Rivers

Rivers

[riv-erz]
Rivers, Larry, 1923-2002, American artist, b. New York City as Yitzroch Loisa Grossberg. Originally a jazz saxophonist, he turned to art in the 1940s. Reacting against abstract expressionism, Rivers turned to the figure, as in his 1954 series of nude studies, including Double Portrait of Birdie. An excellent draftsman, a multimedia experimenter, and a cultural provocateur, he was among the first to use popular images in his paintings and was thus a forerunner of the pop art movement. Rivers reached the height of his powers in the mid-1960s and continued to paint in a figurative style, often incorporating into his work stenciled lettering, photographs, and other elements. His themes range from eroticism to social concern, and his canvases are painted in a lively and seemingly spontaneous manner, usually with a cleverly ironic edge.

See his autobiography (1992); study by S. Hunter (1969).

Rivers, Richard Woodville, 1st Earl, d. 1469, English nobleman. He was knighted (1426) by Henry VI and acquired wealth and power by marrying (c.1436) Jacquetta of Luxemburg, widow of John of Lancaster, duke of Bedford. He served in the wars in France and helped suppress the rebellion (1450) of Jack Cade in England. In the Wars of the Roses, Rivers fought for Henry VI until the Lancastrian defeat at Towton (1461). He then transferred his loyalty to the Yorkist Edward IV, to whom he gave his daughter (see Woodville, Elizabeth) in marriage in 1464. He and his family soon received extensive royal favors, Rivers himself becoming treasurer and then constable (1467) of England. He was created earl in 1466. The favoritism shown the Woodville faction embittered Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, who rebelled in 1469. Rivers was captured and executed after Edward's defeat at Edgecot. His eldest son, Anthony Woodville, 2d Earl Rivers, 1442?-1483, accompanied Edward into exile (1470-71) and later served him in various capacities. In 1473 he was appointed guardian of Edward, prince of Wales (later Edward V). On Edward IV's death, however, Rivers was arrested by Richard, duke of Gloucester (later Richard III), and executed. A somewhat romantic and otherworldly figure, Rivers wrote translations of various French works. His Dictes and Sayengis of the Philosophres (1477) was the first dated book printed in England by William Caxton.
Rivers, William Halse Rivers, 1864-1922, British anthropologist. He taught at Cambridge from 1893 until shortly before his death. Trained in medicine and psychology, he pioneered in the experimental study of mental functions among preliterate peoples, making his first field investigations in 1898 among the islanders of the Torres Strait, which separates Australia and New Guinea. Rivers also made a major contribution to social anthropology, introducing the genealogical method into sociological investigations. This method is applied with great success in his classic study, The Todas (1906). An expedition to Melanesia in 1908 resulted in his monumental work, The History of Melanesian Society (1914). His attempts to fuse ethnological facts and psychoanalytic theory led to such works as Instinct and the Unconscious (2d ed. 1922) and Medicine, Magic, and Religion (1924). Other writings include Kinship and Social Organization (1914), Essays on the Depopulation of Melanesia (1922), Psychology and Politics (1923), and Social Organization (ed. by W. J. Perry, 1924).
orig. Yitzroch Loiza Grossberg

(born Aug. 17, 1923, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 14, 2002, Southampton, N.Y.) U.S. painter associated with Abstract Expressionism and Pop art. He studied at the Juilliard School in New York City and was a professional jazz saxophonist before turning to painting and studying with Hans Hofmann. His early works are characterized by frequent use of complex, fragmentary, and multiple views; perhaps the best-known is the harshly realistic Double Portrait of Berdie (1955). From the 1960s he introduced commercial images into his work, as well as elements of collage, construction, and sculpture; an elaborate example of his mixed-media works is The History of the Russian Revolution (1965).

Learn more about Rivers, Larry with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Yitzroch Loiza Grossberg

(born Aug. 17, 1923, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 14, 2002, Southampton, N.Y.) U.S. painter associated with Abstract Expressionism and Pop art. He studied at the Juilliard School in New York City and was a professional jazz saxophonist before turning to painting and studying with Hans Hofmann. His early works are characterized by frequent use of complex, fragmentary, and multiple views; perhaps the best-known is the harshly realistic Double Portrait of Berdie (1955). From the 1960s he introduced commercial images into his work, as well as elements of collage, construction, and sculpture; an elaborate example of his mixed-media works is The History of the Russian Revolution (1965).

Learn more about Rivers, Larry with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Rivers, Roads & Rails is a matching game where a transportation system is built. The game was created by Ken Garland and Associates with the artwork by Josef Loflath. It is published by Ravensburger.

Game play

Setup

A large area like a tabletop or the floor is used. The tiles are turned face down and all players randomly draw ten tiles and place them face up in front of them. The youngest player is the first player to start. The starting player randomly chooses a face-down tile, and turns it face up in the center of the play area.

Playing

Beginning with the starting player, each player on their turn draws a face-down tile (while there are ones remaining). Each tile has at least one of the river, road or rail on it. The player chooses one of his tiles and places it so that it matches up with river, road and/or rail on the tiles that have already been played. If that player cannot play a tile, then he must pass. Play then proceeds to the next player (rules don't specify which direction) until all of the tiles of one player have been played, or no one can play a tile.

Winning

The winner is the person who first plays all of his tiles. If no more tiles can be played, then the winner is the person with the fewest tiles remaining.

External links

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