The terrain is rugged and mountainous, with the Rangrim Mountains and Yonhwa Mountains passing through the county. The highest point is Yonhwasan, 2355 meters above sea level. The low-lying regions of the county are approximately 1000 meters above sea level. The climate is cold and continental, with frosts descending in mid-September and not relenting until late May.
Several roads pass through the county; in addition, the Kanggye Line railroad connects Rangrim to Kanggye in the west. The chief local crop is potatoes; maize, barley, and wheat are also raised. There are two major logging camps in the county, along with various factories.