The name Ranchi comes from "archi" an Oraon/Kurukh word for the farmer's "baton" in use while ploughing. The area was an agricultural locality and Doranda (durang da' a Mundari word) was a better known place for its military base and garrison. The present Purani Ranchi was originally known as the village Archi.
Ranchi is a prominent political, commercial, industrial and educational hub of eastern India.
Ranchi is located at . The total area covered by Ranchi - Municipal Area is about 110 square kilometers and the average elevation of the city is 2,140 feet above sea level.
Geographically, Ranchi is located on southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau system. The area surrounding Ranchi has been endowed with natural attractions and it is referred to as the “City of Waterfalls”. The most popular waterfalls are Dasham, Hundru, Jonha Falls, Hirni and Panchghat, which are all active perennially.
The Subernarekha river and its tributaries constitute the local river system. Dams inKanke, Rukka and Hatia have been built over these channels to cater to the water requirements of the local population.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its combination with dense tropical forests ensures that it enjoys a comparatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state.
As of 2001 India census, Ranchi had a population of 846,454. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 68%. In Ranchi, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.
According to the current estimates, the population of the city is now about 1,300,000. The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and marketing companies, the city witnessed the influx of migrants. Ranchi has always enjoyed a cosmopolitan environment and still entails a good mix of people from different regions of the country. Ranchi is the largest city in Jharkhand.
Ranchi has a number of government and privately run schools and colleges.
Most of the government-run schools in Ranchi are affiliated to Jharkhand Academic Council, while most of the private schools are affiliated to ICSE and/or CBSE boards. A number of Christian Schools are Convents or are run by the Jesuit missionaries of the Roman Catholic, Gossner, Evangelical and Lutheran Churches and the Church of North India.
Most of the colleges and institutions of higher education of Ranchi are under the jurisdiction of Ranchi University. There are also Agicultural and Veterinary Colleges which are part of the Birsa Agricultural University located at Kanke.
Kendriya Vidyalaya, CCL Ranchi, H.E.C. HIgh school Dhurwa ranchi D.A.V Hehal, Hehal, Ranchi Surendranath Centenary School, Dipatoli D.A.V Gandhi Nagar, Gandhi Nagar, Kanke Road Jawahar Vidya Mandir, Shyamali Colony D.A.V Bariatu, Bariatu, Ranchi D.A.V Kapil Dev, New A.G. Co-Operative Colony, Kadru, Ranchi D.A.V International School, Bariatu Cambrian Public School, Kanke Road, Saraswati Shishu Vidya Mandir,Dhurwa, Bishop's School, Bahu Bazaar Bishop Westcott Boys' School, Namkum Bishop Westcott Girls' School, Namkum Bishop Westcott Girls School, Doranda St. Xavier's School, South Office Para, Doranda St. Mary's (N) School, South Office Para, Doranda St. Anthony's School, North Office Para, Doranda Loreto Conven, North Office Para, Doranda Delhi Public School, Satelite Colony Bridgeford School, Tupudana Sacred Heart, Hulhundu Taurian World School, Khunti Road Saffire International School, Khunti Road Tender Heart School, Tupudana Kendriya Vidyalaya, Doranda St. Francis School,Harmu Housing Colony, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Hinoo Kendriya Vidyalaya, Namkum Kendriya Vidyalaya, Dipatoli Kairali School, Sector-II, Dhurwa Army School, Bariatu St. Thomas School, Dhurwa
Ranchi College, St Xavier's College, Gossner College, Marwari College, Women's College, Nirmala College, J.N College
Ranchi has road connectivity with 2 National Highways (NH-23 & 33)crossing it and NH-75 originating here. Recently the state government with the support of NHDC has constituted a plan to expand the road connectivity of different district headquarters to this capital city with 4-lane highways of international standards.
One peculiarity of this capital city is that there are no local bus services. For commuting one can hire or share an Auto Rickshaw. Taxis too are available. Cycle rickshaws are a more modest way to travel for short distances.
The city has one State Bus Terminus where buses are available for travelling to Jamshedpur, Patna, Gaya, Bhagalpur, Alipurduar, Siliguri, Kolkata, Rourkela. The State Bus Terminus is located near the Ranchi Railway station.
Khad Garha is a Private Bus Terminus where buses are available for multiple destinations within Jharkhand and Bihar. There are also buses available for Kolkata, Benaras, Rourkela and cities of other eastern states. AC Services are available for Patna, Kolkata and Jamshedpur. Most of the buses are equipped with music systems and video.
Ratu Road is another Private Bus Terminus where buses are available for destinations in Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa and Chattisgarh.
Ranchi has witnessed growth in railway connectivity during the past 3 to 4 years. Growing demand and grants in the annual Railway budgets made sure that Ranchi got its deserved share of allocation. Currently Ranchi has frequent connectivity with all major centres in India.
Major Rail Connections From Ranchi: New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata (Howrah), Chennai, Bangalore, Cochin, Allepey, Jaipur, Patna, Bhubaneshwar, Alipurduar etc.
The Railway Stations in the city are: Tatisilwai, Namkum, Ranchi Junction, Argora & Hatia
Ranchi has a domestic airport - "Bhagwan Birsa Munda Airport" (Code: IXR) managed by the Airports Authority of India. It is situated at an elevation of 2120 ft. The airport terminal is situated approximately 7 km South of the city center, in Hinoo. The single runway airport is approximatelty 8000 feet in length and supports navigation/traffic control systems such as HIRL, PAPI, ASPL and Apron Flood lights.
Ranchi is connected by air with most of the major metros of the country. It has 5 daily connections to Delhi and 3 to Kolkatta. It is also connected with cities like Mumbai, Patna, Bhubaneshwar and Chandigarh by daily scheduled services. Airlines include Indian, JetLite, Deccan and MDLR.
New budget airlines have announced plans to connect Ranchi with other destinations.
As an important administrative and military base of the eastern India during the British Raj, Ranchi developed as an important centre of trade and commerce, including a traditional base for sericulture and manufacture of shellac. Villages around Ranchi has been described as the 'vegetable bowl' of Jharkhand and truckloads of green vegetables are transported from the city to different parts of Jharkhand, Bihar, as also to Kolkata.
After India gained independence, Ranchi continued to grow and a number of industrial facilities were located in and around the city, and it emerged as an important industrial centre. Along with other two industrial townships of Jamshedpur and Bokaro, it completes the industrial structure of Jharkhand. Techno-industrial facilities of Ranchi include Heavy Engineering Corporation, MECON, SAIL's R&D Facility, High Tension Insulator factory, CCL, CMPDI, IICM, Usha Martin, Usha Beltron Shipping Corporation of India, Jain Construction
Also known as RDCIS, the centre was established in 1974 as the corporate R&D of Steel Authority of India Ltd. Today it is the largest and most reputed Steel Research Centre of the country. The centre boasts of over 350 scientists and a huge array of sophisticated research /test equipment. Besides addressing to the R&D needs of SAIL (Steel Authority of India Ltd), the centre also provides diverse scientific services to other organisations on contract basis.
The city is traditionally the medical centre for the entire region of about 400 km in radius. Many hospitals, both private and public, dot the city.
Dhurwa dam 2 km from vidhan sabha
Hirini Falls are One Of the Famous Falls of Ranchi(Jharkhand)
Other than these recognized parks (most of which have entry fee), there are many open playgrounds which are vanishing fast as the government/administration has decided that massive constructions on available government lands (which will create more traffic and pollution in the choking narrow roads) is the way to progress, and the fact that a city requires open playgrounds where youngsters can go to play and have healthy recreational activity is easily overlooked.
Besides the AIR (All India Radio) run Vividh Bharti 103.3 FM,radio station, there are private FM Channels as well. Rdaiomantra 91.9 FM...(life ka mantra) is owned by the Dainik Jagran Media house. Big 92.7 FM which a joint venture by Anil Dhirubhai Ambani and Adlabs, 104.8 Radio Dhoom owned by the state's most popular media house Prabhat Khabar has recently been launched and the B.A.G group's venture 106.4 FM Radio Dhamaal comprises of the Fm channel network in Ranchi.
Cricket is a popular sport in Ranchi. M.S. Dhoni, the captain of Indian One Day Cricket and T20 Team, was born and lives in Ranchi. He lead the team to win the T-20 cricket world cup. The popularity of cricket in the state has grown by leaps and bounds, after Dhoni was made captain of the Indian Cricket Team.