Richter

Richter

[rik-ter; Ger. rikh-tuhr; Russ. ryeekh-tyir]
Richter, Burton, 1931-, American physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1956. A professor at Stanford, Richter built a particle accelerator (Stanford Positron-Electron Asymmetric Ring) with the help of David Ritson and the support of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. With it he discovered a new subatomic particle called a psi-particle (now called a J/psi meson). The same discovery was made independently and nearly simultaneously by Samuel Ting using a different method. The two scientists were jointly awarded the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work.
Richter, Conrad, 1890-1968, American novelist, b. Pine Grove, Pa. After newspaper work in Pennsylvania and Ohio, he moved to New Mexico. Richter's novels treat the American frontier experience in terms of everyday life. His best-known works are the novels The Trees (1940), The Fields (1946), and The Town (1950; Pulitzer Prize), which comprise a trilogy. His other novels include The Sea of Grass (1937), The Light in the Forest (1953), The Lady (1957), and The Aristocrat (1968).
Richter, Gerhard, 1932-, German painter, b. Dresden, studied Academy of Fine Arts, Dresden (1951-56) and Düsseldorf (1961-63). Widely considered one of the foremost painters of his generation, he lived for nearly 30 years in East Germany where, cut off from contemporary art, he painted social realist murals. In 1961 he defected to West Germany, and flourished under its artistic freedom. Unwilling to settle on any one approach, Richter has varied his style from austere photorealism to satirical pop to minimalism to pure abstraction. Coolly painted, his typical images include figures (derived from family and newspaper pictures, ads, and the like) dissolved into out-of-focus yet recognizable blurs; realistic portrayals of chairs, mirrors, skulls, burning candles, and other favorite objects; grisaille portraits of cultural heroes and other subjects; depictions of color charts in seemingly random order; slashing gestural abstractions; and large monochromatic grids derived from electron-microscope photographs of minerals. Richter has exhibited throughout Europe, and in 2002 he had a major retrospective at New York's Museum of Modern Art. Extremely prolific, he also creates photographs, sculpture, and drawings.

See his Gerhard Richter; Catalogue Raisonné, 1962-1993 (1997), Atlas of the Photographs and Sketches (1997), and Gerhard Richter: 1998 (1999); R. Nasgaard, Gerhard Richter: Paintings (1988); H.-U. Obrist, ed., The Daily Practice of Painting: Writings and Interviews, 1962-1993 (1995) and Gerhard Richter: 100 Pictures (1996); R. Storr, Gerhard Richter: Forty Years of Painting (2002); B. H. D. Buchloh, ed., Gerhard Richter (2009).

Richter, Hans, 1888-1976, American artist, b. Germany. A painter and filmmaker, Richter was influenced by cubism and Dada and was a member of the Dutch de Stijl group (see Stijl, de). His preoccupation with continuity led him first to scroll painting and then to the making of abstract films such as Rythm 21 (1921). His film Dreams That Money Can Buy (1944-46) was made in collaboration with Alexander Calder, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, Fernand Léger, and Max Ernst. It concerns the fantasies of a group of psychiatric patients.
Richter, Johann Paul Friedrich, pseud. Jean Paul, 1763-1825, German novelist. He studied theology at the Univ. of Leipzig and later taught in that city. His novels combine the idealism of Fichte with the romantic sentimentality of Sturm und Drang. Among his romances are Hesperus (1795, tr. 1865); Leben des Quintus Fixlein (1796; tr. by Carlyle, Quintus Fixlein, 1827), a charming prose idyl about a village schoolteacher; and Siebenkäs (1796-97, tr. 1845), in which a sensitive husband ends his unhappy marriage by feigning death and burial. Other works include the novel Titan (1800-1803, tr. 1862) and Levana (1807, tr. 1848), a treatise on education. Richter's writings were extremely popular in his lifetime, and were admired for their idealism and warm portrayals of simple life, as well as for their humor and sentimentality.

See study by D. Berger (1973).

Richter, Ludwig, 1803-84, German painter, illustrator, and etcher; son and pupil of the engraver Karl Richter (1770-1848). His characteristic paintings combine figure and landscape, as in Bridal Procession in Springtime. Richter made approximately 240 etchings, including scenes in Saxony and Rome, and over 1,000 drawings for woodcuts, including illustrations for Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, Schiller's poem "Song of the Bell," and many German fairy tales. They are executed in a simple, often humorous manner.
Richter, Sviatoslav, 1915-97, Russian pianist, b. Ukraine. He studied at the Moscow Conservatory under Heinrich Neuhaus. After earning an impressive critical reputation, he was awarded the Stalin Prize in 1945. In 1960 he made the first of many international concert tours. One of the greatest pianists of the 20th cent., Richter was known as a perfectionist who played in a warm, romantic style. His repertoire was extensive, including works by Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert, Debussy, Mozart, and Schumann.

See B. Monsaingeon, Richter: The Enigma (documentary film, 1998) and Sviatoslav Richter: Notebooks and Conversations (2001).

(born March 20, 1915, Zhitomir, Ukraine, Russian Empire—died Aug. 1, 1997, Moscow, Russia) Ukrainian pianist of German descent. He became accompanist to the Odessa Opera at age 15 and began conducting there at 18. In 1949, two years after he graduated from the Moscow Conservatory, he won the Stalin Prize. He toured Europe, China, Japan, and the U.S., becoming legendary for the powerful technique and fiery energy in his solo performances. Highly regarded as an accompanist and chamber player as well, he made celebrated trio recordings with Mstislav Rostropovich and David Oistrakh.

Learn more about Richter, Sviatoslav (Teofilovich) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 20, 1915, Zhitomir, Ukraine, Russian Empire—died Aug. 1, 1997, Moscow, Russia) Ukrainian pianist of German descent. He became accompanist to the Odessa Opera at age 15 and began conducting there at 18. In 1949, two years after he graduated from the Moscow Conservatory, he won the Stalin Prize. He toured Europe, China, Japan, and the U.S., becoming legendary for the powerful technique and fiery energy in his solo performances. Highly regarded as an accompanist and chamber player as well, he made celebrated trio recordings with Mstislav Rostropovich and David Oistrakh.

Learn more about Richter, Sviatoslav (Teofilovich) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 9, 1932, Dresden, Ger.) German painter. Beginning in the early 1960s, Richter created paintings that were faithful enlargements of black-and-white photographs, often family snapshots and landscapes; he would continue this pursuit throughout his career. In the 1970s he also created monochromatic paintings, which explored the act of painting at its purest, while by the 1980s he experimented with an expressionistic, gestural style. Notably, Richter never allied himself to one movement—he has been alternatively described as a Pop artist, Minimalist, and postmodernist. Instead, he has consistently carried out a rigorous, personal exploration of the process of painting.

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Widely used measure of the magnitude of an earthquake, introduced in 1935 by U.S. seismologists Beno Gutenberg (1889–1960) and Charles F. Richter (1900–1985). The scale is logarithmic, so that each increase of one unit represents a 10-fold increase in magnitude (amplitude of seismic waves). The magnitude is then translated into energy released. Earthquakes that are fainter than the ones originally chosen to define magnitude zero are accommodated by using negative numbers. Though the scale has no theoretical upper limit, the most severe earthquakes have not exceeded a scale value of 9. The moment magnitude scale, in use since 1993, is more accurate for large earthquakes; it takes into account the amount of fault slippage, the size of the area ruptured, and the nature of the materials that faulted.

Learn more about Richter scale with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 9, 1932, Dresden, Ger.) German painter. Beginning in the early 1960s, Richter created paintings that were faithful enlargements of black-and-white photographs, often family snapshots and landscapes; he would continue this pursuit throughout his career. In the 1970s he also created monochromatic paintings, which explored the act of painting at its purest, while by the 1980s he experimented with an expressionistic, gestural style. Notably, Richter never allied himself to one movement—he has been alternatively described as a Pop artist, Minimalist, and postmodernist. Instead, he has consistently carried out a rigorous, personal exploration of the process of painting.

Learn more about Richter, Gerhard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Richter can refer to the Richter magnitude scale, a scale measuring the strength of earthquakes.

Richter is also a surname:

The name Richter also appears in:

  • The Richter scale developed in 1825 to which harmonicas are commonly tuned

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