Respublika Buryatiya

Buryatia

Buryat Republic (Респу́блика Буря́тия; ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). The direct romanization of the republic's name is Respublika Buryatiya in Russian and Buryaad Respublika in Buryat.

Geography

Buryatia is located in the South-Central region of Siberia along the eastern shore of Lake Baikal.

Time zone

Buryatia is located in the Irkutsk Time Zone (IRKT/IRKST). UTC offset is +0800 (IRKT)/+0900 (IRKST).

Rivers

Major rivers include:

Lakes

Mountains

Over 80% of republic's territory is located in the mountainous region, including the Baikal Mountains on the northern shores of Lake Baikal.

Natural resources

Buryatia's natural resources include gold, tungsten, zinc, uranium and more.

Climate

  • Average annual temperature: -1.6°C
  • Average January temperature: -22°C
  • Average July temperature: +18°C
  • Average annual precipitation: 244 mm

Administrative divisions

Demographics

  • Population: 981,238 (2002)
    • Urban: 584,970 (59.6%)
    • Rural: 396,268 (40.4%)
    • Male: 467,984 (47.7%)
    • Female: 513,254 (52.3%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,097
  • Average age: 31.6 years
    • Urban: 31.2 years
    • Rural: 32.2 years
    • Male: 29.4 years
    • Female: 33.9 years
  • Number of households: 322,289 (with 958,402 people)
    • Urban: 197,651 (with 566,755 people)
    • Rural: 124,638 (with 391,647 people)

  • Vital statistics (2005)
    • Births: 13,551 (birth rate 14.0)
    • Deaths: 15,144 (death rate 15.7)
  • Ethnic groups

According to the 2002 Census, ethnic Russians make up two thirds of the republic's population, while the ethnic Buryats are only 27.8%. Other groups include Ukrainians (1.0%), Tatars (0.8%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

1926 census 1 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census
Buryats 214,957 (43.8%) 116,382 (21.3%) 135,798 (20.2%) 178,660 (22.0%) 206,860 (23.0%) 249,525 (24.0%) 272,910 (27.8%)
Soyots 161 (0.0%) 2,739 (0.3%)
Russians 258,796 (52.7%) 393,057 (72.0%) 502,568 (74.6%) 596,960 (73.5%) 647,785 (72.0%) 726,165 (69.9%) 665,512 (67.8%)
Ukrainians 1,982 (0.4%) 13,392 (2.5%) 10,183 (1.5%) 10,769 (1.3%) 15,290 (1.7%) 22,868 (2.2%) 9,585 (1.0%)
Tatars 3,092 (0.6%) 3,840 (0.7%) 8,058 (1.2%) 9,991 (1.2%) 10,290 (1.1%) 10,496 (1.0%) 8,189 (0.8%)
Evenks 2,808 (0.6%) 1,818 (0.3%) 1,335 (0.2%) 1,685 (0.2%) 1,543 (0.2%) 1,679 (0.2%) 2,334 (0.2%)
Others 9,440 (1.9%) 17,277 (3.2%) 15,384 (2.3%) 14,186 (1.7%) 17,630 (2.0%) 27,519 (2.7%) 19,969 (2.0%)

  1. In 1926, the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR included Aga Buryatia, Ust-Orda Buryatia and the Olkhon district. These territories were transferred to the Chita and Irkutsk Oblasts in 1937. Consequently, the results of the 1926 census cannot be compared to the results of the censuses of 1939 and later.

Vital Statistics for 2007: Source

Birth Rate: 15.86 per 1000

Death Rate: 13.36 per 1000

Net Immigration: -2.7 per 1000

NGR: +0.25% per Year

PGR: -0.02% per Year

Birth rate was 16.8 for the first half of 2008.

Demographics for 2006

Gorod / Raion Pp (2006) Births Deaths Growth BR DR NGR
Buryatia 963,300 14,193 13,930 263 14.8 14.5 0.03%
Ulan-Ude 377,000 5,214 5,097 117 13.9 13.6 0.03%
Severobaykalsk 25,800 330 246 84 12.8 9.6 0.32%
Barguzinsky Raion 25,500 414 406 8 16.2 15.9 0.03%
Bauntovsky Evenkiysky Raion 10,700 169 136 33 16 12.8 0.32%
Bichursky Raion 26,800 365 465 -100 13.6 17.3 -0.37%
Dzhidinsky Raion 31,100 544 434 110 17.6 14 0.36%
Yeravninsky Raion 18,700 277 258 19 14.9 13.8 0.11%
Zaigrayevsky Raion 48,900 762 871 -109 15.6 17.8 -0.22%
Zakamensky Raion 30,500 550 487 63 18.1 16 0.21%
Ivolginsky Raion 29,300 524 378 146 17.4 12.5 0.49%
Kabansky Raion 64,500 803 1,061 -258 12.5 16.5 -0.40%
Kizhinginsky Raion 18,300 344 233 111 18.6 12.6 0.60%
Kurumkansky Raion 15,600 266 185 81 17.1 11.9 0.52%
Kyakhtinsky Raion 40,000 688 571 117 17.1 14.2 0.29%
Muysky Raion 15,900 203 154 49 12.9 9.8 0.31%
Mukhorshibirsky Raion 28,100 383 474 -91 13.6 16.9 -0.33%
Okinsky Raion 5,000 96 48 48 19 9.5 0.95%
Pribaykalsky Raion 28,900 426 483 -57 14.7 16.7 -0.20%
Severo-Baykalsky Raion 15,300 203 191 12 13.3 12.5 0.08%
Selenginsky Raion 48,300 736 779 -43 15.4 16.3 -0.09%
Tarbagataysky Raion 16,700 229 283 -54 13.6 16.9 -0.33%
Tunkinsky Raion 23,200 350 396 -46 15.1 17.1 -0.20%
Khorinsky Raion 19,200 317 294 23 16.5 15.3 0.12%

History

The area of the modern day Buryatia was first colonized in the 1600s by Russians in search of wealth, furs and gold. In 1923, the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created through the union of the Buryat-Mongol and Mongol-Buryat Oblasts. In 1937, Aga Buryatia and Ust-Orda Buryatia were detached from the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR and merged with the Chita and Irkutsk oblasts, respectively. Besides, the Olkhon district was transferred from the Buryat-Mongolina ASSR to the Irkutsk oblast.

Politics

The head of government in Buryatia is the President, who is appointed by the President of Russia for a four-year term. Between 1991-2007, the President was Leonid Vasilyevich Potapov, who was elected on July 1, 1994, re-elected in 1998 (with 63.25% of votes), and then re-elected again on June 23, 2002 (with over 67% of votes). Prior to the elections, Potapov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic—the highest post at that time.

The Republic's parliament is the People's Khural, popularly elected every four years. The People's Khural has 65 deputies.

The Republic's Constitution was adopted on February 22, 1994.

Economy

The republic's economy is composed of important agricultural and commercial products including wheat, vegetables, potatoes, timber, leather, graphite and textiles. Fishing, hunting, fur farming, sheep and cattle farming, mining, stock raising, engineering, and food processing are also important economic generators.

Education

The higher education institutions of the republic include Buryatia State University, Buryat State Academy of Agriculture, East Siberian State Academy of Arts and Culture, and East Siberian State Technological Institute.

Religion

Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism, and Orthodox Christianity are the most widespread religions in Buryatia.

Tourism

Lake Baikal is a popular tourist destination, specially in summer period.

Miscellaneous

The Republic uses the postage stamps of Russia, so it does not issue its own postage stamps. Stamps of Buryatia or Buriatia offered on eBay are fakes.

See also

Further reading

  • Leisse, Olaf; Utta-Kristin Leisse (2007). "A Siberian Challenge: Dealing with Multiethnicity in the Republic of Buryatia". Nationalities Papers 35 (4): 773–788.

External links

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