Randolph

Randolph

[ran-dolf, -duhlf]
Randolph, Asa Philip, 1889-1979, U.S. labor leader, b. Crescent City, Fla., attended the College of the City of New York. As a writer and editor of the black magazine The Messenger, which he helped to found, Randolph became interested in the labor movement. In 1917 he organized a small union of elevator operators in New York City. After an unsuccessful campaign for the office of New York secretary of state on the Socialist ticket, he devoted his energies to organizing the Pullman car porters, a group of black workers he had tried to organize earlier. Despite bitter opposition by the Pullman Company, Randolph eventually won recognition for the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, pay increases, and shorter hours. Randolph was elected president of the union when it was formed in 1925. An untiring fighter for civil rights, he organized (1941) the March on Washington Movement in protest against job discrimination. This movement, although it did not culminate in a march, is credited with hastening the establishment of the Fair Employment Practices Committee during World War II. Randolph was also one of the most prominent leaders in the fight against segregation in the armed forces. His election to a vice presidency of the AFL-CIO in 1955 was, in part, in recognition of his efforts to eliminate racial discrimination in the organized labor movement. In 1963, Randolph was director of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, one of the largest civil-rights demonstrations ever conducted in the United States. The A. Philip Randolph Institute was founded in 1964 by Randolph and others to serve and promote cooperation between labor and the black community. Randolph retired from the presidency of the union in 1968, although he continued in his position as a vice president of the AFL-CIO.

See biographies by D. S. Davis (1972) and J. Anderson (1973).

Randolph, Edmund, 1753-1813, American statesman, b. Williamsburg, Va.; nephew of Peyton Randolph. He studied law under his father, John Randolph, a Loyalist who went to England at the outbreak of the American Revolution. He served briefly in the Continental army as aide-de-camp to George Washington. He was a member of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1776, state attorney general (1776-86), a delegate to the Continental Congress (1779-82), and governor of Virginia (1786-88). Randolph was prominent at the Constitutional Convention in 1787, presenting the Virginia, or Randolph, Plan, which favored the large states. He at first vigorously opposed the Constitution as finally drafted, although his plan, more than any other, closely resembled it; later he urged its adoption in the Virginia ratifying convention (June, 1788). First Attorney General of the United States (1789-94), he left that post to succeed Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State. Like Jefferson, he had difficulties because of Alexander Hamilton's constant pressure to secure a favorable treaty with England rather than one with France. In 1795 the British captured dispatches of the French minister to the United States, which implied (falsely) that Randolph would welcome French money, whereupon President Washington forced his resignation. Randolph returned to the practice of law in Virginia, and many years passed before his name was entirely cleared. In 1807 he was chief counsel for Aaron Burr in his trial for treason.

See M. D. Conway, Omitted Chapters of History Disclosed in the Life and Papers of Edmund Randolph (1888, repr. 1971); H. J. Eckenrode, The Randolphs (1946).

Randolph, Edward, c.1632-1703, English colonial agent in America. In 1676 he carried royal instructions to Massachusetts Bay that required the colony to send representatives to England to satisfy complaints of the heirs of John Mason (1586-1635) and Sir Ferdinando Gorges; he also had orders to make a complete report on the colony. Rebuffed by the Massachusetts authorities, he made a personal investigation and upon his return to England wrote a denunciatory report based on facts but colored by his dislike for the Puritans. His attack on the legality of the Massachusetts Bay charter helped bring about the withdrawal (1679) of New Hampshire from the colony's administration as well as the order that the colony repeal all laws unfavorable to England and enforce the Navigation Acts. In 1679, Randolph settled in Boston as collector of customs for New England. His relations with the colonials were extremely bitter. After the annulment (1684) of the Massachusetts charter, an act to which he had devoted much energy, he became secretary and register for the Dominion of New England and also acted as a councilor under Joseph Dudley and Sir Edmund Andros. With the collapse (1689) of the Andros regime, Randolph was imprisoned for a time. In 1691 he became surveyor general of customs for North America. His letters and papers have been edited with a biographical commentary by R. N. Toppan and A. T. S. Goodrick (7 vol., 1898-1909, repr. 1967).

See biography by M. G. Hall (1960, repr. 1969).

Randolph, John, 1773-1833, American legislator, known as John Randolph of Roanoke, b. Prince George co., Va. He briefly studied law under his cousin Edmund Randolph. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1799-1813, 1815-17, 1819-25, 1827-29), where he became a prominent and feared figure, and in the U.S. Senate (1825-27). After breaking (1805) with President Jefferson on the acquisition of Florida, which he opposed, Randolph lost his leadership in the House. He strongly opposed James Madison and the War of 1812, the second Bank of the United States, the Missouri Compromise, and the tariff measures. From 1820 he was a violent sectionalist. His impassioned denunciations of Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams led (1826) to a duel with Clay. Appointed (1830) by President Jackson minister to Russia, he resigned shortly after his arrival there because of ill health. Following his return he denounced Jackson's proclamation against nullification. An outspoken champion of individual liberty, he staunchly defended the Constitution and states' rights, and his views were influential in the South long after his death. A bizarre figure, Randolph numbered Pocahontas among his forebears. He became more eccentric in his later years and at times suffered from dementia. Chiefly remembered for his epigrammatic wit and caustic tongue, he also possessed a brilliant and scholarly mind and was celebrated as an orator.

See biographies by H. Adams (1882, repr. 1972) and W. C. Bruce (2 vol., 1922; repr. 1970); study by R. Kirk (rev. ed. 1964).

Randolph, Peyton, c.1721-1775, American political leader, first president of the Continental Congress, b. Williamsburg, Va. After a general education at the College of William and Mary, he studied law in England. He was prominent in Virginia after his return there, was king's attorney for Virginia (1748-66), and was long a member of the house of burgesses (1748-49, 1752-75) and its speaker (1766-75). He wrote the protest for the house against the proposed Stamp Act in 1764, but he opposed Patrick Henry's radical resolutions against it in 1765. A moderate, and a personal friend of George Washington, Randolph worked for the cause of independence, headed the Virginia conventions of 1774 and 1775, and was elected to the First Continental Congress, of which he was briefly (Sept.-Oct., 1774) president. Elected (1775) to the Second Continental Congress, he was again chosen president, but resigned because of illness.

See J. Daniels, The Randolphs of Virginia (1972).

Randolph, Thomas, 1523-90, English diplomat. He was graduated from Oxford (1545) and served as principal of Broadgates Hall (later Pembroke College), Oxford, until forced because of his Protestant sympathies to flee to France upon the accession (1553) of Queen Mary I. He returned (1559) after the accession of Elizabeth I and served her in diplomatic missions to Scotland, where he acquired the friendship of Mary Queen of Scots. He was directed to block the marriage of Mary to Lord Darnley, and in 1566 he was dismissed from Edinburgh, charged by Mary with giving money to support the rebellion of James Stuart, 1st earl of Murray. Randolph's letters during his service in Scotland are a valuable source for the history of the period. In 1568 he headed a special trade embassy to Russia. Subsequently he was sent on missions to France. In 1580 he was in Scotland intriguing on behalf of the imprisoned James Douglas, 4th earl of Morton. His plot to abduct the young King James VI was discovered, and Randolph narrowly escaped death. In 1586, however, he successfully arranged a treaty with Scotland.
Randolph, Thomas, 1605-35, English poet and dramatist. After graduating from Cambridge in 1632, he went to London where he became a disciple of Ben Jonson. His best-known poems are "A Gratulatory to Ben Jonson" and "On the Death of a Nightingale." Amyntas (1631), The Muses' Looking-Glass (1630), and The Jealous Lovers (1632) are his most famous comedies.

See edition of his works edited by W. C. Hazlitt (1875).

Randolph, town (1990 pop. 30,093), Norfolk co., E Mass.; settled c.1710, set off from Braintree and inc. 1793. A suburb of Boston, it has diverse light manufacturing.
Caldecott, Randolph, 1846-86, English artist and illustrator. He is famous for his drawings of contemporary English country life and for his charming and humorous illustrations, including those for Washington Irving's Old Christmas and Bracebridge Hall and Blackburn's Breton Folk. Perhaps his best are the colored illustrations for a series of 16 children's picture books, including The House that Jack Built and The Grand Panjandrum Himself. The Caldecott Medal for excellence in children's-book illustration is named for him.

See memoir by H. Blackburn (1886, repr. 1969).

William Randolph Hearst, 1906.

(born April 29, 1863, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Aug. 14, 1951, Beverly Hills, Calif.) U.S. newspaper publisher. Hearst in 1887 took over the struggling San Francisco Examiner, which he remade into a successful blend of investigative reporting and lurid sensationalism. After buying the New York Morning Journal (later New York Journal-American) in 1895, he fought fierce circulation wars with other papers and helped bring about the era of yellow journalism, employing circulation-boosting strategems that profoundly influenced U.S. journalism. Distorted reportage in Hearst papers fanned public sentiment against Spain that led to the Spanish-American War. He served in Congress (1903–07) but ran unsuccessfully for other offices. In the 1920s he built a grandiose castle in San Simeon, Calif. At the peak of his fortune in 1935 he owned 28 major newspapers, 18 magazines, radio stations, movie companies, and news services. Extravagance and the Depression weakened him financially, and by 1940 he had lost control of his empire. He spent his last years in virtual seclusion.

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(born June 2, 1773, Prince George county, Va.—died May 24, 1833, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. politician. In 1799 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served almost continuously until 1829. A noted orator, he was a staunch advocate of states' rights and opposed a national bank and federal protective tariffs. A supporter of slavery, he led the resistance to the Missouri Compromise. His denunciation of Henry Clay for his support of the presidential candidacy of John Quincy Adams led to a harmless duel with Clay (1826).

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(born April 15, 1889, Crescent City, Fla., U.S.—died May 16, 1979, New York, N.Y.) U.S. civil-rights leader. He was the son of a Methodist minister. In 1911 he moved to New York, where he cofounded the journal The Messenger (later Black Worker), in which he called for more positions for African Americans in the war industry and the armed forces. In 1925 he founded the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first successful African American trade union, and he served as its president until 1968. In 1941 he lobbied Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt to ban racial discrimination in defense industries and federal bureaus. In 1948 he influenced Pres. Harry Truman to bar racial segregation in the armed forces. In 1955 he was made a vice president of the newly combined AFL-CIO. In order to combat discrimination in that union, he formed the Negro American Labor Council in 1960.

Learn more about Randolph, A(sa) Philip with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 13, 1849, Blenheim Palace, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died Jan. 24, 1895, London) British politician. Third son of the 7th duke of Marlborough, he entered the House of Commons in 1874. In the early 1880s he joined other Conservatives in forming the Fourth Party, which advocated a “Tory democracy” of progressive conservatism. In 1886, at age 37, he became leader of the House of Commons and chancellor of the Exchequer, but he resigned after his first budget was rejected. Though he had seemed destined to be prime minister, this miscalculation effectively ended his political career. He remained in the Commons until his death, but he lost interest in politics and devoted much time to horse racing. Winston Churchill was his son.

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(born March 22, 1846, Chester, Cheshire, Eng.—died Feb. 12, 1886, St. Augustine, Fla., U.S.) British graphic artist and watercolourist. While working as a bank clerk, he began drawing for periodicals such as London Society, and, after he moved to London, Punch and Graphic. He developed a gently satirical style and achieved success with illustrations for Washington Irving's books The Sketch Book (1875) and Bracebridge Hall (1876). Caldecott is best known as an illustrator of children's books, including William Cowper's John Gilpin (1878) and Oliver Goldsmith's Elegy on a Mad Dog (1879). Always frail in health, he died at age 39 in Florida, where he had gone to improve his condition. Since 1938 the Caldecott Medal has been awarded annually to the illustrator of the most distinguished U.S. picture book for children.

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(born Feb. 13, 1849, Blenheim Palace, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died Jan. 24, 1895, London) British politician. Third son of the 7th duke of Marlborough, he entered the House of Commons in 1874. In the early 1880s he joined other Conservatives in forming the Fourth Party, which advocated a “Tory democracy” of progressive conservatism. In 1886, at age 37, he became leader of the House of Commons and chancellor of the Exchequer, but he resigned after his first budget was rejected. Though he had seemed destined to be prime minister, this miscalculation effectively ended his political career. He remained in the Commons until his death, but he lost interest in politics and devoted much time to horse racing. Winston Churchill was his son.

Learn more about Churchill, Randolph (Henry Spencer), Lord with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 2, 1773, Prince George county, Va.—died May 24, 1833, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. politician. In 1799 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served almost continuously until 1829. A noted orator, he was a staunch advocate of states' rights and opposed a national bank and federal protective tariffs. A supporter of slavery, he led the resistance to the Missouri Compromise. His denunciation of Henry Clay for his support of the presidential candidacy of John Quincy Adams led to a harmless duel with Clay (1826).

Learn more about Randolph, John with a free trial on Britannica.com.

William Randolph Hearst, 1906.

(born April 29, 1863, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died Aug. 14, 1951, Beverly Hills, Calif.) U.S. newspaper publisher. Hearst in 1887 took over the struggling San Francisco Examiner, which he remade into a successful blend of investigative reporting and lurid sensationalism. After buying the New York Morning Journal (later New York Journal-American) in 1895, he fought fierce circulation wars with other papers and helped bring about the era of yellow journalism, employing circulation-boosting strategems that profoundly influenced U.S. journalism. Distorted reportage in Hearst papers fanned public sentiment against Spain that led to the Spanish-American War. He served in Congress (1903–07) but ran unsuccessfully for other offices. In the 1920s he built a grandiose castle in San Simeon, Calif. At the peak of his fortune in 1935 he owned 28 major newspapers, 18 magazines, radio stations, movie companies, and news services. Extravagance and the Depression weakened him financially, and by 1940 he had lost control of his empire. He spent his last years in virtual seclusion.

Learn more about Hearst, William Randolph with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Coleman Hawkins, c. 1943.

(born Nov. 21, 1904, St. Joseph, Mo., U.S.—died May 19, 1969, New York, N.Y.) U.S. jazz musician. Hawkins came to prominence as a member of Fletcher Henderson's big band (1924–34), with which he absorbed the style of Louis Armstrong and developed the smooth legato phrasing and robust tone that set the technical standard for all tenor players. He worked in Europe (1934–39) and soon after his return recorded “Body and Soul,” which became a commercial success and one of the masterpieces of improvised jazz. Hawkins was the first important tenor saxophone soloist in jazz. He was receptive to the harmonic advances made by younger players, who widely acknowledged his influence.

Learn more about Hawkins, Coleman (Randolph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 9, 1930, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.) U.S. saxophonist and composer, the principal initiator and leading exponent of free jazz. Coleman began playing the saxophone as a teenager and soon became a working musician in dance bands and rhythm-and-blues groups. He abandoned harmonic patterns in order to improvise more directly upon melodic and expressive elements; because the tonal centres of such music changed at the improviser's will, it became known as “free jazz.” His organized collective improvisation in such recordings as Free Jazz (1960) placed him firmly in the jazz avant-garde. In the 1970s he began composing orchestral music and also formed an electric band called Prime Time, with which he was active until the 1990s.

Learn more about Coleman, (Randolph Denard) Ornette with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Coleman Hawkins, c. 1943.

(born Nov. 21, 1904, St. Joseph, Mo., U.S.—died May 19, 1969, New York, N.Y.) U.S. jazz musician. Hawkins came to prominence as a member of Fletcher Henderson's big band (1924–34), with which he absorbed the style of Louis Armstrong and developed the smooth legato phrasing and robust tone that set the technical standard for all tenor players. He worked in Europe (1934–39) and soon after his return recorded “Body and Soul,” which became a commercial success and one of the masterpieces of improvised jazz. Hawkins was the first important tenor saxophone soloist in jazz. He was receptive to the harmonic advances made by younger players, who widely acknowledged his influence.

Learn more about Hawkins, Coleman (Randolph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 22, 1846, Chester, Cheshire, Eng.—died Feb. 12, 1886, St. Augustine, Fla., U.S.) British graphic artist and watercolourist. While working as a bank clerk, he began drawing for periodicals such as London Society, and, after he moved to London, Punch and Graphic. He developed a gently satirical style and achieved success with illustrations for Washington Irving's books The Sketch Book (1875) and Bracebridge Hall (1876). Caldecott is best known as an illustrator of children's books, including William Cowper's John Gilpin (1878) and Oliver Goldsmith's Elegy on a Mad Dog (1879). Always frail in health, he died at age 39 in Florida, where he had gone to improve his condition. Since 1938 the Caldecott Medal has been awarded annually to the illustrator of the most distinguished U.S. picture book for children.

Learn more about Caldecott, Randolph with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 15, 1889, Crescent City, Fla., U.S.—died May 16, 1979, New York, N.Y.) U.S. civil-rights leader. He was the son of a Methodist minister. In 1911 he moved to New York, where he cofounded the journal The Messenger (later Black Worker), in which he called for more positions for African Americans in the war industry and the armed forces. In 1925 he founded the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first successful African American trade union, and he served as its president until 1968. In 1941 he lobbied Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt to ban racial discrimination in defense industries and federal bureaus. In 1948 he influenced Pres. Harry Truman to bar racial segregation in the armed forces. In 1955 he was made a vice president of the newly combined AFL-CIO. In order to combat discrimination in that union, he formed the Negro American Labor Council in 1960.

Learn more about Randolph, A(sa) Philip with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Randolph is a city in Fremont County, Iowa, United States. The population was 209 at the 2000 census. It is the birthplace of Virginia Smith, Republican U.S. representative from the 3rd District of Nebraska from 1975 until 1991.

Geography

Randolph is located at (40.872924, -95.566798).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.3 square miles (0.8 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 209 people, 82 households, and 59 families residing in the city. The population density was 658.7 people per square mile (252.2/km²). There were 88 housing units at an average density of 277.3/sq mi (106.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 99.04% White, and 0.96% from two or more races.

There were 82 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.0% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.97.

In the city the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 28.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,861, and the median income for a family was $36,500. Males had a median income of $27,273 versus $20,417 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,925. About 7.6% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 12.5% of those sixty five or over.

Notable natives

References

External links

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