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Richards

Richards

[rich-erdz]
Richards, Ann Willis, 1933-2006, American politician, b. Lakeview, Tex., as Dorothy Ann Willis. She began her career in politics in the early 1970s after having raised four children. A Democrat, she served as county commissioner in Travis co., Tex. from 1977 to 1982. Richards was elected to the first of two terms as Texas state treasurer in 1982. A forcefully articulate speaker who often infused her commentary with a witty and frequently acid-tinged folksiness, she gained national prominence with her keynote address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention. In 1990 Richards was elected governor of Texas, but she did not survive the conservative Republican tide that swept the nation in 1994 and was narrowly defeated in her reelection bid by George W. Bush.

See her Straight from the Heart (1989) and I'm Not Slowing Down (2004).

Richards, Dickinson Woodruff, Jr., 1895-1973, American physician and physiologist, b. Orange, N.J., grad. Yale, 1917, M.D. Columbia, 1923. He joined the staff of the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia in 1928 and became professor of medicine in 1945. He shared with André F. Cournand and Werner Forssmann the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work in developing a technique whereby a catheter can be inserted through a vein into the heart. This technique facilitates study of the condition of the heart in health and in disease.
Richards, Ellen Henrietta Swallow, 1842-1911, American chemist, educator, and organizer of the home economics movement, b. Dunstable, Mass., grad. Vassar, 1870. In 1870 she began the study of chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, being the first woman to enter that school, and from 1884 until her death was an instructor there in sanitary chemistry. She became a pioneer in the systematizing and simplifying of housekeeping to free women for other activities. The last 30 years of her life were given to the development of what she called euthenics, "the science of controlled environment." With the spur of her enthusiasm and scientific knowledge, the teaching of home economics made rapid progress in the first decade of the 20th cent. She was an organizer and first president (1908) of the American Home Economics Association. Her publications include Euthenics (1910) and Conservation by Sanitation (1911).
Richards, Gordon, 1904-86, British jockey. He began as a stable apprentice in 1919. From the mid-1920s until his retirement in 1954, he was the championship jockey of England 26 times. In 1943 he became the all-time British winner, surpassing Fred Archer's record of 2,749 wins; in all he won 4,870 races. Richards was a horse trainer from 1955 to 1970, after which he became a racing manager. He was the first jockey ever to be knighted.
Richards, I. A. (Ivor Armstrong Richards), 1893-1979, English literary critic. Richards was one of the founders of the school of interpretation known as the New Criticism, which stressed an awareness of textual and psychological nuance and ambiguity when studying literature. He advocated this viewpoint in influential studies including The Meaning of Meaning (with C. K. Ogden, 1923), Principles of Literary Criticism (1924), and Practical Criticism (1929) (see criticism). Richards's own poetry included Internal Colloquies: Poems and Plays (1973) and Beyond (1974) Richards was well-known for his creation, with Charles Kay Ogden, of a simplified language called Basic English, which consists of a primary vocabulary of 850 words. He championed its adoption in books such as Basic English and Its Uses (1943) and So Much Nearer: Essays Toward a World English (1968), and in his teaching at Cambridge and Harvard; he even translated Plato's Republic into Basic English.

See biography by J. P. I. Russo (1989).

Richards, Theodore William, 1868-1928, American chemist, b. Germantown, Pa., Ph.D. Harvard, 1888. Richards was a professor at Harvard from 1891 until his death in 1928. In 1914 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for accurately determining the atomic weights of more than 25 chemical elements and ascertaining the existence of isotopes, chemical elements that have the same atomic number and position in the periodic table but different atomic masses and physical properties. He is credited with making significant improvements to the methods used for determining atomic weights.
Richards, Thomas Addison, 1820-1900, American landscape painter, illustrator, and author, b. London. He emigrated to the United States in 1831. Richards organized and was first director of the School of Design for Women at Cooper Union (1858), and from 1867 taught art at New York Univ. His illustrations appeared in Harper's Magazine and other leading periodicals and in Appleton's Illustrated Handbook of American Travel. His paintings, which belong to the Hudson River school, include Warwick Castle, Pennsylvania Homestead, and French Broad River. Well-traveled in both Europe and America, he wrote and illustrated The Romance of American Landscape and American Scenery (1854).
Richards, William Trost, 1833-1905, American painter, b. Philadelphia, studied in Florence, Rome, and Paris, and settled in Germantown, Pa. Early in his career he painted landscapes and still lifes, but a year after buying a house in Newport, R.I. (1866), he turned to marine paintings. His light-struck seascapes, which follow in the tradition of luminism, are highly realistic. His work was long neglected, but interest in it revived in the last decades of the 20th cent.

(born Feb. 26, 1893, Sandbach, Cheshire, Eng.—died Sept. 7, 1979, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) English critic and poet. While a lecturer at Cambridge, Richards wrote influential works, including Principles of Literary Criticism (1924), in which he introduced a new way of reading poetry that led to the New Criticism. A student of psychology, he concluded that poetry performs a therapeutic function by coordinating various human impulses into an aesthetic whole. In the 1930s he spent much of his time developing Basic English, a language system of 850 basic words that he believed would promote international understanding. He taught at Harvard University from 1944.

Learn more about Richards, I(vor) A(rmstrong) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 2, 1885, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Feb. 25, 1950, Brookline, Mass.) U.S. physician. He received his medical degree from Harvard University. He reversed anemia in dogs (induced by excessive bleeding) with a diet of raw liver; subsequently he and William Murphy (1894–1987) found that eating raw liver reversed pernicious anemia in humans. They shared a Nobel Prize in 1934 with George Whipple for their treatment of the previously invariably fatal disease. He and Edwin Joseph Cohn prepared liver extracts that, taken orally, were the main treatment for pernicious anemia until 1948, when vitamin B12 was isolated.

Learn more about Minot, George (Richards) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 26, 1893, Sandbach, Cheshire, Eng.—died Sept. 7, 1979, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) English critic and poet. While a lecturer at Cambridge, Richards wrote influential works, including Principles of Literary Criticism (1924), in which he introduced a new way of reading poetry that led to the New Criticism. A student of psychology, he concluded that poetry performs a therapeutic function by coordinating various human impulses into an aesthetic whole. In the 1930s he spent much of his time developing Basic English, a language system of 850 basic words that he believed would promote international understanding. He taught at Harvard University from 1944.

Learn more about Richards, I(vor) A(rmstrong) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 2, 1885, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Feb. 25, 1950, Brookline, Mass.) U.S. physician. He received his medical degree from Harvard University. He reversed anemia in dogs (induced by excessive bleeding) with a diet of raw liver; subsequently he and William Murphy (1894–1987) found that eating raw liver reversed pernicious anemia in humans. They shared a Nobel Prize in 1934 with George Whipple for their treatment of the previously invariably fatal disease. He and Edwin Joseph Cohn prepared liver extracts that, taken orally, were the main treatment for pernicious anemia until 1948, when vitamin B12 was isolated.

Learn more about Minot, George (Richards) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Richards is a village in Vernon County, Missouri, United States. The population was 95 at the 2000 census, at which time it was a town.

Geography

Richards is located at (37.909847, -94.556910).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.3 square miles (0.7 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 95 people, 37 households, and 25 families residing in the town. The population density was 347.1 people per square mile (135.9/km²). There were 42 housing units at an average density of 153.5/sq mi (60.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 96.84% White, and 3.16% from two or more races.

There were 37 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 2.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.4% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.16.

In the town the population was spread out with 29.5% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, and 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 102.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.4 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $35,938, and the median income for a family was $44,583. Males had a median income of $26,875 versus $25,833 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,489. There were 9.7% of families and 12.4% of the population living below the poverty line, including 5.9% of under eighteens and none of those over 64.

References

External links

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