Chennai), recovered Calcutta (now Kolkata) from the nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daula. Then, after defeating the nawab at Plassey, he replaced him with the more compliant Mir Jafar. Bengal thus passed under effective British control, and Clive became the first governor. His victories over the Dutch at Biderra (1759) consolidated the British position as the dominant European power in India. Returning (1760) to England, he was given an Irish peerage as Baron Clive of Plassey. As governor of Bengal again from 1765 to 1767, Clive greatly reduced corruption and inefficiency in a formerly disordered administration and reached a settlement with the states of Bihar and Orissa. But his assumption of the right to collect the revenues of those states involved the company in the complexities of wide territorial administration, which it was ill equipped to handle. This was one of the factors that eventually led the British government to assume responsibility for British rule in India. After his return to England, Clive was bitterly attacked by politicians and others and was accused by Parliament of peculation. He was acquitted (1773) after a long investigation, but, broken in health, he committed suicide.

See the famous Essay on Clive by T. B. Macaulay; G. B. Malleson, Lord Clive and the Establishment of the English in India (1962); M. Edwardes, Plassey: The Founding of an Empire (1970); L. Stephens, Robert Clive and Imperialism (1981).

Bellah, Robert,1927-, American sociologist and educator. He was educated at Harvard before becoming Elliot professor of sociology at the Univ. of California at Berkeley. He wrote several books on the sociology of religion, including The Broken Covenant (1975), which won the Sorokin Award. His best-selling Habits of the Heart (1985) looks at questions of individualism and commitment in American life. Bellah has been linked with the "new constructivists," who argue that ordinary people use the cultural resources around them to actively construct meaning, resisting or undermining various forms of social control.
Bly, Robert, 1926-, American writer, translator, editor, and publisher, b. Madison, Minn., grad. Harvard, 1950. His poems, personal and precisely observant, are informed by the American landscape. Among his volumes of poetry are The Light Around the Body (1967), Sleepers Joining Hands (1972), The Man in the Black Coat Turns (1981), and Loving a Woman in Two Worlds (1985). As head of the Sixties Press he printed unconventional poetry and translations from lesser-known foreign poets. Since the early 1980s Bly has been active in the "men's movement," concerned with establishing a new idea of masculinity in contemporary society. In his bestselling nonfiction work Iron John (1990), Bly traces various passages from boyhood to manhood and urges men to explore their relations to their fathers and to discover their primitive masculinity. In The Sibling Society (1996) Bly posits that contemporary adults behave like eternal adolescents due to the absence of proper parental authority figures. In The Maiden King (1998), written with Marion Woodman, Bly uses Russian myth to explore masculine-feminine development in men.

See studies by R. P. Sugg (1986) and W. V. Davis (1989).

Johnson, Robert, 1911-38, African-American blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter, b. Hazelhurst, Miss. A sharecropper's son, he grew up absorbing the music of Delta bluesmen, learning the harmonica and then mastering the guitar. Johnson left home around 1930 and for the rest of his life traveled the country, playing and singing at parties, juke joints, barrelhouses, and other venues. His reedy voice and virtuoso guitar technique combined in a classic blues sound, plaintive and lonely. The vagaries of love and evil are the themes of many of the songs he sang, whether written by others or himself, e.g., "Terraplane Blues" and "Hellhound on My Trail." In San Antonio (1936) and Dallas (1937) he recorded 29 blues songs, but a year later he was poisoned by a jealous husband. Though all that remains of his legendary work are those Texas recordings, Johnson's influence has been profound, on later blues players and on rock and rollers, some of whom, e.g., the Rolling Stones and Eric Clapton, have recorded his songs.

See his lyrics ed. by B. Groom and B. Yates (1969); biographies by P. Guralnick (1989) and S. Calt (2001); P. R. Schroeder, Robert Johnson, Mythmaking, and Contemporary American Culture (2004), and E. Wald, Escaping the Delta: Robert Johnson and the Invention of the Blues (2004).

Frank, Robert, 1924-, Swiss-American photographer and filmmaker, b. Zurich. He emigrated to the United States in 1947 and became a citizen in 1963. Frank is considered the pioneer of the "snapshot aesthetic," in which the documentary image is rendered bluntly and without conscious artistry. His best-known work is The Americans (1959), a composite portrait of U.S. culture as seen by a relative newcomer. In its 83 black-and-white photographs he presents telling glimpses of clutter and trivia as well as informal pictures of all manner of Americans, often anxious or isolated, in everyday situations throughout the country. These powerfully composed photographs were considered gross, shocking, degrading, and even un-American when they were first published, but soon became an intrinsic part of American iconography, greatly influencing other artists in many media. Frank's films, also documentary in style, include Pull My Daisy (1959-60, with Alfred Leslie), OK, End Here (1963), and Me and My Brother (1965-68).

See his book of photographs Lines of My Hand (1972); S. Greenough, ed., Looking In: Robert Frank's "The Americans" (museum catalog, 2009).

Franz, Robert, 1815-92, German composer of about 350 lieder, intimate songs, usually in strophic form. The first of them (pub. 1843) drew warm praise from Schumann. Franz championed a revival of the music of Bach and Handel.
Cambert, Robert, c.1628-1677, French composer; pupil of Chambonnières. His Pastorale d'Issy (1659) and other works are among the first real French operas. With the librettist Pierre Perrin (1625-75) he created French recitative in operas, including Pomone (1671), which contains all the elements of later French opera such as short symphonies, airs, and dialogues. Both men founded the first French opera company in 1669, but after losing control of this venture to Jean Baptiste Lully, Cambert settled in London where he was possibly murdered.
Campbell, Robert: see Rob Roy.
Campbell, Robert, 1804-79, American fur trader and merchant, one of the mountain men, b. Ireland. He came to the United States c.1824. Having been advised to lead an outdoor life because of a lung ailment, he joined (1825) a fur trapping expedition. He trapped and traded in the Rocky Mts. until 1832, when he and William Sublette formed a partnership, which offered competition to the American Fur Company. Suffering reverses, they confined their activities to the mountain territory. The partnership was dissolved in 1842, and Campbell returned to St. Louis, where he amassed a fortune in merchandising, real estate, and banking. In 1851 and again in 1869 he served as Indian commissioner.
Campbell, Robert, 1808-94, Canadian fur trader and explorer, b. Scotland. Employed as a young man by the Hudson's Bay Company, he was sent in 1834 to the Mackenzie River region, where he remained until 1852. He discovered the Pelly River in 1840, descending it in 1843 to its confluence with the Lewes River to form the Yukon. Here he established Fort Selkirk in 1848. Later (1850-51) he followed the Yukon to its junction with the Porcupine River at Fort Yukon. He worked as a trader for Hudson's Bay until 1871, when he was discharged, and spent his last years as a rancher in Manitoba. He wrote The Discovery and Exploration of the Pelly River (1883).

See C. Wilson, Campbell of the Yukon (1970).

Campin, Robert, 1378-1444, Flemish painter who with the van Eycks ranks as a founder of the Netherlandish school. This artist has been identified as the Master of Flémalle on the basis of three panels in Frankfurt-am-Main said to have come from the abbey of Flémalle near Liège. Campin was active in Tournai, having become a citizen of that city in 1410 and the dean of the painters' guild in 1423. To him have been attributed the Mérode Altarpiece in the Cloisters, New York City, a Nativity in Dijon, the Annunciation and Marriage of the Virgin in Madrid, the Madonna of Humility in London, and a number of other panels in various collections. His works are characterized by a robust and highly developed realism and concern for the details of daily life, which constituted an important stage in the stylistic progression leading to the art of Jan van Eyck. It is believed that Roger Van der Weyden was apprenticed in Campin's workshop.

See E. Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting (1953); M. S. Frinta, The Genius of Robert Campin (1966).

Ross, Robert, 1766-1814, British general. He served against the French in the Netherlands, in Egypt, and in the Peninsular War. In the War of 1812 he defeated a U.S. force at Bladensburg, and on the same day (Aug. 24, 1814) he surprised and captured Washington, burning all the public buildings. Spurred by victory, Ross decided to attempt the capture of Baltimore. On Sept. 12, in a thick wood near North Point, his army encountered the American militia. A skirmish ensued, and Ross was killed.
Feke, Robert, c.1705-c.1750, early American portrait painter, b. Oyster Bay, N.Y. He practiced in Newport, R.I., New York City, Philadelphia, and Boston. He probably studied in Europe for a time, but soon developed a very personal painting style. His best-known portrait of Isaac Royall and his family (Harvard) shows the influence of John Smibert. His masterpiece of characterization is the portrait of Reverend Thomas Hiscox (1745; The Breakers, Newport, R.I.). His works are noted for their charm and elegance of costume. There are portraits by him at the Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence; Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine; and the Redwood Library, Newport, R.I. Feke disappeared at sea in 1750.

See study by H. W. Foote (1930).

Lowe, Robert, Viscount Sherbrooke: see Sherbrooke, Robert Lowe, Viscount.
Lowell, Robert (Robert Traill Spence Lowell 4th), 1917-77, American poet and translator, widely considered the preeminent poet of the mid-20th cent., b. Boston, grad. Kenyon College (B.A., 1940). A grandnephew of James Russell Lowell, in 1940 he converted to Roman Catholicism and married the writer Jean Stafford. During World War II he served a jail sentence as a conscientious objector. He taught at Boston Univ. and at Harvard. His second wife (1949-72) was the novelist and critic Elizabeth Hardwick.

Lowell's poetry is individualistic and intense, rich in symbolism and marked by great technical skill. His later work indicates a philosophic acceptance of life and the world. His Life Studies (1959) is a frank and highly autobiographical volume in verse and prose, one of the first and most influential works of what is widely called "confessional" poetry. Lowell often used his life as raw material for his verse, writing, for instance, of his family, his relationships with his wives, and his frequent bouts of depression and madness. Among his other poetry collections are Lord Weary's Castle (1946; Pulitzer Prize), For the Union Dead (1964), Near the Ocean (1967), Notebook: Nineteen Sixty-Seven to Nineteen Sixty-Eight (1969), The Dolphin (1973; Pulitzer Prize), Day by Day (1977), and Last Poems (1977). His translations include Racine's Phèdre (1969), Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound (1969), and miscellaneous European verse, collected as Imitations (1961). His dramatic adaptation of Melville's story "Benito Cereno" is part of Lowell's trilogy of plays, The Old Glory (1968).

See his collected poems ed. by F. Bidart and D. Gewanter (2003) and collected prose ed. by R. Giroux (1987); Robert Lowell: Interviews and Memoirs (1988), ed. by J. Meyers; The Letters of Robert Lowell (2005), ed. by S. Hamilton; T. Travisano and S. Hamilton, ed., Words in Air: The Complete Correspondence between Elizabeth Bishop and Robert Lowell (2008); biographies by I. Hamilton (1982), P. Mariani (1994), R. Tillinghast (1995), and S. P. Stuart (1998); studies by M. Perloff (1973), J. Crick (1974), J. Price, ed. (1974), S. Yenser (1975), S. G. Axelrod (1978), B. Raffel (1981), M. Rudman (1983), N. Procopiow (1984), J. Meyers (1985), S. G. Axelrod, ed. (1986 with H. Deese and 1999), H. Bloom, ed. (1987), K. Wallingford (1988), and W. Doreski (1999).

Merrill, Robert, 1917-2004, American baritone, b. Brooklyn, N.Y., as Moishe Miller. In 1945 he won the Metropolitan Opera's Auditions of the Air and in the same year made his debut as Germont in Verdi's La Traviata. Known for his smooth and powerful voice, he subsequently became one of the most popular baritones in the company, singing the French and Italian repertoires. Among his important roles were Renato in Verdi's Un Ballo in maschera, Amonasro in Aïda, and Escamillo in Bizet's Carmen.

See his autobiographies, Once More from the Beginning (1965) and Between Acts (1976).

Gloucester, Robert, earl of, d. 1147, English nobleman; illegitimate son of Henry I. Henry created (c.1121) the earldom of Gloucester for him. After his father's death (1135), Robert appeared to accept the seizure of the throne by Henry's nephew, Stephen, to whom he did conditional homage in 1136. They soon quarreled, however, and after Stephen had seized (1138) Robert's lands, Robert led a baronial rebellion in favor of his half sister, Matilda. The earl captured Stephen at Lincoln in 1141, but later in the year he himself was captured, while covering Matilda's retreat from Winchester, and exchanged for the king. Robert then went to France to get aid from Matilda's husband, Geoffrey IV of Anjou, and returned to England with her son Henry (later Henry II). Robert held the Angevin party in England together and consistently labored for Matilda's cause.
Altman, Robert, 1925-2006, American film director, b. Kansas City, Mo. One of the most original talents in late-20th-century American filmmaking, he created complex, often loosely plotted movies marked by brilliant and often huge ensemble casting, sharply delineated characters, overlapping dialogue, and an edgy spontaneity. Altman began his career writing for radio and magazines, made industrial and sports films (1946-56), and worked in television, directing episodes of some of the best-known television series of the late 1950s and early 60s. After directing several forgettable feature films, Altman scored his first success with M*A*S*H (1970), a Korean War comedy-drama that implicitly criticized the Vietnam War. Throughout the 1970s he directed numerous idiosyncratic films, including Brewster McCloud (1970), McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971), Thieves like Us (1974), and Three Women (1977).

Altman's second major commercial success, Nashville (1975), a sprawling, multilayered drama set in the world of country music, is widely considered his masterpiece. In the 1980s he turned to theater and theatrical adaptations in Come Back to the 5 & Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean (play and film, 1982), Streamers (1983), and Fool for Love (1985). He returned to popular and critical favor with the film The Player (1992), a witty skewering of the Hollywood movie scene that features one of the most spectacular tracking shots in movie history. Altman struck directorial gold again in Gosford Park (2001), a witty, stylish, and multileveled social comedy-murder mystery set in a 1930s English country estate, which displays his ensemble technique and his keen awareness of class and sexual conflicts. Among Altman's other movies are Vincent and Theo (1990); Short Cuts (1993); Kansas City (1996); The Company (2003), a drama inspired by the Joffrey Ballet; and the elegaic A Prairie Home Companion (2006), his last film. In addition, he directed two mock political documentaries for television, the series Tanner '88 (1988) and Tanner on Tanner (2004), both with screenplays by Garry Trudeau. Altman was also a screenwriter and producer. In 2006 he was awarded an Academy Award for lifetime achievement.

See biography by P. McGilligan (1989); M. Zuckoff, Robert Altman: The Oral Biography (2009); Robert Altman: A Guide to References and Resources (1984); studies by G. Plecki (1985), H. Keyssar (1991), and D. O'Brien (1995).

Venturi, Robert, 1925-, American architect, b. Philadelphia. In his writings, Venturi inveighed against the banality of modern architecture in the postwar period. He argued instead for a more inclusive, contextual approach to design that heralded the postmodern era in architecture. Among his early large works is Guild House in Philadelphia (1962-66), whose entrance is distinguished by a bold, billboardlike sign. A more restrained historicizing mode has characterized his later public works, such as Gordon Wu Hall at Princeton (1982-84), the Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery, London (1991), the somewhat flamboyant but not overwhelming Seattle Art Museum (1991), and the expanded Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego (1996). Venturi is also an important theorist whose writings include the influential Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966); Learning from Las Vegas (1972), written with Stephen Izenour and Denise Scott-Brown (Venturi's wife and architectural partner); and A View from the Campidoglio: Selected Essays, 1953-1984 (1984). He was awarded the Pritzker Prize in 1991.

See C. Mead, ed., The Architecture of Robert Venturi (1989); S. von Moos, Venturi, Scott Brown & Associates: Buildings and Projects, 1986-1998 (1999).

Hayden, Robert, 1913-80, American poet, b. Detroit. After earning his M.A. at the Univ. of Michigan, he taught there and at Fisk Univ. Although the tone of his poems is quiet and often loving, he has a considerable gift for irony and his insights can be shattering. His Ballad of Remembrance (1962) was awarded a prize at the World Festival of Negro Arts in Dakar, Senegal, in 1966.

See his Collected Poems (1985).

Anderson, Robert, 1805-71, American army officer, defender of Fort Sumter, b. near Louisville, Ky., grad. West Point, 1825. He fought in the Black Hawk, Seminole, and Mexican wars and was promoted to major in 1857. In Nov., 1860, he took command of the U.S. force in the harbor of Charleston, S.C., where he distinguished himself in the Fort Sumter controversy. Anderson, made a brigadier general in the regular army (May, 1861), commanded the Dept. of Kentucky (June-Oct.). He retired from active service in Oct., 1863. In Feb., 1865, he was brevetted major general for his gallant service in the defense of Fort Sumter.
Huber, Robert, 1937-, German biochemist. After receiving his doctorate at Munich Technical Univ., he worked both there and at the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry. With Hartmut Michel and Johann Deisenhofer, Huber developed a process that used X-ray technology to determine the structure of large molecules. For this innovation the three researchers were awarded the 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Delaunay, Robert, 1885-1941, French painter; husband of Sonia Delaunay-Terk. By 1909, Delaunay had progressed from a neoimpressionist phase to cubism, applying cubist principles to the exploration of color. He immediately enlarged cubist themes to include the architecture of cities (e.g., La Ville de Paris, 1912; Musée d'Art moderne, Paris). He became a major figure in the movement Apollinaire termed orphism. This amalgam of fauve color, futurist dynamism, and analytical cubism sought to emulate the rhythms but not the appearance of nature. Delaunay is most famous for his series of paintings of the Eiffel Tower; one of them is in the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City.

See M. Hoog, Delauney (1977).

Fergusson, Robert, 1750-74, Scottish poet, b. Edinburgh. He was a precursor of Robert Burns, who proclaimed his debt to Fergusson's Poems (1773). After careers in the clergy and in medicine, he worked as a public official and periodical contributor. Graphic and amusing pictures of life among the Edinburgh poor are found in his best poems—"The Farmer's Ingle," "Leith Races," and "Auld Reekie."

See his works (ed. by M. P. McDiarmid, 1954-56); study by A. H. MacLaine (1965).

Finley, Robert, 1772-1817, American clergyman, a founder of the American Colonization Society, b. Princeton, N.J. In 1787 he graduated from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), where he later studied theology. Ordained in 1795, he served for over 20 years at Basking Ridge, N.J., both as pastor and as headmaster of a school for boys. His interest in the condition of American blacks led him to lobby for the establishment of an organization that would help freed slaves return to Africa. His goal was realized (1816) with the establishment of the American Colonization Society. At his death he was president of the Univ. of Georgia. Finley wrote Thoughts on the Colonization of Free Blacks (1816).

See biography by I. V. Brown (1857, repr. 1969).

Treat, Robert, 1622?-1710, American colonial governor of Connecticut, b. England. He was taken to America when a child; his father was an early settler of Wethersfield, Conn., and a patentee of the royal charter granted in 1662. Robert Treat settled (1639) in Milford and became a prominent citizen, serving in the colonial assembly and on the governor's council. When the colonies of New Haven and Connecticut were united, Treat was a leader of the group of settlers who, discontented with the new arrangement, went to New Jersey and founded (1666) the city of Newark. He later returned (1672) to Milford and was commander in chief of the Connecticut forces in King Philip's War (1675-76) and in other clashes with the Native Americans, especially the Narragansett tribe. Deputy governor after 1676, he became governor of Connecticut in 1683. When the English government planned to unite the New England colonies, Treat led the opposition to the surrender of the Connecticut charter. He is supposed to have had some part in concealing the charter in the Charter Oak to prevent its falling into the hands of Gov. Edmund Andros, but there is excellent reason to believe that the whole Charter Oak story is a myth. Treat served on Andros's council, and when that unpopular governor was ousted (1689), he resumed the governorship of Connecticut, retaining it until 1698. He again served (1698-1708) as deputy governor.
Toombs, Robert, 1810-85, American statesman, Confederate leader, b. Wilkes co., Ga. A successful lawyer in Georgia, he entered politics as a Whig, serving in the state legislature and in Congress (1845-53). He favored the Compromise of 1850 and with Howell Cobb and Alexander H. Stephens canvassed Georgia to have it ratified. With them also he organized the short-lived Constitutional Union party, which elected him (1852) to the U.S. Senate, in which he served until 1861. A brilliant orator, Toombs was a firm supporter of Southern measures but did not become an avowed secessionist until after the election of Abraham Lincoln. Thereafter he played a leading role in the Georgia secession and in the organization of the Confederacy. Made secretary of state in the new government, he soon resigned to become a brigadier general commanding Georgia troops in Virginia. He fought in the Peninsular campaign, the second battle of Bull Run, and the Antietam campaign in the Civil War, resigning when he was refused promotion. Toombs, who had coveted the Confederate presidency, belonged to the faction that opposed the policies of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. After the war he fled to Europe, returning in 1867. He continued to be important in Georgia politics, especially after Reconstruction. He himself remained "unreconstructed," refusing to the end to take the oath of allegiance to the United States.

See biographies by U. B. Phillips (1913, repr. 1968) and W. Y. Thompson (1966).

Garnier, Robert, 1534?-1590, French dramatic poet. He wrote mainly closet dramas in the classical manner of Seneca. Les Juives [the Jewish women] (1583), based on the Bible, is perhaps the best of his tragedies. He is also credited with the first tragicomedy in French, Bradamante (1582).
Burns, Robert, 1759-96, Scottish poet.

Life

The son of a hard-working and intelligent farmer, Burns was the oldest of seven children, all of whom had to help in the work on the farm. Although always hard pressed financially, the elder Burns, until his death in 1784, encouraged his sons with their education. As a result, Burns as a boy not only read the Scottish poetry of Ramsay and the collections compiled by Hailes and Herd, but also the works of Pope, Locke, and Shakespeare. By 1781, Burns had tried his hand at several agricultural jobs without success. Although he had begun writing, and his poems were circulated widely in manuscript, none were published until 1786. At this time he had already begun a life of dissipation, and he was not only discouraged but poor and was involved simultaneously with several women.

Burns decided to marry Mary Campbell and migrate to Jamaica. To help finance the journey, he published at Kilmarnock Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect (1786), which was an immediate success. Mary Campbell died before she and Burns could marry, and Burns changed his mind about migration. He toured the Highlands, brought out a second edition of his poems at Edinburgh in 1787, and for two winters was socially prominent in the Scottish city. In 1788 he married Jean Armour, who had borne him four children, and retired to a farm at Ellisland. By 1791 Burns had failed as a farmer, and he moved to nearby Dumfries, where he held a position as an exciseman. He died at 37 after a severe attack of rheumatic fever.

Verse

Burns's art is at its best in songs such as "Flow Gently, Sweet Afton," "My Heart's in the Highlands," and "John Anderson My Jo." Two collections contain 268 of his songs—George Thomson's Select Collection of Original Scottish Airs for the Voice (6 vol., 1793-1811) and James Johnson's Scots Musical Museum (5 vol., 1787-1803). Some of these, such as "Auld Lang Syne" and "Comin' thro' the Rye," are among the most familiar and best-loved poems in the English language. But his talent was not confined to song; two descriptive pieces, "Tam o' Shanter" and "The Jolly Beggars," are among his masterpieces.

Burns had a fine sense of humor, which was reflected in his satirical, descriptive, and playful verse. His great popularity with the Scots lies in his ability to depict with loving accuracy the life of his fellow rural Scots, as he did in "The Cotter's Saturday Night." His use of dialect brought a stimulating, much-needed freshness and raciness into English poetry, but Burns's greatness extends beyond the limits of dialect. His poems are written about Scots, but, in tune with the rising humanitarianism of his day, they apply to a multitude of universal problems.

Bibliography

See his poems (ed. by J. L. Robertson, 1953); letters (ed. by D. Ferguson and G. Ross Roy, 2 vol., 1985); biographies by M. Lindsay (2d ed. 1968) and R. T. Fitzhugh (1970); studies by D. Daiches (1978), H. Hecht (1985), and C. McGuirk (1985).

Burton, Robert, 1577-1640, English clergyman and scholar, b. Leicestershire, educated at Oxford. He served as librarian at Christ Church, Oxford, all his life; in addition he was vicar of St. Thomas, Oxford, and later was rector of Seagrave, Leicestershire. A bachelor, he led an uneventful, scholarly life. His famous work, The Anatomy of Melancholy, appeared in 1621 under the pen name Democritus Junior. Enlarged and revised several times before his death, this treatise originally set out to explore the causes and effects of melancholy, but it eventually covered many areas in the life of man, including science, history, and political and social reform. The work is divided into three main portions: The first defines and describes various kinds of melancholy; the second puts forward various cures; and the third analyzes love melancholy and religious melancholy. Burton's prose style is informal, anecdotal, and thoroughly idiosyncratic, and he includes quotations from a wide range of literature—the Bible, the classics, the Elizabethan authors.

See M. O'Connell, Robert Burton (1986).

Barany, Robert, 1876-1936, Austrian physician. For his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus of the ear he received the 1914 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. From 1917 until his death he was professor at the Univ. of Uppsala.
Barclay, Robert, 1648-90, Scottish apologist for the Society of Friends (Quakers). He wrote many controversial works but is best known for his great treatise An Apology for the True Christian Divinity, which appeared in Latin in 1676 and in English two years later. The duke of York (later James II) granted a patent of the province of East Jersey to 12 members of the Society of Friends; Barclay was nominal governor (1682-88), but he never went to America. His collected works were published in 1692 as Truth Triumphant.

See biography by D. E. Trueblood (1967).

Maxwell, Robert (Ian Robert Maxwell), 1923-91, British business executive, b. Czechoslovakia as Jan Ludwik Hoch. He grew up in a tight-knit Jewish community. After fleeing the Nazis in 1939, Maxwell fought with the British during World War II. In 1951, he purchased Pergamon Press, a publisher of textbooks and scientific journals. The company's success helped him win election to Parliament in 1964 as a Labour member. A 1969 financial scandal cost Maxwell control over Pergamon and his political career, but he went heavily into debt and repurchased Pergamon in 1974. In the 1980s, he borrowed additional funds to create a diversified media empire that came to include the Mirror Newspaper Group, the U.S. book publishing company Macmillan, the Official Airline Guides, Berlitz, and the New York Daily News.

After Maxwell drowned mysteriously while cruising off the Canary Islands, investigators discovered that he had misappropriated hundreds of millions of dollars from his companies and their pension plans to finance his corporate expansion. Maxwell's companies were forced to file for bankruptcy protection in Great Britain and the United States in 1992. In 1995 Maxwell's sons Kevin and Ian and two former directors went on trial in one of Britain's largest fraud cases. The charges included misusing Maxwell group pension fund stocks to assist a faltering Maxwell company and risking pension fund shares to secure a loan for another Maxwell company. They were acquitted in 1996.

See T. Bower, Maxwell (1992); R. Greenslade, Maxwell (1992); and E. Maxwell (his widow), A Mind of My Own (1994).

Mills, Robert, 1781-1855, American architect of the classic revival period, b. Charleston, S.C. From 1800 to 1820 he worked as an architect in Washington, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, being associated at different times with Thomas Jefferson, James Hoban, and B. H. Latrobe. He then returned to Charleston as state engineer and architect. In 1836, President Jackson appointed Mills architect of public buildings in Washington. In this post he was responsible for designing and supervising the construction of the Treasury Building in 1836 and the Patent Office and the Post Office (now the International Trade Commission), both begun in 1839. His design (1833) for the Washington Monument was executed (1848-84) without the base originally intended for it. Mills had planned to have the great obelisk superimposed upon a large Greek Doric Pantheon. He also designed the Washington Monument in Baltimore, the Bunker Hill Monument, and the Monumental Church in Richmond, Va. Seeking to create a truly American architecture, Mills devised plans for public buildings that were highly practical. His buildings give the effect of great dignity and massiveness, corresponding to their solidity of construction.

See biography by H. M. P. Gallagher (1935).

Indiana, Robert, 1928-, American artist, b. New Castle, Ind., as Robert Clarke. A leading figure in the pop art movement of the 1960s, he has specialized in making signs in various media, inspired by billboards and posters in the American landscape. His best known image, LOVE, first created (1964) for a Christmas card printed by New York's Museum of Modern Art, has been the subject of many of his paintings, sculptures, and prints, and has appeared as a U.S. postage stamp and in untold numbers of posters, reproductions, and commercial adaptations.
MacGregor, Robert: see Rob Roy.
Blair, Robert, 1699-1746, English poet and clergyman. His literary reputation rests solely on his didactic, blank-verse poem on death, The Grave (1743).
Blake, Robert, 1599-1657, English admiral. A merchant, he sat in the Short Parliament (1640) and joined the parliamentary side in the civil war. He defended Bristol, Lyme, and Taunton against royalist attacks (1643-45). Appointed a "general at sea" (1649), he embarked on a brilliant naval career in his middle age. In 1650 he pursued the royalist fleet under Prince Rupert to Portugal, where he intercepted a large Portuguese treasure fleet at the mouth of the Tagus River. He caught up with Rupert in the Mediterranean and virtually destroyed his fleet. In 1651 he captured the Scilly Islands from royalist privateers and helped to reduce Jersey. In the first of the Dutch Wars he won several major victories against the Dutch and suffered one serious defeat. In 1655 he attacked and destroyed a Barbary pirate fleet at Porto Farino. In the winter of 1656-57 he blockaded the Spanish coast and sank the Spanish fleet at Santa Cruz. Made a member of the council of state in 1651, he helped to develop the effective Commonwealth navy.
Casadesus, Robert, 1899-1972, French pianist and composer, b. Paris. Casadesus was born into a family remarkable for its numerous celebrated musicians. After study at the Paris Conservatory, he embarked in 1922 on a long and distinguished concert career. After 1940, Casadesus lived in the United States, where he taught and composed. He became director of the American Conservatory at Fontainebleau in 1945. Noted as a pianist of lyric sensitivity, he often appeared in concert with his wife, the pianist Gaby Casadesus. Their son, Jean Casadesus, 1927-72, was also a well-known concert pianist.
Stone, Robert, 1937-, American novelist, b. Brooklyn, N.Y. He was briefly (1971) a correspondent in Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) during the Vietnam War. His experiences there helped form the basis for his best-known novel, Dog Soldiers (1974, National Book Award), which was filmed as Who'll Stop the Rain (1978) with a screenplay by Stone. The book is an account of Vietnam-related drug smuggling, brutality, and disenchantment. Stone's philosophical bent, his vividly gritty style, and his edgy wit are evident in his portrayals of some of American life's darker aspects. His characters often fruitlessly attempt to deal with inescapable events, and the ghost of the Vietnam conflict hovers over much of his fiction. His other works include A Hall of Mirrors (1967), A Flag for Sunrise (1981), Children of Light (1986), Outerbridge Reach (1992), and Bear and His Daughter: Stories (1997). His acclaimed novel Damascus Gate (1998) is a probing story of religion-based conflicts in contemporary Jerusalem; it was followed by Bay of Souls (2003). Stone has won numerous awards, traveled widely, and taught at Princeton, Harvard, and other universities.

See his memoir (2007); studies by R. Solotaroff (1994) and G. Stephenson (2002).

Stuart or Stewart, Robert, 1st duke of Albany, 1340?-1420, regent of Scotland; third son of Robert II. As earl of Fife and Monteith, he held commands under his father and more than once raided England, leading the invasion of 1388. Because of his father's old age he was given the power of government in 1389; he continued it during the reign of Robert III, his infirm brother. Made duke of Albany in 1398, in 1399 he was forced to give up the regency to his nephew, David Stuart, duke of Rothesay. Rothesay died (1402) in the custody of Albany and Archibald Douglas, 4th earl of Douglas, both of whom were officially declared guiltless of his death. Albany became governor or warden again and continued in that position after Robert III's death because the new king, James I, was a prisoner in England. During Albany's rule the struggle with England went on, and the Scottish alliance with France was continued. At home he allowed the nobles much power but put down (1411) a rebellion of Donald MacDonald, lord of the Isles. Apparently Albany tried to make his sovereignty hereditary in all but name, and he was succeeded as regent by his son Murdoch, 2d duke of Albany. The latter proved a weak ruler, however, and was executed (1425) after James I's return to Scotland.
Stuart, Robert, 1785-1843, American explorer, b. Scotland. He emigrated (1807) to Canada and became a fur trader. He joined in John Jacob Astor's Astoria venture, and in 1812 he led the overland party east. This party was the first known to have used the South Pass and to have followed the main route of the Oregon Trail. Later, as a partner in the American Fur Company, he directed trade around Mackinac, and he also did much for the development of Michigan.

See P. A. Rollins, ed., The Discovery of the Oregon Trail (1935, repr. 1972); K. A. Spaulding, ed., On the Oregon Trail (1953).

Goldwater, Robert, 1907-73, American art historian, b. New York City. Goldwater taught at Queens College, N.Y., from 1934 to 1957, when he was appointed professor of fine arts at New York Univ. The same year he also became the director of the Museum of Primitive Art, New York City. Known primarily for his work in African sculpture and modern art, he is the author of Primitivism in Modern Art (rev. ed. 1967), Rufino Tamayo (1947), Jacques Lipchitz (1954), Gauguin (1957), Sculpture from Africa (1963), and What Is Modern Sculpture? (1970).
Granjon, Robert, fl. 1545-88, French designer of type and printer. He began his work in Paris and afterward worked in Lyons, Antwerp, and Rome. The types that he designed and made included roman, italic, Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac. He is known especially for his caractères de civilité, based on a beautiful French handwriting and intended to take the place in France that italic type then held in Italy. The greater legibility of italic caused the Granjon style to fall into disuse. Printers who used types designed and made by Granjon included Christophe Plantin, of Antwerp.
Gray, Robert, 1755-1806, American sea captain, discoverer of the Columbia River, b. Tiverton, R.I. He probably served in the Continental navy in the American Revolution. In 1787 he and Capt. John Kendrick were sent by Boston merchants to the northwest coast of North America with two vessels, the Columbia Rediviva and the sloop Lady Washington. In 1789, Gray was transferred to command of the Columbia, took a rich cargo of sea otter skins to Guangzhou, and in 1790 returned to Boston, the first American to circumnavigate the globe. In 1791 he went back to the Northwest coast and wintered there. On May 11, 1792, he took the Columbia past the dangerous bar and up the river later named after the ship. Though Spanish and English navigators had been familiar with the bar at the Columbia's mouth, Gray was the first to enter the river itself.
Bresson, Robert, 1901-99, French film director and scriptwriter, b. Bromont-Lamottie, France. Bresson's films tend to be austere, unadorned, and concerned more with intellectual and spriritual values than plot or character. He evinced a unique aesthetic and spiritual approach to cinema in the 13 films he made during the course of 40 years. Bresson attempted to avoid the theatrical, preferring to use nonprofessional actors in scripts with a minimum of dialogue and creating images of nearly abstract simplicity. His films include Les Dames du Bois de Bologne (1944), The Diary of a Country Priest (1950), A Man Escaped (1956), Pickpocket (1959), The Trial of Joan of Arc (1965), Au Hasard, Balthazar (1966), Mouchette (1966), Lancelot of the Lake (1974), and Money (1983).

See The Films of Robert Bresson (ed. by I. Cameron, 1970).

Dudley, Robert: see Leicester, Robert Dudley, earl of.
Duncan, Robert, 1919-88, American poet, b. Oakland, Calif. He was a leading poet of the San Francisco renaissance during the late 1940s. His lyric style contains private allusions, gaps in syntax, and individualistic spellings. Among his themes are the search for love and the decline of faith in the supernatural. His volumes of poetry include The Opening of the Field (1960), Bending the Bow (1968), Derivations (1970), Groundwork I: Before the War (1984), and Groundwork II: In the Dark (1987).

See study ed. by R. Bertholf and I. Reid (1979).

Robert, Henry Martyn, 1837-1923, American military engineer, b. Robertville, S.C., grad. West Point, 1857. He is best known as the author of a book on parliamentary law, Pocket Manual of Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies (1876), of which a revision appeared in 1915 as Robert's Rules of Order Revised. In the Civil War, Robert was assigned to the engineers and worked on the defenses of Washington, Philadelphia, and the New England coast. Almost continuously from 1867 until 1895 he was in charge of river, harbor, and coast improvements along the Pacific and Gulf coasts, on the Great Lakes, and on Long Island Sound. In 1901 he was appointed brigadier general, chief of engineers; soon afterward he retired.
Robert, Hubert, 1733-1808, French painter and landscape architect. A follower of Piranesi and Pannini, Robert was known as a painter of idealized landscapes, fantastic ruins, and vistas of city plazas and parks. His decorations for the Château of Fontainebleau (1787) are now in the Louvre. Robert was one of the first curators of painting at the Louvre and a draftsman for the gardens at Versailles. Imprisoned during the French Revolution, he escaped death when another man of the same name went to the guillotine in his place. He later died in obscurity.
Robert, Léopold, 1794-1835, French genre painter, b. Switzerland; pupil of J. L. David. He excelled in depicting Italian folk life in a classical style. His two best-known paintings, Pilgrimage of the Madonna of the Arc and Harvesters in the Pontine Marshes, are in the Louvre.
Rogers, Robert, 1731-95, American frontiersman, b. Methuen, Mass. As a child he moved with his family to the New Hampshire frontier. In King George's War (1744-48) he served briefly as a scout. In the last of the French and Indian Wars he was appointed (1758) major in command of all rangers. Rogers led (1759) his men in a daring expedition that resulted in the destruction of the Native Americans of the Saint Francis branch of the Abnaki. In 1760 he was sent to receive the submission of the French posts on the Great Lakes, and in 1763 he served on the expedition to defend Fort Detroit, which was threatened by Pontiac's Rebellion. His many exploits made him a popular hero, but his participation in illicit trade with the Native Americans brought him into official disgrace. He went (1765) to England to obtain pay for his service. There he was much feted, and his Journals and A Concise Account of North America were published in 1765. He also wrote a crude play, Ponteach (1766), important primarily as an early American drama. Successful in securing an appointment as commander of the post at Mackinac, he returned to the Northwest. His career there has been the subject of much speculation and discussion. Rogers, who was ambitious to find the Northwest Passage, sent out the mysterious expedition of Jonathan Carver to the Northwest, quarreled with his associates, was accused of plotting to set up an independent state, and was arrested on charges of treasonable dealings with the French. Brought to Montreal in chains and court-martialed, he was acquitted of all charges. He went (1769) to England but returned (1775) to America and played such an equivocal role at the beginning of the American Revolution that he was imprisoned as a Loyalist spy. He escaped and openly joined the Loyalists, but his record in the war was anything but distinguished. In 1780 he returned to England, dying there in 1795 in obscurity.

See his play, Ponteach, ed. with a biographical account by A. Nevins (1914, repr. 1973); his journals, ed. by F. B. Hough (1883, repr. 1966); biography by J. R. Cuneo (1959).

Calef, Robert, 1648-1719, known primarily as author of More Wonders of the Invisible World (1700). A Boston cloth merchant, probably born in England, he bitterly attacked Cotton Mather for his part in the Salem, Mass., witchcraft trials. The book, published in London because Boston printers would not accept it, generally condemned the view of witchcraft then prevailing and had a salutary effect throughout New England. It is reprinted in S. G. Drake, comp., The Witchcraft Delusion in New England (3 vol., 1866, repr. 1970).
Owen, Robert, 1771-1858, British social reformer and socialist, pioneer in the cooperative movement. The son of a saddler, he had little formal education but was a zealous reader. At the age of 10 he began working in the textile business and by 1794 had become a successful cotton manufacturer in Manchester.

In 1800, Owen moved to New Lanark, Scotland, where he had bought, with others, the mills of David Dale (whose daughter he married). There he reconstructed the community into a model industrial town with good housing and sanitation, nonprofit stores, schools, and excellent working conditions. Mill profits increased. The New Lanark experiment became famous in England and abroad, and Owen's ideas spread. He instigated the reform that resulted in the passage of the Factory Act of 1819—a watered down version of his proposals, but still a landmark in social reform. He also proposed the formation of self-sufficient cooperative agricultural-industrial communities. One such community, called New Harmony, was established (1825) in Indiana but failed after numerous disagreements among its members.

Professing a disbelief in religion (1817) and calling for the transformation of society rather than its reform (1820), Owen gradually lost much of his former upper-class support but was embraced by the working classes. After his return (1829) from the United States he became involved in the trade union movement and advocated the merging of unions with cooperative societies. Soon, however, the government took repressive action, and many workers responded by proclaiming the need for class struggle. Believing in the peaceful reordering of society, Owen ended his association with trade unionism and spent the last 25 years of his life writing and lecturing on his beliefs on education, marriage, and religion. Throughout his life Owen based his social programs on the idea that individual character is molded by environment and can be improved in a society based upon cooperation. Chief among his extensive writings are New View of Society; or, Essays on the Formation of Character (3 vol., 1813-14), Report to the County of Lanark (1821), and his autobiography (1857-58, repr. 1970).

See biographies by F. Podmore (1907, repr. 1971), G. D. H. Cole (3d ed. 1966), R. H. Harvey (1949), and M. I. Cole (1953, repr. 1969); studies by A. Morton (1962); J. Butts, ed. (1971), and R. G. Garnett (1973).

Erskine, Robert, 1735-80, geographer and surveyor general to the American Revolutionary army, b. Dunfermline, Scotland. His several hundred detailed maps of the region W of the Hudson River, showing roads, buildings, and other details, were of much use to Gen. George Washington and remain historically valuable.
Smillie, Robert, 1857-1940, British labor official, b. Belfast, Ireland, of Scottish parents. He was president of the Scottish Miners' Federation from 1894 to 1918 and from 1921 until his death, and as president (1912-21) of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain he led the coal miners' strike of 1912. For many years he advocated the nationalization of mines. He served as a Labour member of Parliament from 1923 to 1929.

See his autobiography, My Life for Labour (1924).

Smith, Robert, 1757-1842, U.S. government official, b. Lancaster, Pa. Admitted to the bar in 1786, he practiced law in Baltimore before serving in the Maryland state senate (1793-95) and in the Baltimore city council (1798-1801). An ardent Republican, he was (1801-9) secretary of the navy under President Thomas Jefferson. Smith successfully maintained a blockading squadron in the Mediterranean during the war against the Barbary states. He also served (1809-11) as secretary of state under President James Madison but resigned at Madison's request because of disagreements over policy toward Great Britain and France.
Smithson, Robert, 1938-73, American sculptor, b. Passaic, N.J. After first making modular, serial sculpture, Smithson began to design large-scale earthworks (see land art) in the 1960s. Smithson reshaped the landscape in a way that recalled both the forces of nature and ancient archaeological sites. His major works in this mode include the Spiral Jetty (1970; Great Salt Lake, Utah) and Broken Circle and Spiral Hill (both 1971; in a quarry in Holland). His work is represented in the Whitney Museum and the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Smithson died in an airplane crash while overseeing one of his earthworks.

See Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings (1996, ed. by J. Flam); Robert Smithson (2004), comprehensive retrospective ed. by E. Tsai; studies by R. C. Hobbs (1981 and 1983), E. Tsai (1991), G. Shapiro (1995), A. Reynolds (2003), R. Graziani (2004), and J. L. Roberts (2004).

Smythson, Robert, 1536?-1614, English architect of the Elizabethan era. From 1568, Smythson was freemason to John Thynne in finishing (1567-75) the country house Longleat, Wiltshire. Striking in its symmetry, its outward-looking plan, and its numerous and large windows, it revealed a new concept of domestic design, showing admirably refined use of classical detail. His chief work was Wollaton Hall, Nottinghamshire (1580-88). Although he followed the pattern of Sebastiano Serlio and other Renaissance continental architects, he was ingenious in his adaptations.
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929, American painter and teacher, b. Cincinnati as Robert Henry Cozad. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In 1888 he went to Paris, where he worked at Julian's and the Beaux-Arts until, dissatisfied with the schools, he set up his own studio. In 1891 he returned to Philadelphia. As a member of the group of artists known as the Eight, he participated in the rebellion against academic art. Henri became one of the foremost American art teachers. First in Philadelphia, then at the Chase School in New York City, at his own school (1909-12), and at the Art Students League he inspired his students with his dynamic concept of art. Opposed to the formalization of style, he viewed art as a medium to express life and especially humanity. Among his pupils were George Bellows, Rockwell Kent, and Edward Hopper. In his own work, Henri excelled in dramatic portraits. Characteristic are his Spanish Gypsy (Metropolitan Mus.); Young Woman in Black, Himself, and Herself (Art Inst., Chicago); and Girl with a Fan (Pennsylvania Acad. of the Fine Arts).

See his Art Spirit (1960); study by W. I. Homer (1969).

Henryson, Robert, c.1425-c.1506, Scottish poet. It is thought that he was a schoolmaster at Dunfermline Abbey. His principal poem is The Testament of Cresseid, which was written as a harshly moral epilogue to Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. In Henryson's version the heroine dies a destitute leper. Partly because of this poem, Henryson has been called a Scottish Chaucerian. That his temper is more Scottish than Chaucerian is shown by the dry, macabre humor of such pieces as the Moral Fables of Æsop. Other notable works include Orpheus and Eurydice and Robene and Makyne.

See edition of his work by H. H. Wood (rev. ed. 1958, repr. 1968); study by J. MacQueen (1967).

Herrick, Robert, 1591-1674, English poet, generally considered the greatest of the Cavalier poets. Although he was born in London, he spent most of his childhood in Hampton. In 1607 he became apprenticed to his uncle, jeweler to the king, and remained in London until 1613. He was graduated from Cambridge, and sometime before 1627 he took orders. In 1627 he was chaplain in the duke of Buckingham's disastrous expedition to the Isle of Ré. Two years later Herrick was given the country living of Dean Prior in Devonshire, remaining there until 1647, when he was ejected because of royalist sympathies. He was restored to his living in 1662 and remained there until his death. Herrick never married, and the many women mentioned in his poems are probably imaginary. The bulk of his work is contained in the Hesperides (1648), which when it first appeared included his sacred songs called Noble Numbers. He was a disciple of Ben Jonson and his lyrics show considerable classical influence, but his greatness rests on his simplicity, his sensuousness, his care for design and detail, and his management of words and rhythms. Among the best known of his lyrics are "The Night Piece, to Julia"; the song commencing "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may"; "Corinna's Going a-Maying"; "To Anthea"; "Cherry-ripe"; and "Upon Julia's Clothes." Among his sacred poems is the fine piece "His Litany to the Holy Spirit." Herrick also excelled in the writing of epigrams and epitaphs. His reputation declined after his death, but in the 19th cent. he was recognized as a great lyricist.

See edition of his poetical works by L. C. Martin (new ed. 1965); his memoirs, ed. by D. Aaron (1963); biography by G. W. Scott (1974); studies by F. Moorman (1910, repr. 1962), and R. B. Rollin (1966).

Herrick, Robert, 1868-1938, American novelist, b. Cambridge, Mass., grad. Harvard, 1890. He was professor of English at the Univ. of Chicago from 1893 to 1923. Herrick wrote realistic social novels about the conflict between professional and personal values in American capitalistic society. His works include The Common Lot (1904), The Memoirs of an American Citizen (1905), The Master of the Inn (1908), Together (1908), Clark's Field (1914), Waste (1924), Chimes (1926), and The End of Desire (1932).
Applegarth, Robert, 1834-1924, English trade union leader, a carpenter by trade. A charter member of the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners, he became in 1862 its general secretary. Under his leadership the society, with other unions, pressed the fight for legalization of unions and for protection of their funds. The fight was successfully concluded in 1871.

See biography by A. W. Humphrey (1913); J. Bowditch and C. Ramsland, Voices of the Industrial Revolution (1961).

Persons or Parsons, Robert, 1546-1610, English Jesuit missionary. He left a fellowship at Balliol College, Oxford, and went to the Continent to be received (1575) into the Roman Catholic Church, then entered the Society of Jesus and was ordained (1578). Active in the English College at Rome, Persons probably suggested the secret Jesuit mission that was sent to England. That mission (1580-81) to reestablish Roman Catholicism in England, which he undertook with Saint Edmund Campion, was the most notable event in Persons's career. When Campion was caught, Persons fled to the Continent, where he remained the rest of his life, trying to promote Catholicism in England by political schemes and by building up in France and Spain seminaries and monasteries for English Catholics. The school he founded at Eu was later transferred to Saint-Omer, and in 1794 it moved to Lancashire, England, where it became Stonyhurst College. Persons was rector of the English College from 1597 to 1610. Of his many works the best remembered is the devotional Book of Resolution; or, The Christian Directory (1582).
Coles, Robert, 1929-, American child psychiatrist, b. Boston, grad. Harvard (B.A., 1950), Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons (M.D., 1954). He began working with children while in the air force (1958-60). Coles has been affiliated with Harvard since 1960 and was named professor of psychiatry and medical humanities there in 1978. The author or editor of dozens of books, he is best known for his Children of Crisis (5 vol., 1967-78; Vol. 2-3, Pulitzer Prize), a searching and exhaustive study of American youth facing difficult life situations. In addition to his many works on the young, e.g., The Inner Life of Children (3 vol., 1986) and The Moral Intelligence of Children (1997), he has written literary criticism, e.g., Walker Percy: An American Search (1978); biographies, e.g., Dorothy Day: A Radical Devotion (1987); social commentary; books on photography; and hundreds of wide-ranging essays and articles. His many honors include the MacArthur Foundation "genius" award (1981) and the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1998).

See B. A. Ronda, Intellect and Spirit: The Life and Work of Robert Coles (1989); J. and S. C. Woodruff, ed., Conversations with Robert Coles (1992); study by S. Hilligoss (1997).

Koch, Robert, 1843-1910, German bacteriologist. He studied at Göttingen under Jacob Henle. As a country practitioner in Wollstein, Posen (now Wolsztyn, Poland), he devoted much time to microscopic studies of bacteria, for which he devised not only a method of staining with aniline dyes but also techniques of bacteriological culture still in general use. He established the bacterial cause of many infectious diseases and discovered the microorganisms causing anthrax (1876), wound infections (1878), tuberculosis (1882), conjunctivitis (1883), cholera (1884), and other diseases. He was professor at the Univ. of Berlin from 1885 to 1891 and head of the Institute for Infectious Diseases (founded for him) from 1891 to 1904. In the course of his bacteriological investigations for the British and German governments he traveled to South Africa, India, Egypt, and other countries and made valuable studies of sleeping sickness, malaria, bubonic plague, rinderpest, and other diseases. For his work in developing tuberculin as a test for tuberculosis he received the 1905 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Mitchum, Robert (Robert Charles Duran Mitchum), 1917-97, American film actor, b. Bridgeport, Conn. He found extra work and bit parts in early 1940s movies, and first achieved wide notice for his supporting role in The Story of G. I. Joe (1945). Mitchum became known for tough-guy roles in dramas where his easy nonchalance and sleepy-eyed handsomeness made him an ideal noir hero—or villain. He appeared in more than 125 films, starring in such movies as Out of the Past (1947), The Night of the Hunter (1955), The Sundowners (1960), Cape Fear (1962 and 1991), Ryan's Daughter (1971), Farewell, My Lovely (1975), The Big Sleep (1978), That Championship Season (1982), and Dead Man (1995). Late in his career Mitchum also became a television star with his performances in two World War II miniseries, The Winds of War (1983) and War and Remembrance (1988).

See his autobiography (1975), and Mitchum in His Own Words (2000); biographies by G. Eells (1984), D. Downing (1985), J. Mitchum (1989), J. Roberts (1992), and L. Server (2001); A. H. Marill, The Films of Robert Mitchum (1995).

Monckton, Robert, 1726-82, British general. After service in Flanders and Germany during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), he was sent (1752) to Nova Scotia, where he suppressed (1753) an insurrection of German settlers at Lunenburg. In 1755 he led a large force that took Fort Beauséjour and other forts from the French, establishing British control of Nova Scotia. He was made lieutenant governor of the colony and carried out the governor's orders in deporting the Acadians (see Acadia). He was second in command to James Wolfe in the campaign against Quebec (1759). In 1761 he was made governor of New York. He was commander of the land forces in Admiral George Rodney's expedition against Martinique (1761-62). He returned to England in 1763 and was succeeded as governor in 1765.
Bacon, Robert, 1860-1919, American banker and government official, b. Jamaica Plain, Mass. He embarked upon a career in business and in 1894 accepted a partnership with J. P. Morgan and Company. He participated in the formation (1901) of the U.S. Steel Corp. and the Northern Securities Company. Bacon later served (1905-9) as Assistant Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt, and was briefly (1909) Secretary of State. He was (1909-12) also ambassador to France. An outspoken proponent of U.S. entry into World War I, he served (1917-19) in the U.S. army. He wrote For Better Relations with Our Latin American Neighbors (1915).

See biography by J. B. Scott (1923).

Bakewell, Robert, 1725-95, English livestock breeder and agriculturist. He successfully bred livestock for meat rather than appearance, developing new breeds, which included the Leicester sheep and the Dishley, or New Leicestershire, longhorn cattle. He introduced the progeny test for selective breeding and also improved methods of housing stock, cultivating grass, and manuring.
Baldwin, Robert, 1804-58, Canadian statesman, leader of the movement for representative government in Canada, b. York (now Toronto), Ont. His father, William Warren Baldwin (1775-1844), was a leader of the Reform party and a supporter of the principle of responsible (i.e., cabinet) government in the colonies. In 1836, as a recognized leader of reform in Upper Canada, Robert Baldwin was appointed by Sir Francis Bond Head to the executive council, but he resigned in a few weeks when it became apparent that the governor had no intention of acceding to the demands of the reformers. In England, in 1836, Baldwin sent to the colonial secretary a memorandum that was the first clear enunciation of the tenet of responsible government for Canada. Shortly after his return to Canada in 1837, he served as mediator between Head and the rebels; as a moderate reformer, he had opposed the faction of William Lyon Mackenzie in the rebellion of that year. Again (1841) he hopefully accepted appointment to the executive council under Lord Sydenham, only to resign when the governor showed no disposition to grant responsible government. As a member of the assembly, Baldwin led the opposition group and increased his influence, particularly by effecting an alliance with the French in Lower Canada, whom Sydenham had ignored in forming his council. After the reunion of Upper and Lower Canada in 1841, Baldwin and Louis Hippolyte LaFontaine were allowed to form their first coalition government (1842) under Sir Charles Bagot. With Bagot's death and the arrival (1843) of Sir Charles Metcalfe as governor, the first Baldwin-LaFontaine government resigned, but in the elections of Dec., 1847, the reformers won an overwhelming vote. As a consequence, the second Baldwin-LaFontaine ministry (1847-51) was formed; it is often called "the great ministry." Outstanding among its accomplishments were the Municipal Corporations Act, commonly called the Baldwin Act, for the reformation of local government in Ontario; an act to revise the judicial system; and an act to transform King's College into the nonsectarian Univ. of Toronto (over the violent opposition of Bishop John Strachan).

See biography by G. E. Wilson (1933); S. Leacock, Mackenzie, Baldwin, LaFontaine, Hincks (rev. ed. 1926); R. W. Langstone, Responsible Government in Canada (1931).

Ker, Robert, earl of Somerset: see Somerset, Robert Carr, earl of.
Kett or Ket, Robert, d. 1549, English rebel. He led an agrarian revolt in 1549 as a protest against the enclosure of common land for sheep grazing. With 16,000 men he blockaded Norwich, but was defeated and executed.

(born April 10, 1917, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died July 8, 1979, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. chemist. He attended MIT and taught at Harvard University (1938–79). Recognizing that physical measurement revealed molecular structure better than chemical reaction, in 1940–42 he developed “Woodward's rules” for determining structure by ultraviolet spectroscopy. In 1945 his methods finally clarified the structure of penicillin and of many more complex natural products. He proposed the correct biosynthetic pathway of steroid hormones. He was the most accomplished synthesist of complex organic compounds, including quinine (1944) and vitamin B12 (1971, in more than 100 reactions), a task that led to the fundamental concept of conservation of orbital symmetry. He received a 1965 Nobel Prize, and in 1963 the new Woodward Research Institute in Basel, Switz., was named for him.

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(born Jan. 10, 1936, Houston, Texas, U.S.) U.S. radio astronomer. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1963 and headed its Radio Physics Research Department (1976–94). With his colleague Arno Penzias, he detected the cosmic background radiation, a discovery for which the two men shared a 1978 Nobel Prize (with Pyotr Kapitsa [1894–1984], who was honoured for research unrelated to theirs).

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(born April 24, 1905, Guthrie, Ky., U.S.—died Sept. 15, 1989, Stratton, Vt.) U.S. novelist, poet, and critic. Warren attended Vanderbilt University, where he joined the Fugitives, a group of poets who advocated the agrarian way of life in the South. Later he taught at several colleges and universities and helped found and edit The Southern Review (1935–42), possibly the most influential American literary magazine of the time. His writings often treat moral dilemmas in a South beset by the erosion of its traditional rural values. His best-known novel is All the King's Men (1946, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1949). The short-story volume The Circus in the Attic (1948) contains the notable “Blackberry Winter.” He won Pulitzer prizes for poetry in 1958 and 1979 and became the first U.S. poet laureate in 1986.

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Robert Walpole, detail of an oil painting by Sir Godfrey Kneller, c. 1710–15; in the National elipsis

(born Aug. 26, 1676, Houghton Hall, Norfolk, Eng.—died March 18, 1745, London) English statesman generally regarded as the first British prime minister. Elected to the House of Commons in 1701, he became an active Whig parliamentarian. He served as secretary at war (1708–10) and as treasurer of the navy (1710–11). He was also a member of the Kit-Cat Club. The Tory government sought to remove his influence by impeaching him for corruption, and he was expelled from the Commons in 1712. With the accession of George I (1714), he regained his position and rose rapidly to become first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the Exchequer (1715–17, 1721–42). Although associated with the South Sea Bubble scandal, he restored confidence in the government and maintained the Whigs in office. He cultivated the support of George II from 1727 and used royal patronage for political ends, skillfully managing the House of Commons to win support for his trade and fiscal programs, including the sinking fund. With his consolidation of power, he effectively became the first British prime minister. He avoided foreign entanglements and kept England neutral until 1739 but was forced into the War of Jenkins' Ear. He resigned under pressure in 1742 and was created an earl. His acclaimed art collection, sold to Russia in 1779, became part of the Hermitage Museum collection.

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(born June 8, 1877, Nastätten, Hesse-Nassau, Ger.—died May 4, 1953, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. politician. He immigrated with his family to New York City in 1885. He became active in Democratic Party politics, serving in the state legislature (1904–19) and as a justice of the state court of appeals (1919–26). In the U.S. Senate (1927–49), he became an ally of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt and introduced New Deal labour and social-reform legislation, including the National Industrial Recovery Act (1933), the National Labor Relations Act (known as the Wagner Act), and the Social Security Act. He cosponsored the Wagner-Steagall Act (1937), which created the U.S. Housing Authority. His son, Robert F. Wagner, Jr. (1910–91), served as mayor of New York (1954–65).

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(born June 25, 1925, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. architect. He studied at Princeton University and in Rome at the American Academy. After working with Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn, he formed a partnership with his wife, Denise Scott Brown, and John Rauch. His philosophy, set forth in the influential books Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966) and Learning from Las Vegas (1972), called for openness to the multiple influences of historical tradition, ordinary commercial architecture, and Pop art. He had such a profound impact on younger architects who were beginning to find similar constraints and limitations in the Modernist architectural aesthetic, that he became the unofficial dean of the postmodern movement in architecture. His buildings often exhibit ironic humour. Important commissions include buildings for Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania, the Seattle Art Museum (1985–91), and the Sainsbury Wing of London's National Gallery (1986–91). He won the 1991 Pritzker Architecture Prize.

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(born Dec. 20, 1901, Tuscaloosa, Ala., U.S.—died Jan. 16, 1967, Boston, Mass.) U.S. physicist. He worked as an engineer, then as a physics researcher at the University of Oxford (1925–29). From 1931 he continued his research at MIT, as a professor (1934–60). He developed a high-voltage electrostatic generator (later called the Van de Graaff generator) that served as a type of particle accelerator. In 1946 he cofounded the High Voltage Engineering Corp. to manufacture his accelerator. Widely used in atomic research, the device was also adapted to produce high-energy X rays for medical and industrial uses.

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(born Feb. 14/17, 1766, Rookery, near Dorking, Surrey, Eng.—died Dec. 23, 1834, St. Catherine, near Bath, Somerset) British economist and demographer. Born into a prosperous family, he studied at the University of Cambridge and was elected a fellow of Jesus College in 1793. In 1798 he published An Essay on the Principle of Population, in which he argued that population will always tend to outrun the food supply—that the increase of population will take place, if unchecked, in a geometrical progression, while the means of subsistence will increase only in an arithmetical progression. He believed population would expand to the limit of subsistence and would be held there by famine, war, and ill health. He enlarged on his ideas in later editions of his work (to 1826). He argued that relief measures for the poor should be strictly limited since they tended to encourage the growth of excess population. His theories, though largely disproven, had great influence on contemporary social policy and on such economists as David Ricardo.

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(born Dec. 8, 1947, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. biochemist, molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate. He received his Ph.D. from UC-Berkeley in 1975. In 1982 he became the first to show that an RNA molecule could catalyze a chemical reaction. He and Sidney Altman were awarded a 1989 Nobel Prize for their independent discoveries that RNA, previously thought to be only a messenger of genetic information, can also catalyze cellular chemical reactions essential to life.

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(born Sept. 8, 1889, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—died July 31, 1953, New York, N.Y.) U.S. politician. The son of William H. Taft, he served in the Ohio legislature before being elected to the U.S. Senate (1939–53). He became known as a strong advocate of traditional conservativism and earned the nickname “Mr. Republican.” He opposed centralizing power in the federal government and cosponsored the Taft-Hartley Act to restrict organized labour. An isolationist, he opposed U.S. involvement in postwar international organizations. He was a favourite-son candidate for president at Republican Party national conventions, especially in 1948 and 1952, but internationalists in the party opposed his conservative views. After the election of Dwight Eisenhower, Taft became Senate majority leader and Eisenhower's chief adviser in the Senate.

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(born May 17, 1805, The Riding, Northumberland, Eng.—died March 16, 1864, Brighton, Sussex) English novelist. Passionately addicted to riding to hounds from his youth, Surtees devoted nearly all his writings to horses and riding. In 1831 he launched New Sporting Magazine. His famous comic character Mr. Jorrocks, a blunt Cockney grocer entirely given over to fox hunting, appeared in Jorrocks's Jaunts and Jollities (1838), Handley Cross (1843), and Hillingdon Hall (1845). Among his other novels, which also portray the boredom, ill manners, discomfort, and coarse food of English provincial life, are Hawbuck Grange (1847) and Mr. Facey Romford's Hounds (1865).

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(born Aug. 21, 1937, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. novelist. He served in the U.S. Navy before attending New York and Stanford universities. Dog Soldiers (1974, National Book Award), his second novel, brought home the corruption of the Vietnam War. His later works include the novels A Flag for Sunrise (1981), Outerbridge Reach (1992), and Damascus Gate (1998) and the short-story collection Bear and His Daughter (1997).

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(born Aug. 20, 1795, Princeton, N.J., U.S.—died Oct. 7, 1866, Princeton) U.S. naval officer. He joined the U.S. navy and rose to the rank of commander (1838). When the Mexican War broke out, he took command of U.S. land and naval forces in present-day California and proceeded to capture Los Angeles, a Mexican stronghold, on Aug. 13, 1846. Four days later, he set up a civil government and formally annexed California to the U.S., naming himself governor. Along with Col. Stephen Kearny and his troops he defeated an uprising by native Mexicans and ceded the entire province to the U.S. In 1850 he resigned from the navy and was elected to the U.S. Senate. Stockton, Calif., is named in his honour.

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Robert Louis Stevenson.

(born Nov. 13, 1850, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Dec. 3, 1894, Vailima, Samoa) Scottish essayist, novelist, and poet. He prepared for a law career but never practiced. He traveled frequently, partly in search of better climates for his tuberculosis, which would eventually cause his death at age 44. He became known for accounts such as Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes (1879) and essays in periodicals, first collected in Virginibus Puerisque (1881). His immensely popular novels Treasure Island (1883), Kidnapped (1886), and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886), and The Master of Ballantrae (1889) were written over the course of a few years. A Child's Garden of Verses (1885) is one of the most influential children's works of the 19th century. In his last years he lived in Samoa and produced works moving toward a new maturity, including the story “The Beach of Falesá” (1892) and the novel Weir of Hermiston (1896), his unfinished masterpiece.

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(born Aug. 12, 1774, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died March 21, 1843, Keswick, Cumberland) English poet and prose writer. In youth Southey ardently embraced the ideals of the French Revolution, as did Samuel Taylor Coleridge, with whom he was associated from 1794. Like Coleridge, he gradually became more conservative. About 1799 he devoted himself to writing; later he was obliged to produce unremittingly to support both his and Coleridge's family. In 1813 he was appointed poet laureate. His poetry is now little read, but his prose style is masterly in its ease and clarity, as seen in such works as Life of Nelson (1813), Life of Wesley (1820), and The Doctor (1834–47), a fantastic, rambling miscellany.

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(born Aug. 23, 1924, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. economist. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University and began teaching at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1949. Solow developed a mathematical model that could show the relative contributions of various factors to sustained national economic growth. He demonstrated that, contrary to traditional economic thinking, the rate of technological progress is more important to growth than capital accumulation or increases in labour. From the 1960s on, his studies were influential in persuading governments to invest in technological research and development. In 1987 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences.

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(born June 26, 1854, Grand Pré, Nova Scotia—died June 10, 1937, Ottawa, Ont., Can.) Prime minister of Canada (1911–20). He practiced law in Halifax, Nova Scotia, from 1874 and later founded one of the largest law firms in the Maritime Provinces. In 1896 he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons; he became leader of the Conservative Party in 1901. As prime minister, he implemented conscription in World War I and represented Canada in Britain's imperial war cabinet. He insisted on separate Canadian membership in the League of Nations, which helped transform Canada from a colony to an independent country.

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(born Dec. 20, 1894, Jeparit, Victoria. Austl.—died May 16, 1978, Melbourne) Australian statesman and prime minister (1939–41, 1949–66). A successful lawyer, he served as Australia's attorney general (1934–39). Leader of the United Australia Party, he served as prime minister (1939–41). He organized the Liberal Party in 1944 and again became premier in 1949. In the 1950s he fostered industrial growth in Australia and immigration from Europe. He strengthened military ties with the U.S. and encouraged the ANZUS Pact and Australia's membership in the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. He retired in 1966 after the longest ministry in Australian history.

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(born April 4, 1896, New Rochelle, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 14, 1955, New York, N.Y.) U.S. playwright. Sherwood was a magazine editor in New York City and a member of the Algonquin Round Table, the centre of a New York literary coterie. He examined the pointlessness of war in his first play, The Road to Rome (1927). Idiot's Delight (1936), Abe Lincoln in Illinois (1938), and There Shall Be No Night (1940) won Pulitzer prizes. In 1938 he cofounded the Playwrights' Company, which became a major producing company. During World War II he wrote speeches for Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt and headed the overseas branch of the Office of War Information (1941–44). His book Roosevelt and Hopkins (1948) won a Pulitzer Prize. Many of his plays were adapted for film; his original screenplays include The Best Years of Our Lives (1946, Academy Award).

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(born Jan. 16, 1874, Preston, Lancashire, Eng.—died Sept. 11, 1958, Lancieux, France) English-born Canadian popular verse writer. He immigrated to Canada in 1894 and lived eight years in the Yukon. His Songs of a Sourdough (1907) and Ballads of a Cheechako (1909), about life in the “frozen North,” were enormously popular. He became known as “the Canadian Kipling” with such rollicking ballads as “The Shooting of Dan McGrew” and “The Cremation of Sam McGee”. His other works include the novel The Trail of '98 (1910) and Rhymes of a Red Cross Man (1916).

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(born June 6, 1868, Devonport, Devon, Eng.—died circa March 29, 1912, Antarctica) British explorer. He joined the Royal Navy in 1880, proved his competence leading an Antarctic expedition (1901–04), and was promoted to captain. In 1910 he embarked on a second expedition, and in October 1911 he and 11 others started overland for the South Pole. After their motor sledges broke down and seven men returned to base camp, Scott and four others trekked for 81 days to reach the pole in January 1912, only to find that Roald Amundsen had preceded them by about a month. Exhausted and beset by bad weather and insufficient supplies, the men died on the return trip, Scott and the last two survivors only 11 miles from their base camp. In England Scott was celebrated as a national hero for his courage, though his judgment has been questioned.

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(born June 8, 1810, Zwickau, Saxony—died July 29, 1856, Endenich, near Bonn, Prussia) German composer. Son of a bookseller, he considered becoming a novelist. Under family pressure he reluctantly entered law school, but he devoted his time to song composition and piano lessons. An injury to one of his fingers put an end to his hopes of a career as a virtuoso and confined him to composition. He embarked upon a prolific period, writing piano pieces and founding, in 1834, the New Journal for Music. His works from this fertile period include Papillons, Carnaval (both 1833–35), and Davidsbündlertänze (1837). He married the pianist Clara Wieck in 1840. That year he returned to the field of the solo song; in the span of 11 months he composed nearly all the songs on which much of his reputation rests, such as the song cycles Dichterliebe and Frauenliebe und Leben. The next year he widened his scope to orchestral music, producing Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 4, and his piano concerto; in 1842 he concentrated on chamber music. In his last productive years, he turned to dramatic or semidramatic works. His mental deterioration (probably associated with both syphilis and a family history of mental illness) accelerated; in 1854 he was placed in a sanatorium, where he died two years later.

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(born June 29, 1886, Luxembourg—died Sept. 4, 1963, Metz, France) French statesman. He was a member of the French National Assembly from 1919. After working in the French Resistance in World War II, he helped found the Popular Republican Movement. He served as finance minister (1946), premier (1947–48), foreign minister (1948–52), and minister of justice (1955–56). In 1950 he proposed the Schuman Plan to promote European economic and military unity, which led to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community (EEC). He served as president of the EEC's consultative assembly (1958–60).

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Italian Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino

(born Oct. 4, 1542, Monrepulciano, Tuscany—died Sept. 17, 1621, Rome; canonized 1930; feast day September 17) Italian cardinal and theologian. He joined the Jesuits in 1560, and after ordination in the Spanish Netherlands (1570) he began to teach theology. He was made a cardinal in 1599 and an archbishop in 1602. He took a prominent part in the first examination of Galileo's writings; though somewhat sympathetic to Galileo, he thought it best to have the Copernican system declared “false and erroneous,” which was done in 1616. He gave impartial attention to Protestant works and was regarded as an enlightened theologian. He died a pauper, having given all his funds to the poor. In 1931 he was named a Doctor of the Church.

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(born Nov. 7, 1731, Methuen, Mass.—died May 18, 1795, London, Eng.) American frontier soldier. He raised and commanded a militia called Rogers's Rangers, which earned fame in the French and Indian War and in Pontiac's War. He led the first English exploration of the upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes region (1766) but failed to reach the Pacific Ocean, his intended goal. In the American Revolution he was regarded as a loyalist spy; imprisoned by George Washington, he escaped to organize the Queen's Rangers, which he led in operations around New York. Defeated in 1780, he fled to England.

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known as Robert the Bruce

(born July 11, 1274—died June 7, 1329, Cardross, Dumbartonshire, Scot.) King of Scotland (1306–29). Though Robert was of Anglo-Norman ancestry and held lands in both England and Scotland, he sided with the Scots against England and supported the rebel William Wallace. He gained the Scottish throne in 1306 after stabbing a rival to death in a quarrel. Twice defeated by Edward I (1306), he became a fugitive, hiding on a remote island off the Irish coast. Within a year, Robert returned to Scotland and began gathering supporters, and in 1314 he defeated Edward II at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward III finally recognized him and confirmed Scottish independence in 1328.

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(born Nov. 10, 1791, Colleton District, S.C., U.S.—died Sept. 24, 1839, Asheville, N.C.) U.S. politician. In 1823 he entered the U.S. Senate, where he became a spokesman for the South and the doctrine of states' rights. In his famous 1830 debate with Daniel Webster on the Constitution, he argued that the federal Constitution was a compact among the states and that any state might nullify a federal law that it considered in violation of the constitutional compact (see nullification). At the South Carolina nullification convention in 1832, he developed an ordinance that declared federal tariff laws null and void in the state. Resigning from the Senate in 1832, he served as governor of South Carolina (1832–34) and as mayor of Charleston (1834–37).

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(born Jan. 10, 1936, Houston, Texas, U.S.) U.S. radio astronomer. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1963 and headed its Radio Physics Research Department (1976–94). With his colleague Arno Penzias, he detected the cosmic background radiation, a discovery for which the two men shared a 1978 Nobel Prize (with Pyotr Kapitsa [1894–1984], who was honoured for research unrelated to theirs).

Learn more about Wilson, Robert W(oodrow) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 16, 1874, Preston, Lancashire, Eng.—died Sept. 11, 1958, Lancieux, France) English-born Canadian popular verse writer. He immigrated to Canada in 1894 and lived eight years in the Yukon. His Songs of a Sourdough (1907) and Ballads of a Cheechako (1909), about life in the “frozen North,” were enormously popular. He became known as “the Canadian Kipling” with such rollicking ballads as “The Shooting of Dan McGrew” and “The Cremation of Sam McGee”. His other works include the novel The Trail of '98 (1910) and Rhymes of a Red Cross Man (1916).

Learn more about Service, Robert (William) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 31, 1811, Göttingen, Westphalia—died Aug. 16, 1899, Heidelberg, Baden) German chemist. With Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, he observed (circa 1859) that each element emits light of a characteristic wavelength, opening the field of spectrochemical analysis. They discovered several new elements (including helium, cesium, and rubidium) by spectroscopy. His only book discussed methods of measuring volumes of gases. He invented the carbon-zinc battery, grease-spot photometer (see photometry), filter pump, ice calorimeter, and vapour calorimeter. Though often credited with inventing the Bunsen burner, he seems to have made only a minor contribution to its development.

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in full Robert Tyre Jones, Jr.

Bobby Jones

(born March 17, 1902, Atlanta, Ga., U.S.—died Dec. 18, 1971, Atlanta) U.S. golfer. Jones won 13 major championships between 1923 and 1930, a feat unequaled until 1973. In 1930 he became the first golfer to achieve the grand-slam of his time—the British and U.S. Open and Amateur championships—after which he retired from competitive golf at the age of 28, having never become a professional. Jones helped establish the Masters Tournament, one of the four major tournaments that make up the modern grand-slam of golf (the other three being the British Open, the U.S. Open, and the PGA Championship).

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(born March 11, 1731, Boston, Mass.—died May 11, 1814, Boston, Mass., U.S.) U.S. jurist. A lawyer in his native Boston from 1757, he gained recognition as a prosecuting attorney in the murder trial of the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre. He was a member of the Continental Congress and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He also served as Massachusetts' first attorney general (1777–90) and as a judge in the state supreme court (1790–1804).

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(born June 9, 1916, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.) U.S. secretary of defense (1961–68). He graduated from the University of California at Berkeley (1937), earned a graduate degree at the Harvard Business School (1939), and later joined the Harvard faculty. He developed logistical and statistical systems for the military during World War II. After the war, he was one of the “Whiz Kids” hired to revitalize the Ford Motor Company, and in 1960 he became the first president of the company who was not a member of the Ford family. In 1961 he was appointed secretary of defense by John F. Kennedy. Though initially a supporter of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, by 1967 he advocated peace negotiations; his opposition to the bombing of North Vietnam caused him to lose influence with Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson. He resigned in 1968 to become president of the World Bank (1968–81).

Learn more about McNamara, Robert S(trange) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 12, 1774, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died March 21, 1843, Keswick, Cumberland) English poet and prose writer. In youth Southey ardently embraced the ideals of the French Revolution, as did Samuel Taylor Coleridge, with whom he was associated from 1794. Like Coleridge, he gradually became more conservative. About 1799 he devoted himself to writing; later he was obliged to produce unremittingly to support both his and Coleridge's family. In 1813 he was appointed poet laureate. His poetry is now little read, but his prose style is masterly in its ease and clarity, as seen in such works as Life of Nelson (1813), Life of Wesley (1820), and The Doctor (1834–47), a fantastic, rambling miscellany.

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(born May 17, 1805, The Riding, Northumberland, Eng.—died March 16, 1864, Brighton, Sussex) English novelist. Passionately addicted to riding to hounds from his youth, Surtees devoted nearly all his writings to horses and riding. In 1831 he launched New Sporting Magazine. His famous comic character Mr. Jorrocks, a blunt Cockney grocer entirely given over to fox hunting, appeared in Jorrocks's Jaunts and Jollities (1838), Handley Cross (1843), and Hillingdon Hall (1845). Among his other novels, which also portray the boredom, ill manners, discomfort, and coarse food of English provincial life, are Hawbuck Grange (1847) and Mr. Facey Romford's Hounds (1865).

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Robert Bridges, gold-point drawing by W. Strang; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born Oct. 23, 1844, Walmer, Kent, Eng.—died April 21, 1930, Boar's Hill, Oxford) English poet. He published several long poems and poetic dramas, but his reputation rests on the lyrics collected in Shorter Poems (1890, 1894), which reveal his mastery of prosody. His 1916 edition of the poetry of his friend Gerard Manley Hopkins rescued it from obscurity. He was poet laureate of England from 1913 until his death.

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(born June 29, 1886, Luxembourg—died Sept. 4, 1963, Metz, France) French statesman. He was a member of the French National Assembly from 1919. After working in the French Resistance in World War II, he helped found the Popular Republican Movement. He served as finance minister (1946), premier (1947–48), foreign minister (1948–52), and minister of justice (1955–56). In 1950 he proposed the Schuman Plan to promote European economic and military unity, which led to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community (EEC). He served as president of the EEC's consultative assembly (1958–60).

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known as Colonel McCormick

(born July 30, 1880, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died April 1, 1955, Wheaton, Ill.) U.S. newspaper editor and publisher. He was a grandnephew of Cyrus H. McCormick and grandson of Joseph Medill, editor and publisher of the Chicago Tribune. He was president of the Chicago Tribune Co. from 1911 and sole editor and publisher of the Tribune from 1925. Under his direction the paper achieved the largest circulation among U.S. standard-sized newspapers and led the world in newspaper advertising revenue. His idiosyncratic editorials made him the personification of reactionary journalism in the U.S.

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(born Nov. 7, 1731, Methuen, Mass.—died May 18, 1795, London, Eng.) American frontier soldier. He raised and commanded a militia called Rogers's Rangers, which earned fame in the French and Indian War and in Pontiac's War. He led the first English exploration of the upper Mississippi River and Great Lakes region (1766) but failed to reach the Pacific Ocean, his intended goal. In the American Revolution he was regarded as a loyalist spy; imprisoned by George Washington, he escaped to organize the Queen's Rangers, which he led in operations around New York. Defeated in 1780, he fled to England.

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orig. Milton Rauschenberg

(born Oct. 22, 1925, Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.—died May 12, 2008, Captiva Island, Fla.) U.S. painter and graphic artist. He studied under Josef Albers. His “combine” paintings of the 1950s, incorporating objects such as soda bottles, traffic barricades, and stuffed birds, anticipated the Pop art movement. In later work, he used silkscreen and other techniques to transfer images from commercial print media and his own photographs to canvas, reinforcing the images and unifying them compositionally with bold strokes of paint. His work has roots in Dada and the ready-mades of Marcel Duchamp.

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Robert R. Livingston, portrait by Charles Willson Peale, c. 1782; in Independence National elipsis

(born Nov. 27, 1746, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 26, 1813, Clermont, N.Y.) U.S. lawyer and diplomat. He served in the Continental Congress and helped draft the Declaration of Independence. As New York state's first chancellor (1777–1801), he administered the oath of office to Pres. George Washington (1789). From 1781 to 1783 he was U.S. secretary of foreign affairs. As minister to France from 1801 to 1804, he helped effect the Louisiana Purchase. In partnership with Robert Fulton, he later received a steamboat monopoly for New York waters; the first vessel to operate on the Hudson River (1807) was named the Clermont, after his ancestral home.

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(born April 24, 1905, Guthrie, Ky., U.S.—died Sept. 15, 1989, Stratton, Vt.) U.S. novelist, poet, and critic. Warren attended Vanderbilt University, where he joined the Fugitives, a group of poets who advocated the agrarian way of life in the South. Later he taught at several colleges and universities and helped found and edit The Southern Review (1935–42), possibly the most influential American literary magazine of the time. His writings often treat moral dilemmas in a South beset by the erosion of its traditional rural values. His best-known novel is All the King's Men (1946, Pulitzer Prize; film, 1949). The short-story volume The Circus in the Attic (1948) contains the notable “Blackberry Winter.” He won Pulitzer prizes for poetry in 1958 and 1979 and became the first U.S. poet laureate in 1986.

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(born May 14, 1771, Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales—died Nov. 17, 1858, Newtown) Welsh manufacturer and philanthropist. At his New Lanark cotton mills (Lanarkshire, Scot.), in partnership with Jeremy Bentham, he set up innovative social and industrial welfare programs, including improved housing and schools for young children. In A New View of Society (1813) he contended that character is wholly formed by one's environment. By 1817 his work had evolved into ideas presaging socialism and the cooperative movement, ideas he would spend much of his life preaching. He sponsored several experimental utopian communities of “Owenites” in Britain and the U.S., including one at New Harmony, Ind. (1825–28)—where Owen lost some 80percnt of his fortune—all of which proved short-lived. He strongly supported early labour unions, but opposition and repression swiftly dissolved them, and it was two generations before socialism again influenced unionism. He was the father of Robert Dale Owen.

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(born Nov. 16, 1938, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 2002, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. philosopher. He received a Ph.D. in philosophy at Princeton University in 1963 and taught at Harvard University from 1969 until his death. His best-known work, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), is a closely argued and highly original defense of the libertarian “minimal state” (a state whose powers are limited to those necessary to protect citizens against violence, theft, and fraud) and a critique of the social-democratic liberalism of his Harvard colleague John Rawls. Against anarchism, Nozick argued that the minimal state is justified because it would arise in a state of nature through transactions that would not violate anyone's natural rights (see natural law); against liberalism and ideologies farther left, he argued that no more than the minimal state is justified because any state with more extensive powers would violate the natural rights of its citizens. Nozick emphasized that the minimal state as he envisioned it could encompass smaller communities in which the central public authority would have more than minimal powers. Because each such community would be free to realize its own idea of the good society, the minimal state, according to Nozick, constitutes a “framework for utopia.”

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(born Dec. 12, 1927, Burlington, Iowa, U.S.—died June 3, 1990, Austin, Texas) U.S. engineer. He received a Ph.D. from MIT. In 1957 he launched Fairchild Semiconductor, one of the first electronics firms in what came to be called Silicon Valley. Simultaneously but independently, he and Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit computer chip in 1959. With his colleague Gordon Moore, he founded Intel Corporation. in 1968. In 1988 Noyce became president of Sematech, Inc., a research consortium formed and financed jointly by industry and the U.S. government to keep the U.S. semiconductor industry at the forefront of semiconductor manufacturing technology.

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Motherwell, photograph by Arnold Newman, 1959

(born Jan. 24, 1915, Aberdeen, Wash., U.S.—died July 16, 1991, Provincetown, Mass.) U.S. painter, writer, and teacher. He received an art scholarship at 11, but he earned degrees from Stanford and Harvard before deciding to become a serious painter. He espoused Abstract Expressionism from the beginning of his career, and his erudite writings were largely responsible for the intellectual tone of the movement. In his Elegy to the Spanish Republic painting series, begun in 1949 and continued over three decades, he developed a limited repertory of simple, serene black forms that were applied to the picture plane in a way that created a sense of slow, solemn movement. Though he worked in various styles, his reputation rests on his pioneering work as a founder and principal exponent of Abstract Expressionism.

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(born Dec. 18, 1888, New Haven, Conn., U.S.—died July 29, 1981, West Islip, N.Y.) U.S. public official. He began his long career in public service in New York City's bureau of municipal research. In 1919 Gov. Alfred E. Smith appointed him chief of staff of the New York state reconstruction commission and, in 1924, head of both the New York and Long Island state park commissions. For 40 years in these and related positions, Moses supervised the vast expansion of the park system and the construction of numerous roads, bridges, tunnels, and housing projects in and around the city, reshaping it on a grand scale in often controversial ways.

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(born April 17, 1882, Stornoway, Outer Hebrides, Scot.—died June 15, 1970, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. sociologist and political scientist. He taught at the University of Aberdeen and later at Canadian and U.S. universities, principally Columbia (1915–26). He believed in the compatibility of individualism and social organization and saw societies as evolving from highly communal states to states in which individual functions and group affiliations were extremely specialized. His works included The Modern State (1926), Leviathan and the People (1939), and The Web of Government (1947).

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(born Feb. 9, 1931, Kansas City, Mo., U.S.) U.S. artist. His first one-man exhibition of paintings was held in San Francisco in 1957. In 1960, while living in New York City, he began producing large, monochromatic geometric sculptures, groups of which he exhibited in specific spatial relationships. His work of this period greatly affected the Minimalist movement, which sought to reduce art to its essence by eliminating personal expression and historical allusion. From the late 1960s, however, Morris moved toward a more spontaneous, if anonymous, expressiveness. He experimented in a wide variety of forms, including the “happening”; “dispersal pieces,” in which materials were strewn in apparent randomness on the gallery floor; and environmental projects. His work of the 1970s showed a preoccupation with paradoxes of mental and physical imprisonment.

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(born Aug. 6, 1917, Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.—died July 1, 1997, Santa Barbara county, Calif.) U.S. film actor. Expelled from high school in New York City, he spent his teenage years wandering the country and working odd jobs. After joining an acting company in California, he made his screen debut in 1943, acting in several Hopalong Cassidy westerns. He won praise for his role in The Story of G.I. Joe (1945). With his trademark sleepy-eyed, tough-guy appearance, he usually played loners and villains, in movies (many of them B movies that have grown in critical esteem over time) such as Out of the Past (1947), The Lusty Men (1952), The Night of the Hunter (1955), Thunder Road (1958), Cape Fear (1962), The Friends of Eddie Coyle (1973), and Farewell, My Lovely (1975). In his later years, he starred in the television miniseries Winds of War (1983) and War and Remembrance (1988–89).

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(born Aug. 23, 1924, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. economist. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University and began teaching at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1949. Solow developed a mathematical model that could show the relative contributions of various factors to sustained national economic growth. He demonstrated that, contrary to traditional economic thinking, the rate of technological progress is more important to growth than capital accumulation or increases in labour. From the 1960s on, his studies were influential in persuading governments to invest in technological research and development. In 1987 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences.

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(born Jan. 17, 1899, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died May 17, 1977, Santa Barbara, Calif.) U.S. educator and foundation president. He attended Oberlin College and graduated from Yale University (A.B., 1921) and Yale Law School (LL.B., 1925), becoming dean of Yale Law School in 1927. At the University of Chicago as president (1929–45) and chancellor (1945–51), he encouraged liberal education based on the study of the great books of the Western tradition, deplored any tendency toward vocationalism, and dismantled the intercollegiate athletic program. Hutchins later headed various foundations, including the Ford Foundation. He served as chairman of the board of editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (1943–74) and edited the 54-volume Great Books of the Western World (1952). He expounded his views on education in Higher Learning in America (1936).

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(born June 14, 1855, Primrose, Wis., U.S.—died June 18, 1925, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. He served as a county district attorney in Wisconsin (1880–84) and in the U.S. House of Representatives (1885–91). Advocating progressive reforms, he was elected governor of Wisconsin (1901–06). In the U.S. Senate (1906–24), he sponsored bills to restrict the power of the railroad companies. He founded La Follette's Weekly (1909) to broaden his reform movement, and he led Republican opposition to the policies of Pres. William H. Taft. He opposed U.S. entrance into World War I and policies of Pres. Woodrow Wilson that favoured big business. After the war he worked vigorously to expose corruption in government, including in the Teapot Dome scandal. As the presidential candidate of the Progressive Party in the 1924 election, he won five million votes, one-sixth of the total national vote. He died the next year; his son Robert (1895–1953) held his Senate seat from 1925 until 1947, when he was defeated by Joseph McCarthy.

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(born Nov. 4, 1946, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 9, 1989, Boston, Mass.) U.S. photographer. He attended the Pratt Institute (1963–70). By the mid 1970s he was pursuing what were to remain his favourite subjects throughout his career: still lifes, flowers, portraits of friends and celebrities, and homoerotic explorations of the male body. His compositions were generally stark, with his combination of cold studio light and precise focus creating dramatic tonal contrasts. His muscular male models were generally framed against plain backdrops, sometimes engaged in sexual activity or posed with sadomasochistic props such as leather and chains. His clear, unflinching style challenged viewers to confront this imagery. Moreover, the combination of his choice of subject matter with the photographs' formal beauty and grounding in art-historical traditions created what many saw as a tension between pornography and art. A posthumous retrospective exhibition of his work in 1990, funded partly by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), stirred a debate about government subsidies of “obscene” art and provoked Congress to enact restrictions on future NEA grants.

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Robert Louis Stevenson.

(born Nov. 13, 1850, Edinburgh, Scot.—died Dec. 3, 1894, Vailima, Samoa) Scottish essayist, novelist, and poet. He prepared for a law career but never practiced. He traveled frequently, partly in search of better climates for his tuberculosis, which would eventually cause his death at age 44. He became known for accounts such as Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes (1879) and essays in periodicals, first collected in Virginibus Puerisque (1881). His immensely popular novels Treasure Island (1883), Kidnapped (1886), and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886), and The Master of Ballantrae (1889) were written over the course of a few years. A Child's Garden of Verses (1885) is one of the most influential children's works of the 19th century. In his last years he lived in Samoa and produced works moving toward a new maturity, including the story “The Beach of Falesá” (1892) and the novel Weir of Hermiston (1896), his unfinished masterpiece.

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Robert Frost, 1954.

(born March 26, 1874, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Jan. 29, 1963, Boston, Mass.) U.S. poet. Frost's family moved to New England early in his life. After stints at Dartmouth College and Harvard University and a difficult period as a teacher and farmer, he moved to England and published his first collections, A Boy's Will (1913) and North of Boston (1914). At the outbreak of war he returned to New England. He closely observed rural life and in his poetry endowed it with universal, even metaphysical, meaning, using colloquial language, familiar rhythms, and common symbols to express both its pastoral ideals and its dark complexities. His collections include New Hampshire (1923, Pulitzer Prize), Collected Poems (1930, Pulitzer Prize), A Further Range (1936, Pulitzer Prize), and A Witness Tree (1942, Pulitzer Prize). He was unique among American poets of the 20th century in simultaneously achieving wide popularity and deep critical admiration. Many of his poems, including “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” “Birches,” “The Death of the Hired Man,” “Dust of Snow,” “Fire and Ice,” and “Home Burial,” are widely anthologized.

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(born Dec. 11, 1843, Clausthal, Hannover—died May 27, 1910, Baden-Baden, Ger.) German physician. As the first to isolate the anthrax bacillus, observe its life cycle, and develop a preventive inoculation for it, he was the first to prove a causal relationship between a bacillus and a disease. He perfected pure-culture techniques, based on Louis Pasteur's concept. He isolated the tuberculosis organism and established its role in the disease (1882). In 1883 he discovered the causal organism for cholera and how it is transmitted and also developed a vaccination for rinderpest. Koch's postulates remain fundamental to pathology: the organism should always be found in sick animals and never in healthy ones; it must be grown in pure culture; the cultured organism must make a healthy animal sick; and it must be reisolated from the newly sick animal and recultured and still be the same. Awarded a Nobel Prize in 1905, he is considered a founder of bacteriology.

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orig. Meyer R. Schkolnick

(born July 4, 1910, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 23, 2003, New York, N.Y.) U.S. sociologist. After receiving a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1936, Merton taught there and at Tulane University before moving to Columbia University, where he was a professor from 1941 to 1979. His diverse interests included deviant behaviour, the sociology of science, and mass communications, and he generally advanced a functionalist approach to the study of society. He was awarded a National Medal of Science in 1994. Among his writings are Mass Persuasion (1946), Social Theory and Social Structure (1949), On the Shoulders of Giants (1965), and The Sociology of Science (1973). Seealso bureaucracy; functionalism.

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(born Feb. 16, 1884, Iron Mountain, Mich., U.S.—died July 23, 1951, Dummerston, Vt.) U.S. filmmaker, considered the father of the documentary. He grew up in remote northern Canada and later led explorations of the area (1910–16). He lived with the Eskimos for 16 months and filmed their way of life. His resulting film, Nanook of the North (1922), was an international success and established the model for the documentary film. His later documentaries include Moana (1926), Tabu (1931), Man of Aran (1934), The Land (1942), and Louisiana Story (1948).

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(born circa 1911, Hazlehurst, Miss., U.S.—died Aug. 16, 1938, near Greenwood, Miss.) U.S. blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter. Born to a sharecropping family, he learned harmonica and guitar, probably influenced by personal contact with Delta bluesmen such as Eddie “Son” House and Charley Patton. He traveled widely throughout the South and as far north as Chicago and New York City, playing at house parties, juke joints, and lumber camps. In 1936–37 he recorded songs by House and others, as well as originals such as “Me and the Devil Blues,” “Hellhound on My Trail,” and “Love in Vain.” He is said to have died, at age 27, after drinking strychnine-laced whiskey (possibly the work of a jealous husband) in a juke joint. His eerie falsetto and masterly slide guitar influenced many later blues and rock musicians.

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(born Dec. 20, 1901, Tuscaloosa, Ala., U.S.—died Jan. 16, 1967, Boston, Mass.) U.S. physicist. He worked as an engineer, then as a physics researcher at the University of Oxford (1925–29). From 1931 he continued his research at MIT, as a professor (1934–60). He developed a high-voltage electrostatic generator (later called the Van de Graaff generator) that served as a type of particle accelerator. In 1946 he cofounded the High Voltage Engineering Corp. to manufacture his accelerator. Widely used in atomic research, the device was also adapted to produce high-energy X rays for medical and industrial uses.

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orig. Robert Clark

(born Sept. 13, 1928, New Castle, Ind., U.S.) U.S. painter, sculptor, and graphic artist. After studies at the Art Institute of Chicago, he settled in New York City and became a leading exponent of Pop art. He achieved wide recognition for paintings and prints featuring geometric shapes emblazoned with lettering and vivid colours. In 1964 he collaborated with Andy Warhol on the film Eat and was commissioned to produce an EAT sign for the New York pavilion at the New York World's Fair. His most famous image, LOVE, first lettered on canvas in 1965, became a universal symbol for the hippie generation.

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orig. John Stewart, earl of Carrick

(born circa 1337—died April 4, 1406, Rothesay, Bute, Scot.) King of Scotland (1390–1406). After having ruled in the name of his father, Robert II, from 1384 to 1388, he assumed the throne in his own right on his father's death. Physically disabled by a kick from a horse in 1388, he was never the real ruler of Scotland. His brother Robert, earl of Fife, later duke of Albany, governed during Robert II's last years and continued to govern throughout Robert III's reign, except for three years when Robert III's eldest son, David, duke of Rothesay, took his place. Robert III's other son became James I.

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known as Robert Curthose

(born circa 1054—died February 1134, Cardiff, Wales) Duke of Normandy (1087–1106). The eldest son of William I, he was named heir to Normandy but rebelled twice (circa 1077, circa 1082). Robert was exiled to Italy but returned as duke on his father's death. He pawned Normandy to his brother William II and joined the First Crusade, in which he fought bravely and helped capture Jerusalem (1099). He led an unsuccessful invasion of England after Henry I became king (1100); Henry then invaded Normandy (1105–06) and captured Robert, who spent the rest of his life as a prisoner.

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(born Oct. 5, 1882, Worcester, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 10, 1945, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. inventor, regarded as the father of modern rocketry. He received his doctorate (1911) from Clark University, where he taught for much of his career. In laboratory work there, he proved that thrust and consequent propulsion can take place in a vacuum and was the first to develop a rocket engine using liquid propellants (static tested in 1925). In 1926 Goddard successfully launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket (gasoline and liquid oxygen) from a farm in Massachusetts. In 1935, having relocated his testing site to New Mexico, he was the first to send a liquid-fueled rocket faster than the speed of sound. He patented the first practical automatic steering apparatus for rockets, developed staged rockets designed to gain great altitudes, and developed the first rocket-fuel pumps, self-cooling rocket engines, and other components of a propulsion system designed for space exploration. Much of his work anticipated that of Wernher von Braun in Germany but was ignored by the U.S. government until after his death at the end of World War II.

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(born Feb. 13, 1892, Spring Creek, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 9, 1954, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He pleaded his first case while still a minor and was a lawyer by age 21. He became corporation counsel for Jamestown, N.Y. As general counsel for the U.S. Bureau of Internal Revenue (1934), he successfully prosecuted Andrew W. Mellon for income-tax evasion. He served as U.S. solicitor general (1938–39) and attorney general (1940–41). In 1941 he was appointed by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt to the U.S. Supreme Court, where he served until 1954. He infused his well-worded opinions with a blend of liberalism and nationalism. In 1945–46 he served as chief U.S. prosecutor in the Nürnberg trials.

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(born July 18, 1635, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, Eng.—died March 3, 1703, London) English physicist. From 1665 he taught at Oxford University. His achievements and theories were bewilderingly diverse. His important law of elasticity, known as Hooke's law (1660), states that the stretching of a solid is proportional to the force applied to it. He was one of the first to build and use a reflecting telescope. He suggested that Jupiter rotates on its axis, and his detailed sketches of Mars were later used to determine its rate of rotation. He suggested that a pendulum could be used to measure gravitation, and he attempted to show that the Earth and Moon follow an elliptical orbit around the Sun. He discovered diffraction and proposed the wave theory of light to explain it. He was one of the first proponents of the theory of evolution. He was the first to state in general that all matter expands when heated and that air is made up of particles separated from each other by relatively large distances. He invented a marine barometer, contributed improvements to clocks, the quadrant, and the universal joint, and anticipated the steam engine.

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Robert Herrick, detail of an engraving by W. Marshall, from the frontispiece to Hesperides, elipsis

(baptized Aug. 24, 1591, London, Eng.—died October 1674, Dean Prior, Devonshire) English poet. Educated at Cambridge and later ordained, he became known as a poet in the 1620s and by the end of that decade had become a country vicar in Devonshire. A disciple of Ben Jonson, he wrote classically influenced lyrics whose appeal is in their freshness and their perfection of form and style. The only book he published was Hesperides (1648), containing 1,400 poems, mostly short, many of them epigrams. He is best remembered for the line “Gather ye rosebuds while ye may.”

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orig. Robert Henry Cozad

(born June 25, 1865, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—died July 12, 1929, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He studied in Philadelphia and Paris, taught art in Philadelphia, and, after settling in New York City in 1900, became the leader of the young realist artists known as The Eight. He exhibited with The Eight in 1908 and later at the Armory Show (1913). As a portrait painter he demonstrated facile brushwork, lively colours, and an ability to catch fleeting gestures and expressions. He is best remembered as a teacher, principally at New York's Art Students League (1915–28), where he became one of the most influential art teachers in the U.S. and a powerful force in turning young artists away from academicism and toward the rich subject matter of modern city life. His belief in the artist as a social force led to the formation of the Ash Can school.

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(born circa 1015, Normandy—died July 17, 1085, near Cephalonia, Greece, Byzantine Empire) Norman adventurer and duke of Apulia (1059–85). Born into a family of Norman knights, he joined his brothers and half brothers in southern Italy, defeating the Byzantines, Lombards, and papacy (1053) and taking over Apulia. He allied with the papacy (1059), agreeing to oppose the Byzantines and expel the Arabs from Sicily. His brother Roger (later Roger I) helped him to conquer Sicily and Calabria, and he gained control of Salerno in 1076, making it the capital of his duchy. Robert made an abortive attempt to gain the Byzantine throne (1083) but returned to Italy to defend Pope Gregory VII from his enemies.

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(born circa 1175, Suffolk, Eng.—died Oct. 9, 1253, Buckden, Buckinghamshire) English bishop and scholar. He introduced Latin translations of Greek and Arabic writings in philosophy and science to Europe. After serving as chancellor of the University of Oxford (circa 1215–21), he served as first lecturer in theology to the Franciscans, whom he greatly influenced. As bishop of Lincoln from 1235, he promoted a belief in the importance of the cure of souls, a centralized, hierarchical view of the church, and a belief in the superiority of the church over the state.

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(born Feb. 21, 1924, Kutama, Southern Rhodesia) First prime minister (1980–87) and executive president (from 1987) of Zimbabwe. With Joshua Nkomo, Mugabe led a Marxist-inspired guerrilla war that forced the white-dominated government of Ian Smith to accept universal elections, which Mugabe's party, Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), easily won. He formed a coalition government with Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), but he removed Nkomo in 1982. In 1984 the two parties were merged as ZANU–Patriotic Front, as Mugabe moved to convert Zimbabwe from a parliamentary democracy into a one-party socialist state. His rule was marked by violence and intimidation and by a decreasing tolerance of political opposition.

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(born Nov. 14, 1765, Lancaster county, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 24, 1815, New York, N.Y.) U.S. inventor and engineer. Born to Irish immigrant parents, he studied painting with Benjamin West in London but soon turned to engineering. After designing a system of inland waterways, he tried unsuccessfully to interest the French and British governments in his prototypes of submarines (see Nautilus) and torpedoes. In 1801 he was commissioned by Robert R. Livingston to build a steamboat, and in 1807 Fulton's Clermont made the 150-mi (240-km) journey up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany in 32 hours, cutting 64 hours off the usual sailing time. It became the first commercially successful steamboat in the U.S. He later designed several other steamboats, including the world's first steam warship (1812). He was a member of the commission that recommended building the Erie Canal.

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orig. Robert Franz Knauth

(born June 28, 1815, Halle, Saxony—died Oct. 24, 1892, Halle, Ger.) German song composer. In 1842 he became director of the Singakademie of his native Halle and organized choral festivals there. He sent Robert Schumann a set of songs, which Schumann had published in 1843 without consulting Franz. Franz Liszt became another influential supporter and published his own book about Franz in 1872. By 1867 Franz had become almost completely deaf and was obliged to relinquish his posts, including his professorship at the University of Halle. He was mentally unstable in his later years, when honours were increasingly heaped upon him. His more than 300 songs are remarkable for their sensitive musical prosody; he is a significant figure in the history of the lied.

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(born Nov. 9, 1924, Zürich, Switz.) Swiss-born U.S. photographer. In the 1940s he worked as a fashion photographer for Harper's Bazaar in Paris. He abandoned fashion work in 1947 to travel in the U.S. and South America and explore the use of the 35-mm camera. His collection The Americans (1959), with its gritty, discordant images of 1950s America, had enormous influence and established him as a major figure. After 1959 Frank turned to filmmaking; his short film Pull My Daisy (1959), a collaboration with Jack Kerouac, became an underground classic. A major later collection is Robert Frank: Moving Out (1994).

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(born Nov. 20, 1925, Brookline, Mass., U.S.—died June 6, 1968, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. politician. The son of Joseph P. Kennedy, he interrupted his education at Harvard University to serve in World War II; he was graduated from Harvard in 1948 and received a law degree from the University of Virginia in 1951. He managed the U.S. Senate campaign of his brother John F. Kennedy in 1952. In 1957 he became chief counsel to the Senate committee investigating labour racketeering; he resigned the post in 1960 to manage his brother's presidential campaign. As U.S. attorney general (1961–64), he led a drive against organized crime that resulted in the conviction of labour leader Jimmy Hoffa. In 1964 he was elected to the U.S. Senate from New York. He became a spokesman for liberal Democrats and a critic of the Vietnam policy of Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1968, while campaigning for the Democratic presidential nomination in Los Angeles, he was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian immigrant.

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(born Aug. 20, 1795, Princeton, N.J., U.S.—died Oct. 7, 1866, Princeton) U.S. naval officer. He joined the U.S. navy and rose to the rank of commander (1838). When the Mexican War broke out, he took command of U.S. land and naval forces in present-day California and proceeded to capture Los Angeles, a Mexican stronghold, on Aug. 13, 1846. Four days later, he set up a civil government and formally annexed California to the U.S., naming himself governor. Along with Col. Stephen Kearny and his troops he defeated an uprising by native Mexicans and ceded the entire province to the U.S. In 1850 he resigned from the navy and was elected to the U.S. Senate. Stockton, Calif., is named in his honour.

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(born June 8, 1877, Nastätten, Hesse-Nassau, Ger.—died May 4, 1953, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. politician. He immigrated with his family to New York City in 1885. He became active in Democratic Party politics, serving in the state legislature (1904–19) and as a justice of the state court of appeals (1919–26). In the U.S. Senate (1927–49), he became an ally of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt and introduced New Deal labour and social-reform legislation, including the National Industrial Recovery Act (1933), the National Labor Relations Act (known as the Wagner Act), and the Social Security Act. He cosponsored the Wagner-Steagall Act (1937), which created the U.S. Housing Authority. His son, Robert F. Wagner, Jr. (1910–91), served as mayor of New York (1954–65).

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(born June 6, 1868, Devonport, Devon, Eng.—died circa March 29, 1912, Antarctica) British explorer. He joined the Royal Navy in 1880, proved his competence leading an Antarctic expedition (1901–04), and was promoted to captain. In 1910 he embarked on a second expedition, and in October 1911 he and 11 others started overland for the South Pole. After their motor sledges broke down and seven men returned to base camp, Scott and four others trekked for 81 days to reach the pole in January 1912, only to find that Roald Amundsen had preceded them by about a month. Exhausted and beset by bad weather and insufficient supplies, the men died on the return trip, Scott and the last two survivors only 11 miles from their base camp. In England Scott was celebrated as a national hero for his courage, though his judgment has been questioned.

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(born April 4, 1896, New Rochelle, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 14, 1955, New York, N.Y.) U.S. playwright. Sherwood was a magazine editor in New York City and a member of the Algonquin Round Table, the centre of a New York literary coterie. He examined the pointlessness of war in his first play, The Road to Rome (1927). Idiot's Delight (1936), Abe Lincoln in Illinois (1938), and There Shall Be No Night (1940) won Pulitzer prizes. In 1938 he cofounded the Playwrights' Company, which became a major producing company. During World War II he wrote speeches for Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt and headed the overseas branch of the Office of War Information (1941–44). His book Roosevelt and Hopkins (1948) won a Pulitzer Prize. Many of his plays were adapted for film; his original screenplays include The Best Years of Our Lives (1946, Academy Award).

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(born Dec. 23, 1926, Madison, Minn., U.S.) U.S. poet and translator. Bly attended Harvard University and the University of Iowa. In 1958 he founded the magazine The Fifties (later The Sixties), which published the works of young poets. He helped found American Writers Against the Vietnam War, and he donated his 1968 National Book Award prize money (received for The Light Around the Body) to a draft resisters' organization. His best-selling Iron John (1990) probed the male psyche, and Bly became the best-known leader of the “men's movement.” In 2001 he published The Night Abraham Called to the Stars, poems utilizing the Arabic ghazal form. He is also known for his translations of a wide range of poetry.

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(born May 6, 1856, Cresson, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 20, 1920, Washington, D.C.) U.S. explorer. He joined the U.S. Navy in 1881 but was granted leaves of absence to pursue his Arctic expeditions. He explored Greenland by dog sled in 1886 and 1891, finding evidence that it was an island, and returned there in 1893–94, 1895, and 1896 to transport large meteorites to the U.S. After announcing his intention to reach the North Pole, he made several attempts between 1898 and 1905, sailing on a specially built ship and sledding to within 175 mi (280 km) of the pole. On April 6, 1909, accompanied by Matthew Henson (1866–1955) and four Eskimo, he reached what he thought was the pole, and he became widely acknowledged as the first explorer to attain that goal. (The claim of his former colleague Frederick A. Cook to have reached the pole in 1908 was later discredited.) In 1911 Peary retired from the navy with the rank of rear admiral. Examination of Peary's expedition diary and new documents in the 1980s suggested that the point he reached may have been 30–60 mi (50–100 km) short of the pole.

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Robert E. Lee, 1865.

(born Jan. 19, 1807, Stratford, Westmoreland county, Va., U.S.—died Oct. 12, 1870, Lexington, Va.) U.S. and Confederate military leader. He was the son of Henry Lee. After graduating from West Point, he served in the engineering corps and in the Mexican War under Winfield Scott. He transferred to the cavalry in 1855 and commanded frontier forces in Texas (1856–57). In 1859 he led U.S. troops against the slave insurrection attempted by John Brown at Harpers Ferry. In 1861 he was offered command of a new army being formed to force the seceded Southern states back into the Union. Though opposed to secession, he refused. After his home state of Virginia seceded, he became commander of Virginia's forces in the American Civil War and adviser to Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy. Taking command of the Army of Northern Virginia (1862) after Joseph Johnston was wounded, Lee repulsed the Union forces in the Seven Days' Battles. He won victories at Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. His attempts to draw Union forces out of Virginia by invading the North resulted in failures at Antietam and Gettysburg. In 1864–65 he conducted defensive campaigns against Union forces under Ulysses S. Grant that caused heavy Union casualties. Lee ended his retreat behind fortifications built at Petersburg and Richmond (see Petersburg Campaign). By April 1865 dwindling forces and supplies forced Lee, now general of all Confederate armies, to surrender at Appomattox Court House. After several months of recuperation, he accepted the post of president of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), where he served until his death.

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(born 1942, Wichita, Kan., U.S.) U.S. oceanographer and marine geologist. He grew up near San Diego, Calif. As a marine scientist at the Woods Hole (Mass.) Oceanographic Research Institution, he pioneered the use of deep-diving submersibles, participated in the first manned exploration of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and discovered warm water springs and their unusual animal communities in the Galápagos Rift. He is best known for his dramatic discovery of the wreck of the Titanic in 1985. Since then he has gone on to discover ships lost in battle during World War II.

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(born 1693, Germiston, near Glasgow, Scot.—died July 27, 1770, Clifton, Bristol, Eng.) British colonial administrator. He entered government service in 1727 and was appointed surveyor general for the southern part of America (1739–51). As lieutenant governor of Virginia, he sent George Washington in 1753 to prevent the French from controlling the western frontier, an action that helped precipitate the French and Indian War. He tried to obtain intercolonial cooperation for the war effort, an issue taken up at the Albany Congress. In 1758 he returned to England.

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Eiffel Tower, an oil painting on canvas by Robert Delaunay from elipsis

(born April 12, 1885, Paris, Fr.—died Oct. 25, 1941, Montpellier) French painter. He spent his early career as a part-time designer of stage scenery and came under the influence of Neo-Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism. In 1909–11 his colour experiments culminated in a series of paintings of the Eiffel Tower, which combined fragmented Cubist forms with dynamic movement and vibrant colour. The introduction of bright colour to Cubism—a style that came to be known as Orphism—distinguished his work from that of the more orthodox Cubist painters and influenced the artists of Der Blaue Reiter. With his wife, the Ukrainian-born painter and textile designer Sonia Terk Delaunay (1885–1979), he painted abstract mural decorations for the 1937 Paris Exposition.

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(born Aug. 17, 1943, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. film actor. He made his debut in 1968 and played in minor films until his critically acclaimed performance in Bang the Drum Slowly (1973). He starred in Mean Streets (1973) and other films directed by Martin Scorsese, including Taxi Driver (1976), Raging Bull (1980, Academy Award), and GoodFellas (1990). Noted for his intensely committed performances, he also starred in The Godfather, Part II (1974, Academy Award), The Deer Hunter (1978), Once upon a Time in America (1984), Heat (1997), and Meet the Parents (2000). He directed his first film, A Bronx Tale, in 1993.

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(born Nov. 9, 1801, Glasgow, Scot.—died June 24, 1877, Lake George, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. social reformer. In 1825 he emigrated with his father, Robert Owen, to establish a community at New Harmony, Ind. He edited the local newspaper, the New Harmony Gazette, until 1827, when he became associated with Fanny Wright. The two eventually settled in New York City, where Owen edited the Free Enquirer, and both were active in the Workingmen's Party. Owen returned to New Harmony in 1832. After serving in the Indiana legislature, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–47), where he introduced a bill establishing the Smithsonian Institution. He later served as U.S. minister to Italy (1855–58). A strong advocate of emancipation, he urged an end to slavery in an 1861 letter to Abraham Lincoln that was said to have influenced the president greatly.

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(born June 25, 1925, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. architect. He studied at Princeton University and in Rome at the American Academy. After working with Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn, he formed a partnership with his wife, Denise Scott Brown, and John Rauch. His philosophy, set forth in the influential books Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966) and Learning from Las Vegas (1972), called for openness to the multiple influences of historical tradition, ordinary commercial architecture, and Pop art. He had such a profound impact on younger architects who were beginning to find similar constraints and limitations in the Modernist architectural aesthetic, that he became the unofficial dean of the postmodern movement in architecture. His buildings often exhibit ironic humour. Important commissions include buildings for Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania, the Seattle Art Museum (1985–91), and the Sainsbury Wing of London's National Gallery (1986–91). He won the 1991 Pritzker Architecture Prize.

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(born Aug. 6, 1917, Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.—died July 1, 1997, Santa Barbara county, Calif.) U.S. film actor. Expelled from high school in New York City, he spent his teenage years wandering the country and working odd jobs. After joining an acting company in California, he made his screen debut in 1943, acting in several Hopalong Cassidy westerns. He won praise for his role in The Story of G.I. Joe (1945). With his trademark sleepy-eyed, tough-guy appearance, he usually played loners and villains, in movies (many of them B movies that have grown in critical esteem over time) such as Out of the Past (1947), The Lusty Men (1952), The Night of the Hunter (1955), Thunder Road (1958), Cape Fear (1962), The Friends of Eddie Coyle (1973), and Farewell, My Lovely (1975). In his later years, he starred in the television miniseries Winds of War (1983) and War and Remembrance (1988–89).

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(born Sept. 15, 1889, Worcester, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1945, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. drama critic, actor, and humorist. Benchley graduated from Harvard University and joined the staff of Life magazine in 1920. A regular member of the Algonquin Round Table, he was drama critic for The New Yorker 1929–40, for which he also wrote “The Wayward Press” column under the pseudonym Guy Fawkes. He had bit parts in many feature films, but he is best known for more than 40 short subjects, including How to Sleep (1934, Academy Award). His writing was warmly humorous, his satire sharp but not cruel.

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orig. Andrei Friedmann

(born 1913, Budapest, Hung.—died May 25, 1954, Thai Binh, Viet.) Hungarian-born U.S. photojournalist. In Paris he presented his photographs as the work of a fictitious rich American, Robert Capa; the deception was soon discovered but he kept the name. He first achieved fame as a war correspondent in the Spanish Civil War (1936). In World War II he covered the fighting in Africa, Sicily, and Italy for Life magazine; images of the Normandy invasion are among his most memorable works. In 1947 he founded Magnum Photos with Henri Cartier-Bresson and David Seymour. He was killed by a land mine while photographing the French Indochina war for Life.

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(born circa 1378, Tournai, Fr.—died April 26, 1444, Tournai) Flemish painter. He is identified with the Master of Flémalle on stylistic grounds. Documents show that Campin was a master painter in Tournai in 1406; two students are listed as entering his studio in 1427: Rogier van der Weyden and Jacques Daret. Campin's principal surviving works are two large panels of an altarpiece once believed to have come from a nonexistent Abbey of Flémalle. The famous Mérode Altarpiece, a triptych of the Annunciation formerly regarded as his masterpiece, is now thought to be by a member of his workshop or circle. Characterized by a naturalistic conception of form and a poetic representation of the objects of daily life, Campin's work marks the break with the prevailing International Gothic style and prefigures the achievements of the painters of the Northern Renaissance. Despite much uncertainty about his life and work, he was one of the most important and influential Flemish artists of the 15th century.

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(1577–1640) British scholar and writer. He spent most of his life as a vicar at Oxford. His great Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) describes the kinds, causes, symptoms, and cures of melancholy in a lively, elegant, and sometimes humorous style; a mine of classical erudition and curious information, it is an index to the philosophical and psychological ideas of its time. His Latin comedy Philosophaster (1606) is a vivacious exposure of charlatanism.

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(born April 10, 1917, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died July 8, 1979, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. chemist. He attended MIT and taught at Harvard University (1938–79). Recognizing that physical measurement revealed molecular structure better than chemical reaction, in 1940–42 he developed “Woodward's rules” for determining structure by ultraviolet spectroscopy. In 1945 his methods finally clarified the structure of penicillin and of many more complex natural products. He proposed the correct biosynthetic pathway of steroid hormones. He was the most accomplished synthesist of complex organic compounds, including quinine (1944) and vitamin B12 (1971, in more than 100 reactions), a task that led to the fundamental concept of conservation of orbital symmetry. He received a 1965 Nobel Prize, and in 1963 the new Woodward Research Institute in Basel, Switz., was named for him.

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Robert Burns, detail of an oil painting by Alexander Nasmyth; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born Jan. 25, 1759, Alloway, Ayrshire, Scot.—died July 21, 1796, Dumfries, Dumfriesshire) National poet of Scotland. The son of a poor farmer, he early became familiar with orally transmitted folk song and tales. His father's farm failed, and a farm he started himself quickly went bankrupt. Handsome and high-spirited, he engaged in a series of love affairs, some of which produced children, and celebrated his lovers in his poems. His Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect (1786) brought acclaim but no financial security, and he eventually took a job as an exciseman. He later began collecting and editing hundreds of traditional airs for James Johnson's Scots Musical Museum (1787–1803) and George Thomson's Select Collection of Original Scotish Airs (1793–1818); he substantially wrote many of these songs, though he did not claim them or receive payment for them. Among his best-known songs are “Auld Lang Syne,” “Green Grow the Rashes, O,” “John Anderson My Jo,” “A Red, Red Rose,” and “Ye Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Doon.” He freely proclaimed his radical opinions, his sympathies with the common people, and his rebellion against orthodox religion and morality.

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(born May 7, 1812, London, Eng.—died Dec. 12, 1889, Venice, Italy) British poet. His early works include verse dramas, notably Pippa Passes (1841), and long poems, including Sordello (1840). In the years of his marriage (1846–61) to Elizabeth Barrett Browning, spent in Italy, he produced little other than Men and Women (1855), which contains dramatic lyrics such as “Love Among the Ruins” and the great monologues “Fra Lippo Lippi” and “Bishop Blougram's Apology.” Dramatis Personae (1864), including “Rabbi Ben Ezra” and “Caliban upon Setebos,” finally won him popular recognition. The Ring and the Book (1868–69), a book-length poem, is based on a 1698 murder trial in Rome. Browning influenced many modern poets through his development of the dramatic monologue (with its emphasis on individual psychology) and through his success in writing about the variety of modern life in language his contemporaries found often difficult as well as original.

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(born Dec. 21, 1773, Montrose, Angus, Scot.—died June 10, 1858, London, Eng.) Scottish botanist. The son of a clergyman, he studied medicine in Aberdeen and Edinburgh before entering the British army as an ensign and assistant surgeon (1795). He obtained the post of naturalist aboard a ship bound to survey the coasts of Australia (1801), and on the journey he gathered some 3,900 plant species. He published some of the results of his trip in 1810 in his classic Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiaeelipsis, laying the foundations of Australian botany and refining prevailing plant classification systems. In 1827 he transferred Joseph Banks's botanical collection to the British Museum and became keeper of the museum's newly formed botanical department. The following year he published his observation of the phenomenon that came to be called Brownian motion. In 1831 he noted the existence in plant cells of what he called the nucleus. He was the first to recognize the distinction between gymnosperms and angiosperms (flowering plants).

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(born Sept. 25, 1901, Bromont-Lamonthe, Puy-de Dôme, France—died Dec. 18, 1999) French film director. He worked as a painter and photographer before making his first film in 1934. His feature-length Les Anges du péché (1943) established his austere, intellectual style. Noted for intense psychological probing and the subordination of plot to visual imagery, he also directed The Diary of a Country Priest (1950), A Man Escaped (1956), Pickpocket (1959), Balthazar (1966), Lancelot of the Lake (1974), and L'Argent (1983).

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(born Jan. 25, 1627, Lismore Castle, County Waterford, Ire.—died Dec. 31, 1691, London, Eng.) Irish-born English chemist and natural philosopher. The son of Richard Boyle, the “Great Earl of Cork” (1566–1643), he settled at Oxford in 1654 and, with his assistant Robert Hooke, began his pioneering experiments on the properties of gases, including those expressed in Boyle's law (see gas laws). He demonstrated the physical characteristics of air, showing that it is necessary in combustion, respiration, and sound transmission. In The Sceptical Chymist (1661) he attacked Aristotle's theory of the four elements (earth, air, fire, and water), espousing a corpuscular view of matter that presaged the modern theory of chemical elements. A founding member of the Royal Society of London, he achieved great renown in his lifetime. His brother Roger Boyle, earl of Orrery (1621–79), was a general under Oliver Cromwell but eventually helped secure Ireland for Charles II.

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(born June 7, 1770, London, Eng.—died Dec. 4, 1828, Fife House, Whitehall, London) British prime minister (1812–27). He entered the House of Commons in 1790 and became a leading Tory, serving as foreign secretary (1801–04), home secretary (1804–06, 1807–09), and secretary for war and the colonies (1809–12). The War of 1812 with the U.S. and the final campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars were fought during his premiership. He urged abolition of the slave trade at the Congress of Vienna (1814–15). Although sometimes overshadowed by his colleagues and by the duke of Wellington's military prowess, he conducted a sound administration.

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(born May 12, 1804, York, Upper Canada—died Dec. 9, 1858, Toronto) Canadian politician. Called to the bar in 1825, Baldwin began his political career as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada for York (1829–30). In 1842–43 he and Louis Hippolyte LaFontaine formed the first Liberal Party administration; when the Liberals returned to power in 1848, they were able to establish responsible, or cabinet, government. He resigned in 1851.

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Bakewell, detail of an engraving

(born 1725, Dishley, Leicestershire, Eng.—died Oct. 1, 1795, Dishley) English agriculturist. He revolutionized English sheep and cattle breeding by methodical selection, inbreeding, and culling. He was one of the first to breed sheep and cattle for meat and the first to establish on a large scale the practice of letting animals for stud. His farm became famous as a model of scientific management.

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(born Feb. 20, 1925, Kansas City, Mo., U.S.—died Nov. 20, 2006, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. film director. He learned filmmaking by directing industrial films, then directed several television series before making his first feature film, Countdown (1967). The successful antiwar comedy M*A*S*H (1970) established his reputation as an independent director whose work emphasizes character and atmosphere over plot. His most acclaimed films include McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971), Nashville (1976), The Player (1992), Short Cuts (1993), and Gosford Park (2001).

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(born Aug. 21, 1937, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. novelist. He served in the U.S. Navy before attending New York and Stanford universities. Dog Soldiers (1974, National Book Award), his second novel, brought home the corruption of the Vietnam War. His later works include the novels A Flag for Sunrise (1981), Outerbridge Reach (1992), and Damascus Gate (1998) and the short-story collection Bear and His Daughter (1997).

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(born March 22, 1868, Morrison, Ill., U.S.—died Dec. 19, 1953, San Marino, Calif.) U.S. physicist. He received his doctorate from Columbia University and taught physics at the University of Chicago (1896–1921) and the California Institute of Technology (from 1921). To measure electric charge, he devised the Millikan oil-drop experiment. He verified Albert Einstein's photoelectric equation and obtained a precise value for the Planck constant. He was awarded a 1923 Nobel Prize.

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(born Feb. 20, 1925, Kansas City, Mo., U.S.—died Nov. 20, 2006, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. film director. He learned filmmaking by directing industrial films, then directed several television series before making his first feature film, Countdown (1967). The successful antiwar comedy M*A*S*H (1970) established his reputation as an independent director whose work emphasizes character and atmosphere over plot. His most acclaimed films include McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971), Nashville (1976), The Player (1992), Short Cuts (1993), and Gosford Park (2001).

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(born Sept. 8, 1889, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—died July 31, 1953, New York, N.Y.) U.S. politician. The son of William H. Taft, he served in the Ohio legislature before being elected to the U.S. Senate (1939–53). He became known as a strong advocate of traditional conservativism and earned the nickname “Mr. Republican.” He opposed centralizing power in the federal government and cosponsored the Taft-Hartley Act to restrict organized labour. An isolationist, he opposed U.S. involvement in postwar international organizations. He was a favourite-son candidate for president at Republican Party national conventions, especially in 1948 and 1952, but internationalists in the party opposed his conservative views. After the election of Dwight Eisenhower, Taft became Senate majority leader and Eisenhower's chief adviser in the Senate.

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(born June 8, 1810, Zwickau, Saxony—died July 29, 1856, Endenich, near Bonn, Prussia) German composer. Son of a bookseller, he considered becoming a novelist. Under family pressure he reluctantly entered law school, but he devoted his time to song composition and piano lessons. An injury to one of his fingers put an end to his hopes of a career as a virtuoso and confined him to composition. He embarked upon a prolific period, writing piano pieces and founding, in 1834, the New Journal for Music. His works from this fertile period include Papillons, Carnaval (both 1833–35), and Davidsbündlertänze (1837). He married the pianist Clara Wieck in 1840. That year he returned to the field of the solo song; in the span of 11 months he composed nearly all the songs on which much of his reputation rests, such as the song cycles Dichterliebe and Frauenliebe und Leben. The next year he widened his scope to orchestral music, producing Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 4, and his piano concerto; in 1842 he concentrated on chamber music. In his last productive years, he turned to dramatic or semidramatic works. His mental deterioration (probably associated with both syphilis and a family history of mental illness) accelerated; in 1854 he was placed in a sanatorium, where he died two years later.

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(born July 3, 1728, Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scot.—died March 3, 1792, London, Eng.) Scottish architect and designer. Son of the architect William Adam, he apprenticed in his father's offices. He traveled in Europe in 1754–58, studying architectural theory and Roman ruins. On his return to London, he and his brother James (1732–94) developed an essentially decorative style—known as the Adam style—that was marked by a new lightness and freedom in the use of the Classical elements of architecture. This style is most remembered for its application in interiors, which were characterized by contrasting room shapes and delicate Classical ornaments. Robert Adam's executed works, mainly remodeled interiors and exteriors of private houses, include Osterley Park (1761–80) in Middlesex and Kedleston Hall (circa 1765–70) in Derbyshire. Other works include the Adelphi development in London (1768–72) and the University of Edinburgh (1789). He was also a leading furniture designer; his style, popularized by designer George Hepplewhite, was meant to harmonize with his interior architecture down to the last detail.

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(born June 1, 1563, London, Eng.—died May 24, 1612, Marlborough, Wiltshire) English statesman. Trained in statesmanship by his father, William Cecil, Robert entered the House of Commons in 1584. He became acting secretary of state in 1590 and was formally appointed to the post by Elizabeth I in 1596. He succeeded his father as chief minister in 1598 and guided the peaceful succession of Elizabeth by James I, for whom he continued as chief minister from 1603 and lord treasurer from 1608. He negotiated the end of the war with Spain in 1604 and allied England with France.

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(born Aug. 18, 1937, Santa Monica, Calif., U.S.) U.S. film actor and director. He made his Broadway debut in 1959 and won acclaim in Barefoot in the Park (1963; film, 1967). The blond, appealing Redford began acting in films in the mid-1960s. He appeared with Paul Newman in the hits Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969) and The Sting (1973) and also starred in The Candidate (1972), Jeremiah Johnson (1972), All the President's Men (1976), The Natural (1984), Out of Africa (1985), and Indecent Proposal (1993). His directorial debut, Ordinary People (1980, Academy Award), was followed by The Milagro Beanfield War (1988), A River Runs Through It (1992), Quiz Show (1994), The Horse Whisperer (1998), and The Legend of Bagger Vance (2000). He received an honorary Academy Award in 2001. In 1980 he founded the Sundance Institute to sponsor young filmmakers' works, and by the 1990s its film festival was the major showcase for U.S. independent films.

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orig. Milton Rauschenberg

(born Oct. 22, 1925, Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.—died May 12, 2008, Captiva Island, Fla.) U.S. painter and graphic artist. He studied under Josef Albers. His “combine” paintings of the 1950s, incorporating objects such as soda bottles, traffic barricades, and stuffed birds, anticipated the Pop art movement. In later work, he used silkscreen and other techniques to transfer images from commercial print media and his own photographs to canvas, reinforcing the images and unifying them compositionally with bold strokes of paint. His work has roots in Dada and the ready-mades of Marcel Duchamp.

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(born May 6, 1856, Cresson, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 20, 1920, Washington, D.C.) U.S. explorer. He joined the U.S. Navy in 1881 but was granted leaves of absence to pursue his Arctic expeditions. He explored Greenland by dog sled in 1886 and 1891, finding evidence that it was an island, and returned there in 1893–94, 1895, and 1896 to transport large meteorites to the U.S. After announcing his intention to reach the North Pole, he made several attempts between 1898 and 1905, sailing on a specially built ship and sledding to within 175 mi (280 km) of the pole. On April 6, 1909, accompanied by Matthew Henson (1866–1955) and four Eskimo, he reached what he thought was the pole, and he became widely acknowledged as the first explorer to attain that goal. (The claim of his former colleague Frederick A. Cook to have reached the pole in 1908 was later discredited.) In 1911 Peary retired from the navy with the rank of rear admiral. Examination of Peary's expedition diary and new documents in the 1980s suggested that the point he reached may have been 30–60 mi (50–100 km) short of the pole.

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(born March 11, 1731, Boston, Mass.—died May 11, 1814, Boston, Mass., U.S.) U.S. jurist. A lawyer in his native Boston from 1757, he gained recognition as a prosecuting attorney in the murder trial of the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre. He was a member of the Continental Congress and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He also served as Massachusetts' first attorney general (1777–90) and as a judge in the state supreme court (1790–1804).

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(born Nov. 9, 1801, Glasgow, Scot.—died June 24, 1877, Lake George, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. social reformer. In 1825 he emigrated with his father, Robert Owen, to establish a community at New Harmony, Ind. He edited the local newspaper, the New Harmony Gazette, until 1827, when he became associated with Fanny Wright. The two eventually settled in New York City, where Owen edited the Free Enquirer, and both were active in the Workingmen's Party. Owen returned to New Harmony in 1832. After serving in the Indiana legislature, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1843–47), where he introduced a bill establishing the Smithsonian Institution. He later served as U.S. minister to Italy (1855–58). A strong advocate of emancipation, he urged an end to slavery in an 1861 letter to Abraham Lincoln that was said to have influenced the president greatly.

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(born May 14, 1771, Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales—died Nov. 17, 1858, Newtown) Welsh manufacturer and philanthropist. At his New Lanark cotton mills (Lanarkshire, Scot.), in partnership with Jeremy Bentham, he set up innovative social and industrial welfare programs, including improved housing and schools for young children. In A New View of Society (1813) he contended that character is wholly formed by one's environment. By 1817 his work had evolved into ideas presaging socialism and the cooperative movement, ideas he would spend much of his life preaching. He sponsored several experimental utopian communities of “Owenites” in Britain and the U.S., including one at New Harmony, Ind. (1825–28)—where Owen lost some 80percnt of his fortune—all of which proved short-lived. He strongly supported early labour unions, but opposition and repression swiftly dissolved them, and it was two generations before socialism again influenced unionism. He was the father of Robert Dale Owen.

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(born , April 22, 1904, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 18, 1967, Princeton, N.J.) U.S. theoretical physicist. He graduated from Harvard University, did research at Cambridge University, and earned a doctorate from Göttingen University. He returned to the U.S. to teach at the California Institute of Technology (1929–47). His research focused on energy processes of subatomic particles, and he trained a generation of American physicists. In World War II he was named director of the army's atomic-bomb project, later known as the Manhattan Project, and set up the laboratory in Los Alamos, N.M., that remains a principal weapons-research laboratory. He directed the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (1947–66). He strongly opposed the development of the hydrogen bomb, and in 1953 he was suspended from secret nuclear research as an alleged communist sympathizer and a security risk; the case, which pitted him against Edward Teller, became a worldwide cause célèbre. In 1963 he was reinstated and awarded the Enrico Fermi Award.

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(born Nov. 16, 1938, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 2002, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. philosopher. He received a Ph.D. in philosophy at Princeton University in 1963 and taught at Harvard University from 1969 until his death. His best-known work, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), is a closely argued and highly original defense of the libertarian “minimal state” (a state whose powers are limited to those necessary to protect citizens against violence, theft, and fraud) and a critique of the social-democratic liberalism of his Harvard colleague John Rawls. Against anarchism, Nozick argued that the minimal state is justified because it would arise in a state of nature through transactions that would not violate anyone's natural rights (see natural law); against liberalism and ideologies farther left, he argued that no more than the minimal state is justified because any state with more extensive powers would violate the natural rights of its citizens. Nozick emphasized that the minimal state as he envisioned it could encompass smaller communities in which the central public authority would have more than minimal powers. Because each such community would be free to realize its own idea of the good society, the minimal state, according to Nozick, constitutes a “framework for utopia.”

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(born Dec. 12, 1927, Burlington, Iowa, U.S.—died June 3, 1990, Austin, Texas) U.S. engineer. He received a Ph.D. from MIT. In 1957 he launched Fairchild Semiconductor, one of the first electronics firms in what came to be called Silicon Valley. Simultaneously but independently, he and Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit computer chip in 1959. With his colleague Gordon Moore, he founded Intel Corporation. in 1968. In 1988 Noyce became president of Sematech, Inc., a research consortium formed and financed jointly by industry and the U.S. government to keep the U.S. semiconductor industry at the forefront of semiconductor manufacturing technology.

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(born Feb. 21, 1924, Kutama, Southern Rhodesia) First prime minister (1980–87) and executive president (from 1987) of Zimbabwe. With Joshua Nkomo, Mugabe led a Marxist-inspired guerrilla war that forced the white-dominated government of Ian Smith to accept universal elections, which Mugabe's party, Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), easily won. He formed a coalition government with Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), but he removed Nkomo in 1982. In 1984 the two parties were merged as ZANU–Patriotic Front, as Mugabe moved to convert Zimbabwe from a parliamentary democracy into a one-party socialist state. His rule was marked by violence and intimidation and by a decreasing tolerance of political opposition.

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Motherwell, photograph by Arnold Newman, 1959

(born Jan. 24, 1915, Aberdeen, Wash., U.S.—died July 16, 1991, Provincetown, Mass.) U.S. painter, writer, and teacher. He received an art scholarship at 11, but he earned degrees from Stanford and Harvard before deciding to become a serious painter. He espoused Abstract Expressionism from the beginning of his career, and his erudite writings were largely responsible for the intellectual tone of the movement. In his Elegy to the Spanish Republic painting series, begun in 1949 and continued over three decades, he developed a limited repertory of simple, serene black forms that were applied to the picture plane in a way that created a sense of slow, solemn movement. Though he worked in various styles, his reputation rests on his pioneering work as a founder and principal exponent of Abstract Expressionism.

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(born Dec. 18, 1888, New Haven, Conn., U.S.—died July 29, 1981, West Islip, N.Y.) U.S. public official. He began his long career in public service in New York City's bureau of municipal research. In 1919 Gov. Alfred E. Smith appointed him chief of staff of the New York state reconstruction commission and, in 1924, head of both the New York and Long Island state park commissions. For 40 years in these and related positions, Moses supervised the vast expansion of the park system and the construction of numerous roads, bridges, tunnels, and housing projects in and around the city, reshaping it on a grand scale in often controversial ways.

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(born Feb. 9, 1931, Kansas City, Mo., U.S.) U.S. artist. His first one-man exhibition of paintings was held in San Francisco in 1957. In 1960, while living in New York City, he began producing large, monochromatic geometric sculptures, groups of which he exhibited in specific spatial relationships. His work of this period greatly affected the Minimalist movement, which sought to reduce art to its essence by eliminating personal expression and historical allusion. From the late 1960s, however, Morris moved toward a more spontaneous, if anonymous, expressiveness. He experimented in a wide variety of forms, including the “happening”; “dispersal pieces,” in which materials were strewn in apparent randomness on the gallery floor; and environmental projects. His work of the 1970s showed a preoccupation with paradoxes of mental and physical imprisonment.

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(born March 22, 1868, Morrison, Ill., U.S.—died Dec. 19, 1953, San Marino, Calif.) U.S. physicist. He received his doctorate from Columbia University and taught physics at the University of Chicago (1896–1921) and the California Institute of Technology (from 1921). To measure electric charge, he devised the Millikan oil-drop experiment. He verified Albert Einstein's photoelectric equation and obtained a precise value for the Planck constant. He was awarded a 1923 Nobel Prize.

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(born July 4, 1946, Encino, Calif., U.S.) U.S. financier and entrepreneur. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School and went to work in 1969 for what was to become Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc., an investment-banking company. In 1971 he became head of its bond-trading department. He persuaded many of his clients to invest in junk bonds issued by new or financially troubled companies; the capital he raised financed a new class of “corporate raiders” who carried out numerous mergers, acquisitions, hostile takeovers, and leveraged buyouts in the 1980s. By the end of the decade, the junk-bond market was worth $150 billion, and Drexel was a leading financial firm. In 1986 its client Ivan Boesky, convicted of insider trading, implicated Milken and the firm in his dealings. Charged with securities fraud and heavily fined, Drexel declared bankruptcy in 1990 when the junk-bond market collapsed. Milken pled guilty to securities fraud the same year and was sentenced to 10 years in prison and a $600-million fine; released after 22 months, he since made a second fortune.

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orig. Meyer R. Schkolnick

(born July 4, 1910, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 23, 2003, New York, N.Y.) U.S. sociologist. After receiving a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1936, Merton taught there and at Tulane University before moving to Columbia University, where he was a professor from 1941 to 1979. His diverse interests included deviant behaviour, the sociology of science, and mass communications, and he generally advanced a functionalist approach to the study of society. He was awarded a National Medal of Science in 1994. Among his writings are Mass Persuasion (1946), Social Theory and Social Structure (1949), On the Shoulders of Giants (1965), and The Sociology of Science (1973). Seealso bureaucracy; functionalism.

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(born Dec. 20, 1894, Jeparit, Victoria. Austl.—died May 16, 1978, Melbourne) Australian statesman and prime minister (1939–41, 1949–66). A successful lawyer, he served as Australia's attorney general (1934–39). Leader of the United Australia Party, he served as prime minister (1939–41). He organized the Liberal Party in 1944 and again became premier in 1949. In the 1950s he fostered industrial growth in Australia and immigration from Europe. He strengthened military ties with the U.S. and encouraged the ANZUS Pact and Australia's membership in the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. He retired in 1966 after the longest ministry in Australian history.

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(born June 9, 1916, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.) U.S. secretary of defense (1961–68). He graduated from the University of California at Berkeley (1937), earned a graduate degree at the Harvard Business School (1939), and later joined the Harvard faculty. He developed logistical and statistical systems for the military during World War II. After the war, he was one of the “Whiz Kids” hired to revitalize the Ford Motor Company, and in 1960 he became the first president of the company who was not a member of the Ford family. In 1961 he was appointed secretary of defense by John F. Kennedy. Though initially a supporter of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, by 1967 he advocated peace negotiations; his opposition to the bombing of North Vietnam caused him to lose influence with Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson. He resigned in 1968 to become president of the World Bank (1968–81).

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known as Colonel McCormick

(born July 30, 1880, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died April 1, 1955, Wheaton, Ill.) U.S. newspaper editor and publisher. He was a grandnephew of Cyrus H. McCormick and grandson of Joseph Medill, editor and publisher of the Chicago Tribune. He was president of the Chicago Tribune Co. from 1911 and sole editor and publisher of the Tribune from 1925. Under his direction the paper achieved the largest circulation among U.S. standard-sized newspapers and led the world in newspaper advertising revenue. His idiosyncratic editorials made him the personification of reactionary journalism in the U.S.

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orig. Jan Ludvik Hoch

(born June 10, 1923, Slatina-Selo, Czech.—died Nov. 5, 1991, at sea off the Canary Islands) Czech-British publisher. Of Jewish origin, he lost many family members in the Holocaust but managed to reach Britain and become an army officer. After the war he founded Pergamon Press, which became a major publisher of trade journals and scientific books. In the 1980s he revived the British Printing Corp. and purchased the Mirror Group Newspapers, though his financial practices were officially questioned. Among the U.S. acquisitions of Maxwell Communications were the New York Daily News (1991) and the publishing house Macmillan. The revelation of fraudulent financial dealings aimed at bolstering his collapsing empire was followed by his death by drowning from his yacht in the Atlantic. It was assumed to have been a suicide.

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(born Nov. 4, 1946, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 9, 1989, Boston, Mass.) U.S. photographer. He attended the Pratt Institute (1963–70). By the mid 1970s he was pursuing what were to remain his favourite subjects throughout his career: still lifes, flowers, portraits of friends and celebrities, and homoerotic explorations of the male body. His compositions were generally stark, with his combination of cold studio light and precise focus creating dramatic tonal contrasts. His muscular male models were generally framed against plain backdrops, sometimes engaged in sexual activity or posed with sadomasochistic props such as leather and chains. His clear, unflinching style challenged viewers to confront this imagery. Moreover, the combination of his choice of subject matter with the photographs' formal beauty and grounding in art-historical traditions created what many saw as a tension between pornography and art. A posthumous retrospective exhibition of his work in 1990, funded partly by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), stirred a debate about government subsidies of “obscene” art and provoked Congress to enact restrictions on future NEA grants.

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(born Feb. 14/17, 1766, Rookery, near Dorking, Surrey, Eng.—died Dec. 23, 1834, St. Catherine, near Bath, Somerset) British economist and demographer. Born into a prosperous family, he studied at the University of Cambridge and was elected a fellow of Jesus College in 1793. In 1798 he published An Essay on the Principle of Population, in which he argued that population will always tend to outrun the food supply—that the increase of population will take place, if unchecked, in a geometrical progression, while the means of subsistence will increase only in an arithmetical progression. He believed population would expand to the limit of subsistence and would be held there by famine, war, and ill health. He enlarged on his ideas in later editions of his work (to 1826). He argued that relief measures for the poor should be strictly limited since they tended to encourage the growth of excess population. His theories, though largely disproven, had great influence on contemporary social policy and on such economists as David Ricardo.

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(born April 17, 1882, Stornoway, Outer Hebrides, Scot.—died June 15, 1970, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Scottish-born U.S. sociologist and political scientist. He taught at the University of Aberdeen and later at Canadian and U.S. universities, principally Columbia (1915–26). He believed in the compatibility of individualism and social organization and saw societies as evolving from highly communal states to states in which individual functions and group affiliations were extremely specialized. His works included The Modern State (1926), Leviathan and the People (1939), and The Web of Government (1947).

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Robert R. Livingston, portrait by Charles Willson Peale, c. 1782; in Independence National elipsis

(born Nov. 27, 1746, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 26, 1813, Clermont, N.Y.) U.S. lawyer and diplomat. He served in the Continental Congress and helped draft the Declaration of Independence. As New York state's first chancellor (1777–1801), he administered the oath of office to Pres. George Washington (1789). From 1781 to 1783 he was U.S. secretary of foreign affairs. As minister to France from 1801 to 1804, he helped effect the Louisiana Purchase. In partnership with Robert Fulton, he later received a steamboat monopoly for New York waters; the first vessel to operate on the Hudson River (1807) was named the Clermont, after his ancestral home.

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(born June 7, 1770, London, Eng.—died Dec. 4, 1828, Fife House, Whitehall, London) British prime minister (1812–27). He entered the House of Commons in 1790 and became a leading Tory, serving as foreign secretary (1801–04), home secretary (1804–06, 1807–09), and secretary for war and the colonies (1809–12). The War of 1812 with the U.S. and the final campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars were fought during his premiership. He urged abolition of the slave trade at the Congress of Vienna (1814–15). Although sometimes overshadowed by his colleagues and by the duke of Wellington's military prowess, he conducted a sound administration.

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Robert E. Lee, 1865.

(born Jan. 19, 1807, Stratford, Westmoreland county, Va., U.S.—died Oct. 12, 1870, Lexington, Va.) U.S. and Confederate military leader. He was the son of Henry Lee. After graduating from West Point, he served in the engineering corps and in the Mexican War under Winfield Scott. He transferred to the cavalry in 1855 and commanded frontier forces in Texas (1856–57). In 1859 he led U.S. troops against the slave insurrection attempted by John Brown at Harpers Ferry. In 1861 he was offered command of a new army being formed to force the seceded Southern states back into the Union. Though opposed to secession, he refused. After his home state of Virginia seceded, he became commander of Virginia's forces in the American Civil War and adviser to Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy. Taking command of the Army of Northern Virginia (1862) after Joseph Johnston was wounded, Lee repulsed the Union forces in the Seven Days' Battles. He won victories at Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. His attempts to draw Union forces out of Virginia by invading the North resulted in failures at Antietam and Gettysburg. In 1864–65 he conducted defensive campaigns against Union forces under Ulysses S. Grant that caused heavy Union casualties. Lee ended his retreat behind fortifications built at Petersburg and Richmond (see Petersburg Campaign). By April 1865 dwindling forces and supplies forced Lee, now general of all Confederate armies, to surrender at Appomattox Court House. After several months of recuperation, he accepted the post of president of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), where he served until his death.

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(born June 14, 1855, Primrose, Wis., U.S.—died June 18, 1925, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. He served as a county district attorney in Wisconsin (1880–84) and in the U.S. House of Representatives (1885–91). Advocating progressive reforms, he was elected governor of Wisconsin (1901–06). In the U.S. Senate (1906–24), he sponsored bills to restrict the power of the railroad companies. He founded La Follette's Weekly (1909) to broaden his reform movement, and he led Republican opposition to the policies of Pres. William H. Taft. He opposed U.S. entrance into World War I and policies of Pres. Woodrow Wilson that favoured big business. After the war he worked vigorously to expose corruption in government, including in the Teapot Dome scandal. As the presidential candidate of the Progressive Party in the 1924 election, he won five million votes, one-sixth of the total national vote. He died the next year; his son Robert (1895–1953) held his Senate seat from 1925 until 1947, when he was defeated by Joseph McCarthy.

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(born March 12, 1824, Königsberg, Prussia—died Oct. 17, 1887, Berlin, Ger.) German physicist. Kirchhoff's laws (1845) allow calculation of the currents, voltages, and resistances of electrical networks (he was the first to show that current flows through a conductor at the speed of light) and generalized the equations describing current flow to three dimensions. With Robert Bunsen, he demonstrated that every element emits coloured light when heated at wavelengths specific to it, a fact that is the basis of spectrum analysis. They used this new research tool to discover cesium (1860) and rubidium (1861), and began a new era in astronomy when they applied it to the spectrum of the sun.

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(born Nov. 20, 1925, Brookline, Mass., U.S.—died June 6, 1968, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. politician. The son of Joseph P. Kennedy, he interrupted his education at Harvard University to serve in World War II; he was graduated from Harvard in 1948 and received a law degree from the University of Virginia in 1951. He managed the U.S. Senate campaign of his brother John F. Kennedy in 1952. In 1957 he became chief counsel to the Senate committee investigating labour racketeering; he resigned the post in 1960 to manage his brother's presidential campaign. As U.S. attorney general (1961–64), he led a drive against organized crime that resulted in the conviction of labour leader Jimmy Hoffa. In 1964 he was elected to the U.S. Senate from New York. He became a spokesman for liberal Democrats and a critic of the Vietnam policy of Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1968, while campaigning for the Democratic presidential nomination in Los Angeles, he was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian immigrant.

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(born , April 22, 1904, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 18, 1967, Princeton, N.J.) U.S. theoretical physicist. He graduated from Harvard University, did research at Cambridge University, and earned a doctorate from Göttingen University. He returned to the U.S. to teach at the California Institute of Technology (1929–47). His research focused on energy processes of subatomic particles, and he trained a generation of American physicists. In World War II he was named director of the army's atomic-bomb project, later known as the Manhattan Project, and set up the laboratory in Los Alamos, N.M., that remains a principal weapons-research laboratory. He directed the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (1947–66). He strongly opposed the development of the hydrogen bomb, and in 1953 he was suspended from secret nuclear research as an alleged communist sympathizer and a security risk; the case, which pitted him against Edward Teller, became a worldwide cause célèbre. In 1963 he was reinstated and awarded the Enrico Fermi Award.

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(born circa 1911, Hazlehurst, Miss., U.S.—died Aug. 16, 1938, near Greenwood, Miss.) U.S. blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter. Born to a sharecropping family, he learned harmonica and guitar, probably influenced by personal contact with Delta bluesmen such as Eddie “Son” House and Charley Patton. He traveled widely throughout the South and as far north as Chicago and New York City, playing at house parties, juke joints, and lumber camps. In 1936–37 he recorded songs by House and others, as well as originals such as “Me and the Devil Blues,” “Hellhound on My Trail,” and “Love in Vain.” He is said to have died, at age 27, after drinking strychnine-laced whiskey (possibly the work of a jealous husband) in a juke joint. His eerie falsetto and masterly slide guitar influenced many later blues and rock musicians.

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(born March 31, 1926, Leigh-on-Sea, Essex, Eng.—died Nov. 5, 2005, Lyme Regis, Dorset) British novelist. His richly allusive and descriptive works combine psychological probings—chiefly of sex and love—with an interest in the social and philosophical context of human behaviour. His first novel, The Collector (1963; film, 1965), about a shy man who kidnaps a girl in a hapless search for love, was followed by The Magus (1965; film, 1968) and The French Lieutenant's Woman (1969; film, 1981), his most famous work, set in Victorian England. Later works include the novella collection The Ebony Tower (1974; film made for television, 1984), Daniel Martin (1977), and A Maggot (1985).

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(born Feb. 13, 1892, Spring Creek, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 9, 1954, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist. He pleaded his first case while still a minor and was a lawyer by age 21. He became corporation counsel for Jamestown, N.Y. As general counsel for the U.S. Bureau of Internal Revenue (1934), he successfully prosecuted Andrew W. Mellon for income-tax evasion. He served as U.S. solicitor general (1938–39) and attorney general (1940–41). In 1941 he was appointed by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt to the U.S. Supreme Court, where he served until 1954. He infused his well-worded opinions with a blend of liberalism and nationalism. In 1945–46 he served as chief U.S. prosecutor in the Nürnberg trials.

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orig. Robert Clark

(born Sept. 13, 1928, New Castle, Ind., U.S.) U.S. painter, sculptor, and graphic artist. After studies at the Art Institute of Chicago, he settled in New York City and became a leading exponent of Pop art. He achieved wide recognition for paintings and prints featuring geometric shapes emblazoned with lettering and vivid colours. In 1964 he collaborated with Andy Warhol on the film Eat and was commissioned to produce an EAT sign for the New York pavilion at the New York World's Fair. His most famous image, LOVE, first lettered on canvas in 1965, became a universal symbol for the hippie generation.

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(born Jan. 17, 1899, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died May 17, 1977, Santa Barbara, Calif.) U.S. educator and foundation president. He attended Oberlin College and graduated from Yale University (A.B., 1921) and Yale Law School (LL.B., 1925), becoming dean of Yale Law School in 1927. At the University of Chicago as president (1929–45) and chancellor (1945–51), he encouraged liberal education based on the study of the great books of the Western tradition, deplored any tendency toward vocationalism, and dismantled the intercollegiate athletic program. Hutchins later headed various foundations, including the Ford Foundation. He served as chairman of the board of editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (1943–74) and edited the 54-volume Great Books of the Western World (1952). He expounded his views on education in Higher Learning in America (1936).

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(born July 18, 1635, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, Eng.—died March 3, 1703, London) English physicist. From 1665 he taught at Oxford University. His achievements and theories were bewilderingly diverse. His important law of elasticity, known as Hooke's law (1660), states that the stretching of a solid is proportional to the force applied to it. He was one of the first to build and use a reflecting telescope. He suggested that Jupiter rotates on its axis, and his detailed sketches of Mars were later used to determine its rate of rotation. He suggested that a pendulum could be used to measure gravitation, and he attempted to show that the Earth and Moon follow an elliptical orbit around the Sun. He discovered diffraction and proposed the wave theory of light to explain it. He was one of the first proponents of the theory of evolution. He was the first to state in general that all matter expands when heated and that air is made up of particles separated from each other by relatively large distances. He invented a marine barometer, contributed improvements to clocks, the quadrant, and the universal joint, and anticipated the steam engine.

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Robert Herrick, detail of an engraving by W. Marshall, from the frontispiece to Hesperides, elipsis

(baptized Aug. 24, 1591, London, Eng.—died October 1674, Dean Prior, Devonshire) English poet. Educated at Cambridge and later ordained, he became known as a poet in the 1620s and by the end of that decade had become a country vicar in Devonshire. A disciple of Ben Jonson, he wrote classically influenced lyrics whose appeal is in their freshness and their perfection of form and style. The only book he published was Hesperides (1648), containing 1,400 poems, mostly short, many of them epigrams. He is best remembered for the line “Gather ye rosebuds while ye may.”

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orig. Robert Henry Cozad

(born June 25, 1865, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—died July 12, 1929, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He studied in Philadelphia and Paris, taught art in Philadelphia, and, after settling in New York City in 1900, became the leader of the young realist artists known as The Eight. He exhibited with The Eight in 1908 and later at the Armory Show (1913). As a portrait painter he demonstrated facile brushwork, lively colours, and an ability to catch fleeting gestures and expressions. He is best remembered as a teacher, principally at New York's Art Students League (1915–28), where he became one of the most influential art teachers in the U.S. and a powerful force in turning young artists away from academicism and toward the rich subject matter of modern city life. His belief in the artist as a social force led to the formation of the Ash Can school.

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(born Nov. 10, 1791, Colleton District, S.C., U.S.—died Sept. 24, 1839, Asheville, N.C.) U.S. politician. In 1823 he entered the U.S. Senate, where he became a spokesman for the South and the doctrine of states' rights. In his famous 1830 debate with Daniel Webster on the Constitution, he argued that the federal Constitution was a compact among the states and that any state might nullify a federal law that it considered in violation of the constitutional compact (see nullification). At the South Carolina nullification convention in 1832, he developed an ordinance that declared federal tariff laws null and void in the state. Resigning from the Senate in 1832, he served as governor of South Carolina (1832–34) and as mayor of Charleston (1834–37).

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Gerhart Hauptmann, etching by Hermann Struck, 1904; in the Schiller-Nationalmuseum, Marbach, Ger.

(born Nov. 15, 1862, Bad Salzbrunn, Silesia, Prussia—died June 6, 1946, Agnetendorf, Ger.) German playwright and poet. He studied sculpture before turning to literature in his early 20s. His first play, the starkly realistic social drama Before Dawn (1889), made him famous and signaled the end of highly stylized German drama. His naturalistic plays on themes of social reality and proletarian tragedy, including The Weavers (1892), The Beaver Coat (1893), and Drayman Henschel (1898), made him the most prominent German playwright of his era. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1912. In his novels, stories, epic poems, and later plays, he abandoned naturalism for mystical religiosity and mythical symbolism.

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(born March 12, 1824, Königsberg, Prussia—died Oct. 17, 1887, Berlin, Ger.) German physicist. Kirchhoff's laws (1845) allow calculation of the currents, voltages, and resistances of electrical networks (he was the first to show that current flows through a conductor at the speed of light) and generalized the equations describing current flow to three dimensions. With Robert Bunsen, he demonstrated that every element emits coloured light when heated at wavelengths specific to it, a fact that is the basis of spectrum analysis. They used this new research tool to discover cesium (1860) and rubidium (1861), and began a new era in astronomy when they applied it to the spectrum of the sun.

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(born Oct. 5, 1882, Worcester, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 10, 1945, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. inventor, regarded as the father of modern rocketry. He received his doctorate (1911) from Clark University, where he taught for much of his career. In laboratory work there, he proved that thrust and consequent propulsion can take place in a vacuum and was the first to develop a rocket engine using liquid propellants (static tested in 1925). In 1926 Goddard successfully launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket (gasoline and liquid oxygen) from a farm in Massachusetts. In 1935, having relocated his testing site to New Mexico, he was the first to send a liquid-fueled rocket faster than the speed of sound. He patented the first practical automatic steering apparatus for rockets, developed staged rockets designed to gain great altitudes, and developed the first rocket-fuel pumps, self-cooling rocket engines, and other components of a propulsion system designed for space exploration. Much of his work anticipated that of Wernher von Braun in Germany but was ignored by the U.S. government until after his death at the end of World War II.

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(born Nov. 22, 1857, Wakefield, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Dec. 28, 1903, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, France) British novelist. He had a brilliant academic career but an unhappy personal life; twice involved in miserable marriages, he experienced the life of near poverty and constant drudgery that he described in New Grub Street, 3 vol. (1891), his best-known work, and The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft (1903). Inspired by Honoré de Balzac, he wrote a cycle of 22 novels, which included Born in Exile (1892) and The Odd Women (1893). His realistic novels of lower-middle-class life are noted for their acute perception of women's social position and psychology.

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Gerhart Hauptmann, etching by Hermann Struck, 1904; in the Schiller-Nationalmuseum, Marbach, Ger.

(born Nov. 15, 1862, Bad Salzbrunn, Silesia, Prussia—died June 6, 1946, Agnetendorf, Ger.) German playwright and poet. He studied sculpture before turning to literature in his early 20s. His first play, the starkly realistic social drama Before Dawn (1889), made him famous and signaled the end of highly stylized German drama. His naturalistic plays on themes of social reality and proletarian tragedy, including The Weavers (1892), The Beaver Coat (1893), and Drayman Henschel (1898), made him the most prominent German playwright of his era. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1912. In his novels, stories, epic poems, and later plays, he abandoned naturalism for mystical religiosity and mythical symbolism.

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(born Nov. 22, 1857, Wakefield, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Dec. 28, 1903, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, France) British novelist. He had a brilliant academic career but an unhappy personal life; twice involved in miserable marriages, he experienced the life of near poverty and constant drudgery that he described in New Grub Street, 3 vol. (1891), his best-known work, and The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft (1903). Inspired by Honoré de Balzac, he wrote a cycle of 22 novels, which included Born in Exile (1892) and The Odd Women (1893). His realistic novels of lower-middle-class life are noted for their acute perception of women's social position and psychology.

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(born Nov. 14, 1765, Lancaster county, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 24, 1815, New York, N.Y.) U.S. inventor and engineer. Born to Irish immigrant parents, he studied painting with Benjamin West in London but soon turned to engineering. After designing a system of inland waterways, he tried unsuccessfully to interest the French and British governments in his prototypes of submarines (see Nautilus) and torpedoes. In 1801 he was commissioned by Robert R. Livingston to build a steamboat, and in 1807 Fulton's Clermont made the 150-mi (240-km) journey up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany in 32 hours, cutting 64 hours off the usual sailing time. It became the first commercially successful steamboat in the U.S. He later designed several other steamboats, including the world's first steam warship (1812). He was a member of the commission that recommended building the Erie Canal.

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Robert Frost, 1954.

(born March 26, 1874, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Jan. 29, 1963, Boston, Mass.) U.S. poet. Frost's family moved to New England early in his life. After stints at Dartmouth College and Harvard University and a difficult period as a teacher and farmer, he moved to England and published his first collections, A Boy's Will (1913) and North of Boston (1914). At the outbreak of war he returned to New England. He closely observed rural life and in his poetry endowed it with universal, even metaphysical, meaning, using colloquial language, familiar rhythms, and common symbols to express both its pastoral ideals and its dark complexities. His collections include New Hampshire (1923, Pulitzer Prize), Collected Poems (1930, Pulitzer Prize), A Further Range (1936, Pulitzer Prize), and A Witness Tree (1942, Pulitzer Prize). He was unique among American poets of the 20th century in simultaneously achieving wide popularity and deep critical admiration. Many of his poems, including “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” “Birches,” “The Death of the Hired Man,” “Dust of Snow,” “Fire and Ice,” and “Home Burial,” are widely anthologized.

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orig. Robert Franz Knauth

(born June 28, 1815, Halle, Saxony—died Oct. 24, 1892, Halle, Ger.) German song composer. In 1842 he became director of the Singakademie of his native Halle and organized choral festivals there. He sent Robert Schumann a set of songs, which Schumann had published in 1843 without consulting Franz. Franz Liszt became another influential supporter and published his own book about Franz in 1872. By 1867 Franz had become almost completely deaf and was obliged to relinquish his posts, including his professorship at the University of Halle. He was mentally unstable in his later years, when honours were increasingly heaped upon him. His more than 300 songs are remarkable for their sensitive musical prosody; he is a significant figure in the history of the lied.

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(born Nov. 9, 1924, Zürich, Switz.) Swiss-born U.S. photographer. In the 1940s he worked as a fashion photographer for Harper's Bazaar in Paris. He abandoned fashion work in 1947 to travel in the U.S. and South America and explore the use of the 35-mm camera. His collection The Americans (1959), with its gritty, discordant images of 1950s America, had enormous influence and established him as a major figure. After 1959 Frank turned to filmmaking; his short film Pull My Daisy (1959), a collaboration with Jack Kerouac, became an underground classic. A major later collection is Robert Frank: Moving Out (1994).

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(born March 31, 1926, Leigh-on-Sea, Essex, Eng.—died Nov. 5, 2005, Lyme Regis, Dorset) British novelist. His richly allusive and descriptive works combine psychological probings—chiefly of sex and love—with an interest in the social and philosophical context of human behaviour. His first novel, The Collector (1963; film, 1965), about a shy man who kidnaps a girl in a hapless search for love, was followed by The Magus (1965; film, 1968) and The French Lieutenant's Woman (1969; film, 1981), his most famous work, set in Victorian England. Later works include the novella collection The Ebony Tower (1974; film made for television, 1984), Daniel Martin (1977), and A Maggot (1985).

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(born Feb. 16, 1884, Iron Mountain, Mich., U.S.—died July 23, 1951, Dummerston, Vt.) U.S. filmmaker, considered the father of the documentary. He grew up in remote northern Canada and later led explorations of the area (1910–16). He lived with the Eskimos for 16 months and filmed their way of life. His resulting film, Nanook of the North (1922), was an international success and established the model for the documentary film. His later documentaries include Moana (1926), Tabu (1931), Man of Aran (1934), The Land (1942), and Louisiana Story (1948).

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(born 1693, Germiston, near Glasgow, Scot.—died July 27, 1770, Clifton, Bristol, Eng.) British colonial administrator. He entered government service in 1727 and was appointed surveyor general for the southern part of America (1739–51). As lieutenant governor of Virginia, he sent George Washington in 1753 to prevent the French from controlling the western frontier, an action that helped precipitate the French and Indian War. He tried to obtain intercolonial cooperation for the war effort, an issue taken up at the Albany Congress. In 1758 he returned to England.

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Eiffel Tower, an oil painting on canvas by Robert Delaunay from elipsis

(born April 12, 1885, Paris, Fr.—died Oct. 25, 1941, Montpellier) French painter. He spent his early career as a part-time designer of stage scenery and came under the influence of Neo-Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism. In 1909–11 his colour experiments culminated in a series of paintings of the Eiffel Tower, which combined fragmented Cubist forms with dynamic movement and vibrant colour. The introduction of bright colour to Cubism—a style that came to be known as Orphism—distinguished his work from that of the more orthodox Cubist painters and influenced the artists of Der Blaue Reiter. With his wife, the Ukrainian-born painter and textile designer Sonia Terk Delaunay (1885–1979), he painted abstract mural decorations for the 1937 Paris Exposition.

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(born Aug. 17, 1943, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. film actor. He made his debut in 1968 and played in minor films until his critically acclaimed performance in Bang the Drum Slowly (1973). He starred in Mean Streets (1973) and other films directed by Martin Scorsese, including Taxi Driver (1976), Raging Bull (1980, Academy Award), and GoodFellas (1990). Noted for his intensely committed performances, he also starred in The Godfather, Part II (1974, Academy Award), The Deer Hunter (1978), Once upon a Time in America (1984), Heat (1997), and Meet the Parents (2000). He directed his first film, A Bronx Tale, in 1993.

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(born Feb. 12, 1809, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Eng.—died April 19, 1882, Downe, Kent) British naturalist. The grandson of Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood, he studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and biology at Cambridge. He was recommended as a naturalist on HMS Beagle, which was bound on a long scientific survey expedition to South America and the South Seas (1831–36). His zoological and geological discoveries on the voyage resulted in numerous important publications and formed the basis of his theories of evolution. Seeing competition between individuals of a single species, he recognized that within a local population the individual bird, for example, with the sharper beak might have a better chance to survive and reproduce and that if such traits were passed on to new generations, they would be predominant in future populations. He saw this natural selection as the mechanism by which advantageous variations were passed on to later generations and less advantageous traits gradually disappeared. He worked on his theory for more than 20 years before publishing it in his famous On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). The book was immediately in great demand, and Darwin's intensely controversial theory was accepted quickly in most scientific circles; most opposition came from religious leaders. Though Darwin's ideas were modified by later developments in genetics and molecular biology, his work remains central to modern evolutionary theory. His many other important works included Variation in Animals and Plants Under Domestication (1868) and The Descent of Manelipsis (1871). He was buried in Westminster Abbey. Seealso Darwinism.

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(born Feb. 12, 1809, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Eng.—died April 19, 1882, Downe, Kent) British naturalist. The grandson of Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood, he studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and biology at Cambridge. He was recommended as a naturalist on HMS Beagle, which was bound on a long scientific survey expedition to South America and the South Seas (1831–36). His zoological and geological discoveries on the voyage resulted in numerous important publications and formed the basis of his theories of evolution. Seeing competition between individuals of a single species, he recognized that within a local population the individual bird, for example, with the sharper beak might have a better chance to survive and reproduce and that if such traits were passed on to new generations, they would be predominant in future populations. He saw this natural selection as the mechanism by which advantageous variations were passed on to later generations and less advantageous traits gradually disappeared. He worked on his theory for more than 20 years before publishing it in his famous On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). The book was immediately in great demand, and Darwin's intensely controversial theory was accepted quickly in most scientific circles; most opposition came from religious leaders. Though Darwin's ideas were modified by later developments in genetics and molecular biology, his work remains central to modern evolutionary theory. His many other important works included Variation in Animals and Plants Under Domestication (1868) and The Descent of Manelipsis (1871). He was buried in Westminster Abbey. Seealso Darwinism.

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(born June 1, 1563, London, Eng.—died May 24, 1612, Marlborough, Wiltshire) English statesman. Trained in statesmanship by his father, William Cecil, Robert entered the House of Commons in 1584. He became acting secretary of state in 1590 and was formally appointed to the post by Elizabeth I in 1596. He succeeded his father as chief minister in 1598 and guided the peaceful succession of Elizabeth by James I, for whom he continued as chief minister from 1603 and lord treasurer from 1608. He negotiated the end of the war with Spain in 1604 and allied England with France.

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(born Dec. 8, 1947, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. biochemist, molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate. He received his Ph.D. from UC-Berkeley in 1975. In 1982 he became the first to show that an RNA molecule could catalyze a chemical reaction. He and Sidney Altman were awarded a 1989 Nobel Prize for their independent discoveries that RNA, previously thought to be only a messenger of genetic information, can also catalyze cellular chemical reactions essential to life.

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orig. Andrei Friedmann

(born 1913, Budapest, Hung.—died May 25, 1954, Thai Binh, Viet.) Hungarian-born U.S. photojournalist. In Paris he presented his photographs as the work of a fictitious rich American, Robert Capa; the deception was soon discovered but he kept the name. He first achieved fame as a war correspondent in the Spanish Civil War (1936). In World War II he covered the fighting in Africa, Sicily, and Italy for Life magazine; images of the Normandy invasion are among his most memorable works. In 1947 he founded Magnum Photos with Henri Cartier-Bresson and David Seymour. He was killed by a land mine while photographing the French Indochina war for Life.

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(born circa 1378, Tournai, Fr.—died April 26, 1444, Tournai) Flemish painter. He is identified with the Master of Flémalle on stylistic grounds. Documents show that Campin was a master painter in Tournai in 1406; two students are listed as entering his studio in 1427: Rogier van der Weyden and Jacques Daret. Campin's principal surviving works are two large panels of an altarpiece once believed to have come from a nonexistent Abbey of Flémalle. The famous Mérode Altarpiece, a triptych of the Annunciation formerly regarded as his masterpiece, is now thought to be by a member of his workshop or circle. Characterized by a naturalistic conception of form and a poetic representation of the objects of daily life, Campin's work marks the break with the prevailing International Gothic style and prefigures the achievements of the painters of the Northern Renaissance. Despite much uncertainty about his life and work, he was one of the most important and influential Flemish artists of the 15th century.

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(1577–1640) British scholar and writer. He spent most of his life as a vicar at Oxford. His great Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) describes the kinds, causes, symptoms, and cures of melancholy in a lively, elegant, and sometimes humorous style; a mine of classical erudition and curious information, it is an index to the philosophical and psychological ideas of its time. His Latin comedy Philosophaster (1606) is a vivacious exposure of charlatanism.

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Robert Burns, detail of an oil painting by Alexander Nasmyth; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born Jan. 25, 1759, Alloway, Ayrshire, Scot.—died July 21, 1796, Dumfries, Dumfriesshire) National poet of Scotland. The son of a poor farmer, he early became familiar with orally transmitted folk song and tales. His father's farm failed, and a farm he started himself quickly went bankrupt. Handsome and high-spirited, he engaged in a series of love affairs, some of which produced children, and celebrated his lovers in his poems. His Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect (1786) brought acclaim but no financial security, and he eventually took a job as an exciseman. He later began collecting and editing hundreds of traditional airs for James Johnson's Scots Musical Museum (1787–1803) and George Thomson's Select Collection of Original Scotish Airs (1793–1818); he substantially wrote many of these songs, though he did not claim them or receive payment for them. Among his best-known songs are “Auld Lang Syne,” “Green Grow the Rashes, O,” “John Anderson My Jo,” “A Red, Red Rose,” and “Ye Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Doon.” He freely proclaimed his radical opinions, his sympathies with the common people, and his rebellion against orthodox religion and morality.

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(born March 31, 1811, Göttingen, Westphalia—died Aug. 16, 1899, Heidelberg, Baden) German chemist. With Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, he observed (circa 1859) that each element emits light of a characteristic wavelength, opening the field of spectrochemical analysis. They discovered several new elements (including helium, cesium, and rubidium) by spectroscopy. His only book discussed methods of measuring volumes of gases. He invented the carbon-zinc battery, grease-spot photometer (see photometry), filter pump, ice calorimeter, and vapour calorimeter. Though often credited with inventing the Bunsen burner, he seems to have made only a minor contribution to its development.

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(born May 7, 1812, London, Eng.—died Dec. 12, 1889, Venice, Italy) British poet. His early works include verse dramas, notably Pippa Passes (1841), and long poems, including Sordello (1840). In the years of his marriage (1846–61) to Elizabeth Barrett Browning, spent in Italy, he produced little other than Men and Women (1855), which contains dramatic lyrics such as “Love Among the Ruins” and the great monologues “Fra Lippo Lippi” and “Bishop Blougram's Apology.” Dramatis Personae (1864), including “Rabbi Ben Ezra” and “Caliban upon Setebos,” finally won him popular recognition. The Ring and the Book (1868–69), a book-length poem, is based on a 1698 murder trial in Rome. Browning influenced many modern poets through his development of the dramatic monologue (with its emphasis on individual psychology) and through his success in writing about the variety of modern life in language his contemporaries found often difficult as well as original.

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(born Dec. 21, 1773, Montrose, Angus, Scot.—died June 10, 1858, London, Eng.) Scottish botanist. The son of a clergyman, he studied medicine in Aberdeen and Edinburgh before entering the British army as an ensign and assistant surgeon (1795). He obtained the post of naturalist aboard a ship bound to survey the coasts of Australia (1801), and on the journey he gathered some 3,900 plant species. He published some of the results of his trip in 1810 in his classic Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiaeelipsis, laying the foundations of Australian botany and refining prevailing plant classification systems. In 1827 he transferred Joseph Banks's botanical collection to the British Museum and became keeper of the museum's newly formed botanical department. The following year he published his observation of the phenomenon that came to be called Brownian motion. In 1831 he noted the existence in plant cells of what he called the nucleus. He was the first to recognize the distinction between gymnosperms and angiosperms (flowering plants).

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Robert Bridges, gold-point drawing by W. Strang; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

(born Oct. 23, 1844, Walmer, Kent, Eng.—died April 21, 1930, Boar's Hill, Oxford) English poet. He published several long poems and poetic dramas, but his reputation rests on the lyrics collected in Shorter Poems (1890, 1894), which reveal his mastery of prosody. His 1916 edition of the poetry of his friend Gerard Manley Hopkins rescued it from obscurity. He was poet laureate of England from 1913 until his death.

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(born Sept. 25, 1901, Bromont-Lamonthe, Puy-de Dôme, France—died Dec. 18, 1999) French film director. He worked as a painter and photographer before making his first film in 1934. His feature-length Les Anges du péché (1943) established his austere, intellectual style. Noted for intense psychological probing and the subordination of plot to visual imagery, he also directed The Diary of a Country Priest (1950), A Man Escaped (1956), Pickpocket (1959), Balthazar (1966), Lancelot of the Lake (1974), and L'Argent (1983).

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(born Jan. 25, 1627, Lismore Castle, County Waterford, Ire.—died Dec. 31, 1691, London, Eng.) Irish-born English chemist and natural philosopher. The son of Richard Boyle, the “Great Earl of Cork” (1566–1643), he settled at Oxford in 1654 and, with his assistant Robert Hooke, began his pioneering experiments on the properties of gases, including those expressed in Boyle's law (see gas laws). He demonstrated the physical characteristics of air, showing that it is necessary in combustion, respiration, and sound transmission. In The Sceptical Chymist (1661) he attacked Aristotle's theory of the four elements (earth, air, fire, and water), espousing a corpuscular view of matter that presaged the modern theory of chemical elements. A founding member of the Royal Society of London, he achieved great renown in his lifetime. His brother Roger Boyle, earl of Orrery (1621–79), was a general under Oliver Cromwell but eventually helped secure Ireland for Charles II.

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(born June 26, 1854, Grand Pré, Nova Scotia—died June 10, 1937, Ottawa, Ont., Can.) Prime minister of Canada (1911–20). He practiced law in Halifax, Nova Scotia, from 1874 and later founded one of the largest law firms in the Maritime Provinces. In 1896 he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons; he became leader of the Conservative Party in 1901. As prime minister, he implemented conscription in World War I and represented Canada in Britain's imperial war cabinet. He insisted on separate Canadian membership in the League of Nations, which helped transform Canada from a colony to an independent country.

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(born Dec. 23, 1926, Madison, Minn., U.S.) U.S. poet and translator. Bly attended Harvard University and the University of Iowa. In 1958 he founded the magazine The Fifties (later The Sixties), which published the works of young poets. He helped found American Writers Against the Vietnam War, and he donated his 1968 National Book Award prize money (received for The Light Around the Body) to a draft resisters' organization. His best-selling Iron John (1990) probed the male psyche, and Bly became the best-known leader of the “men's movement.” In 2001 he published The Night Abraham Called to the Stars, poems utilizing the Arabic ghazal form. He is also known for his translations of a wide range of poetry.

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(born Sept. 15, 1889, Worcester, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1945, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. drama critic, actor, and humorist. Benchley graduated from Harvard University and joined the staff of Life magazine in 1920. A regular member of the Algonquin Round Table, he was drama critic for The New Yorker 1929–40, for which he also wrote “The Wayward Press” column under the pseudonym Guy Fawkes. He had bit parts in many feature films, but he is best known for more than 40 short subjects, including How to Sleep (1934, Academy Award). His writing was warmly humorous, his satire sharp but not cruel.

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Italian Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino

(born Oct. 4, 1542, Monrepulciano, Tuscany—died Sept. 17, 1621, Rome; canonized 1930; feast day September 17) Italian cardinal and theologian. He joined the Jesuits in 1560, and after ordination in the Spanish Netherlands (1570) he began to teach theology. He was made a cardinal in 1599 and an archbishop in 1602. He took a prominent part in the first examination of Galileo's writings; though somewhat sympathetic to Galileo, he thought it best to have the Copernican system declared “false and erroneous,” which was done in 1616. He gave impartial attention to Protestant works and was regarded as an enlightened theologian. He died a pauper, having given all his funds to the poor. In 1931 he was named a Doctor of the Church.

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(born 1942, Wichita, Kan., U.S.) U.S. oceanographer and marine geologist. He grew up near San Diego, Calif. As a marine scientist at the Woods Hole (Mass.) Oceanographic Research Institution, he pioneered the use of deep-diving submersibles, participated in the first manned exploration of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and discovered warm water springs and their unusual animal communities in the Galápagos Rift. He is best known for his dramatic discovery of the wreck of the Titanic in 1985. Since then he has gone on to discover ships lost in battle during World War II.

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(born May 12, 1804, York, Upper Canada—died Dec. 9, 1858, Toronto) Canadian politician. Called to the bar in 1825, Baldwin began his political career as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada for York (1829–30). In 1842–43 he and Louis Hippolyte LaFontaine formed the first Liberal Party administration; when the Liberals returned to power in 1848, they were able to establish responsible, or cabinet, government. He resigned in 1851.

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Bakewell, detail of an engraving

(born 1725, Dishley, Leicestershire, Eng.—died Oct. 1, 1795, Dishley) English agriculturist. He revolutionized English sheep and cattle breeding by methodical selection, inbreeding, and culling. He was one of the first to breed sheep and cattle for meat and the first to establish on a large scale the practice of letting animals for stud. His farm became famous as a model of scientific management.

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(born Feb. 22, 1857, London, Eng.—died Jan. 8, 1941, Nyeri, Kenya) British army officer and founder of the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides (later Girl Scouts; see scouting). He was noted for his use of observation balloons in warfare in Africa (1884–85). In the South African War, he became a national hero in the Siege of Mafikeng. Having learned that his military textbook Aids to Scouting (1899) was being used to train boys in woodcraft, he wrote Scouting for Boys (1908) and that same year established the Boy Scout movement. In 1910, with his sister Agnes and his wife, Olave, he founded the Girl Guides.

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(born July 10, 1943, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1993, New York, N.Y.) U.S. tennis player. He won his first grand-slam singles h1 (the 1968 U.S. Open) as an amateur. The first African American member of the U.S. Davis Cup team, he helped win five championships (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1978). In 1975 he won the Wimbledon singles h1 and received World Championship Tennis top ranking. He retired in 1980 and became captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team (to 1985). Off the court he was a critic of racial injustice, including South Africa's apartheid policy. In 1992 he revealed that he had been infected with HIV by a transfusion following surgery, and he thereafter devoted time to increasing public awareness of AIDS. The U.S. Open is now played at Arthur Ashe Stadium, which opened at the National Tennis Center in Flushing, N.Y., in 1997.

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(born July 10, 1943, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1993, New York, N.Y.) U.S. tennis player. He won his first grand-slam singles h1 (the 1968 U.S. Open) as an amateur. The first African American member of the U.S. Davis Cup team, he helped win five championships (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1978). In 1975 he won the Wimbledon singles h1 and received World Championship Tennis top ranking. He retired in 1980 and became captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team (to 1985). Off the court he was a critic of racial injustice, including South Africa's apartheid policy. In 1992 he revealed that he had been infected with HIV by a transfusion following surgery, and he thereafter devoted time to increasing public awareness of AIDS. The U.S. Open is now played at Arthur Ashe Stadium, which opened at the National Tennis Center in Flushing, N.Y., in 1997.

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(born July 3, 1728, Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scot.—died March 3, 1792, London, Eng.) Scottish architect and designer. Son of the architect William Adam, he apprenticed in his father's offices. He traveled in Europe in 1754–58, studying architectural theory and Roman ruins. On his return to London, he and his brother James (1732–94) developed an essentially decorative style—known as the Adam style—that was marked by a new lightness and freedom in the use of the Classical elements of architecture. This style is most remembered for its application in interiors, which were characterized by contrasting room shapes and delicate Classical ornaments. Robert Adam's executed works, mainly remodeled interiors and exteriors of private houses, include Osterley Park (1761–80) in Middlesex and Kedleston Hall (circa 1765–70) in Derbyshire. Other works include the Adelphi development in London (1768–72) and the University of Edinburgh (1789). He was also a leading furniture designer; his style, popularized by designer George Hepplewhite, was meant to harmonize with his interior architecture down to the last detail.

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Robert's Rules of Order is the informal short title of a book containing rules of order intended to be adopted for use by a deliberative assembly.

History and origins

The first edition of the book, whose full title was Pocket Manual of Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies, was published in February 1876 by then U.S. Army Major Henry Martyn Robert (1837–1923) with the short title Robert's Rules of Order placed on its cover. The procedures prescribed by the book were loosely modeled after those used in the United States House of Representatives, with such adaptations as Robert saw fit for use in ordinary societies. The author's interest in parliamentary procedure began in 1863 when he was chosen to preside over a church meeting and, although he accepted the task, felt that he did not have the necessary knowledge of proper procedure. In his later work as an active member of several organizations, he discovered that members from different areas of the country had very different views regarding what the proper parliamentary rules were, and these conflicting views hampered the organizations in their work. He eventually became convinced of the need for a new manual on the subject, one which would enable many organizations to adopt the same set of rules.

Explanation

The book is designed for use in ordinary societies rather than legislative assemblies, and it is the most commonly adopted parliamentary authority among societies in the United States. The book claims to be a "codification of the present-day general parliamentary law (omitting provisions having no application outside legislative bodies). This statement does not imply any approbation on the part of the courts, and the "general parliamentary law" is related neither to statutory legal requirements nor to common-law precedent derived from court judgments. Being widely accepted, and being based for the most part on long-standing traditions of parliamentary procedure, however, the current edition of the book is a reliable reference. Nevertheless, the provisions of any particular manual are not, as a general matter, legally binding upon an assembly that has not formally adopted it as its parliamentary authority; any such manual can at best be cited as "persuasive.

Subsequent editions and versions

Editions published by the original author

Robert himself published several later editions of this book before his death in 1923, the final one of these being a thoroughly revised and expanded book, entitled Robert's Rules of Order Revised and published in May 1915 (at which time Robert had long been retired from the army, having attained the rank of Brigadier General).

Later editions by the Robert's Rules trustees

Through a family trust, and later through the Robert's Rules Association, several subsequent editions of Robert's work have been published, including another major revision of the work, entitled Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised and published in February 1970 (on the 94th anniversary of the publication of the first edition).

Current edition

The current edition of the series is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, Tenth Edition (2000) (hardback ISBN 0-7382-0384-X; paperback ISBN 0-7382-0307-6; leatherbound ISBN 0-7382-0923-6). That edition states that it

That book, often referred to using the initialism RONR, is the most widely used parliamentary authority in the United States, according to the National Association of Parliamentarians (an association of approximately 4,000 members which provides education and accreditation certifications for parliamentarians). That association bases its opinions and instruction on RONR.

Other editions and variations

Since the copyrights for several of the original editions have expired, numerous other books and manuals have been published incorporating "Robert's Rules of Order" as part of their titles, some of them based on those earlier editions.

The existence of multiple editions and other variations all published as "Robert's Rules of Order" can sometimes cause confusion, as the various publications may differ in some details. If an organization that has adopted "Robert's Rules of Order" does not wish RONR to be considered its reference authority, it should adopt another version explicitly, as RONR is generally considered by parliamentarians to be the definitive source on the subject.

The next edition of RONR is scheduled to be released in 2011.

See also

Notes and references

External links

Sites providing full text of older editions

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