The Nationality Law of the Republic of China () regulates citizenship in the Republic of China (Taiwan). It was first promulgated by the Nationalist Government on February 5, 1929 and revised by the Taipei-based Legislative Yuan in 2000, 2001, and 2006.
In the original version of the law citizenship could only be passed from father to child. However, the law was revised in 2000 to allow citizenship to be passed on from either parents, taking effect on those born after February 9, 1980 (those under age 20 at the time of the promulgation).
The Act does not restrict ROC citizens from becoming dual nationals of other countries. Dual nationals are however restricted by Article 20 from holding most public offices. Indeed many immigrants to the ROC give up their original nationality, obtain ROC citizenship, then apply again for their original nationality—which some countries will restore, some after a waiting period. This entire process is fully legal under ROC law, though statistics are not available regarding how many people do this.
Many countries permit dual citizenship. Some, e.g., in the case of Japan, or the case of Singapore, or in the case of Norway do not. For those that do not, the goal to restrict multiple allegiances is generally bidirectional, without distinction according to who is already a citizen made by Article 9.
The rationale behind this extension of the principle of jus sanguinis to almost all Chinese regardless of their countries of residence, as well as the recognition of dual citizenships, is to acknowledge the support given by overseas Chinese historically to the Kuomintang regime, particularly during the Republican Revolution of 1911.
However, in practice, exercise of other citizenship benefits, such as suffrage, labor rights, and access to national health insurance, requires possession of the Republic of China National Identification Card, which is only issued to persons with household registration in the Taiwan Area. ROC nationals who do not hold household registration in Taiwan have no automatic right to stay in Taiwan. Similarly, some British passport holders do not have the right of abode in the UK. See British nationality law.