The contents are as follows:
The short novel, "If This Goes On—", describes a rebellion against an American theocracy and thus served as the vehicle for Heinlein to criticise the authoritarian potential of Protestant Christian fundamentalism. The work is not an attack on religion in general, however, as he has a Mormon community take part in the anti-theocratic revolt.
The short stories, "Coventry" and "Misfit", describe the succeeding secular liberal society from the point of view of characters who reject it.
Later paperback editions have paired Revolt in 2100 with Methuselah's Children (ISBN 0-671-57780-8).
The character of Nehemiah Scudder, the "First Prophet" of the regime, is also used in Spider Robinson's Variable Star, a novel based on an outline of Heinlein's. The novel borrows liberally from Heinlein's Future History, although it does not follow its timeline, and it is implied that Scudder rose to power after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center.