Ralph "Scotty" Bowman

Vaughan Williams, Ralph

(born Oct. 12, 1872, Down Ampney, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Aug. 26, 1958, London) British composer. He attended the Royal College of Music and Cambridge University, and he also studied in Berlin with the composer Max Bruch. Having collected English folk songs for his academic work, he combined folk melody with modern approaches to harmony and rhythm, forging a musical style at once highly personal and deeply English. His nine symphonies, including Sea Symphony (1909), London Symphony (1913), and Sinfonia Antarctica (1952), were his most exploratory works. Other popular pieces include The Lark Ascending (1914) and Serenade to Music (1938); he also wrote five operas, including Riders to the Sea (1936). He conducted extensively throughout his life, and he edited The English Hymnal (1904–06).

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(born Dec. 19, 1902, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Oct. 10, 1983, London) British actor. He began his acting career at age 18 and gained prominence in the 1930s and '40s at the Old Vic in roles such as Peer Gynt, Petruchio, Falstaff, and Volpone, gaining a reputation as one of the greatest actors of his time. He made his screen debut in 1933 and became known for playing urbane, witty characters and later for eccentric old men. His many films included The Fallen Idol (1948), Doctor Zhivago (1965), and Greystoke (1984).

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(born Dec. 19, 1902, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Oct. 10, 1983, London) British actor. He began his acting career at age 18 and gained prominence in the 1930s and '40s at the Old Vic in roles such as Peer Gynt, Petruchio, Falstaff, and Volpone, gaining a reputation as one of the greatest actors of his time. He made his screen debut in 1933 and became known for playing urbane, witty characters and later for eccentric old men. His many films included The Fallen Idol (1948), Doctor Zhivago (1965), and Greystoke (1984).

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Ralph Waldo Emerson, lithograph by Leopold Grozelier, 1859

(born May 25, 1803, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died April 27, 1882, Concord) U.S. poet, essayist, and lecturer. Emerson graduated from Harvard University and was ordained a Unitarian minister in 1829. His questioning of traditional doctrine led him to resign the ministry three years later. He formulated his philosophy in Nature (1836); the book helped initiate New England Transcendentalism, a movement of which he soon became the leading exponent. In 1834 he moved to Concord, Mass., the home of his friend Henry David Thoreau. His lectures on the proper role of the scholar and the waning of the Christian tradition caused considerable controversy. In 1840, with Margaret Fuller, he helped launch The Dial, a journal that provided an outlet for Transcendentalist ideas. He became internationally famous with his Essays (1841, 1844), including “Self-Reliance.” Representative Men (1850) consists of biographies of historical figures. The Conduct of Life (1860), his most mature work, reveals a developed humanism and a full awareness of human limitations. His Poems (1847) and May-Day (1867) established his reputation as a major poet.

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(born Oct. 12, 1872, Down Ampney, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Aug. 26, 1958, London) British composer. He attended the Royal College of Music and Cambridge University, and he also studied in Berlin with the composer Max Bruch. Having collected English folk songs for his academic work, he combined folk melody with modern approaches to harmony and rhythm, forging a musical style at once highly personal and deeply English. His nine symphonies, including Sea Symphony (1909), London Symphony (1913), and Sinfonia Antarctica (1952), were his most exploratory works. Other popular pieces include The Lark Ascending (1914) and Serenade to Music (1938); he also wrote five operas, including Riders to the Sea (1936). He conducted extensively throughout his life, and he edited The English Hymnal (1904–06).

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(born Feb. 27, 1934, Winsted, Conn., U.S.) U.S. lawyer and consumer advocate. The son of Lebanese immigrants, he attended Princeton University and Harvard Law School. In 1963 he left his private law practice in Hartford, Conn., to hitchhike to Washington, D.C., where he began public interest work. His concern about unsafe car designs resulted in the best-selling book Unsafe at Any Speed (1965), which led directly to the passage of national auto-safety standards. Since then he and his associates, known as “Nader's Raiders,” have performed numerous studies on consumer health, safety, and financial issues and have lobbied for greater government regulation of business and industry in a variety of areas. He was instrumental in the passage of the Freedom of Information Act (1966) and in establishing the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Environmental Protection Agency. He also founded the consumer organization Public Citizen and the U.S. Public Interest Research Group, an umbrella organization for other public interest research groups. As the Green Party candidate in the 2000 U.S. presidential election, he won 3percnt of the national vote. Nader also ran for president in 2004 and 2008. His work has had major and lasting effects on many aspects of American life.

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orig. Ralph Lifshitz

(born Oct. 14, 1939, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. fashion designer. Lauren grew up in the Bronx, in New York City. While working for a tie company, he was inspired to begin designing his own neckwear, and in 1967 he went into business for himself. From the inception of his brand, Lauren's creations were characterized by a moneyed style that evoked the look of English aristocracy, as adapted by the sporty, East-Coast American elite. His first menswear line in 1968 featured classic tweed suits, and his first womenswear line in 1971 continued his explorations of classic tailoring and good taste, but with a feminine twist. In 1972 Lauren debuted what would become his signature piece: the mesh sport shirt, available in a variety of colours and featuring his trademark emblem, the polo player. Throughout the following decades he explored new ideas—including Southwestern themes and safari looks—but maintained his central focus on classic American clothing. At the turn of the 21st century, the presence of both his shops and his brand name had become global.

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Ralph Bunche.

(born Aug. 7, 1904, Detroit, Mich., U.S.—died Dec. 9, 1971, New York, N.Y.) U.S. diplomat. He earned graduate degrees at Harvard University and taught at Howard University from 1928. After studying colonial policy in Africa, he collaborated with Gunnar Myrdal in An American Dilemma (1944), a study of U.S. race relations. He worked in the U.S. war and state departments during World War II. In 1947 he became director of the trusteeship department of the UN Secretariat. His work in forging a truce between Palestinian Arabs and Jews earned him the 1950 Nobel Prize for Peace. As UN undersecretary for political affairs, he oversaw UN peacekeeping forces around the Suez Canal (1956), in the Congo (1960), and in Cyprus (1964). He also served on the board of the NAACP for 22 years.

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(born March 24, 1855, Wittebergen, Cape Colony—died Dec. 11, 1920, Cape Town, S.Af.) South African writer. She had no formal education but read widely, developing a powerful intellect and militantly feminist and liberal views. After working as a governess she published (as Ralph Iron) the semiautobiographical The Story of an African Farm (1883). The first great South African novel, it concerns a girl living on an isolated farm in the veld who struggles to attain independence in the face of rigid Boer social conventions. Her later works include Trooper Peter Halkett of Mashonaland (1897), attacking Cecil Rhodes, and Woman and Labour (1911), an acclaimed bible of the women's movement.

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(born March 11, 1926, Linden, Ala., U.S.—died April 17, 1990, Atlanta, Ga.) U.S. pastor and civil rights leader. He was educated at Alabama State University and Atlanta University. Ordained a Baptist minister in 1948, he became pastor of the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala., in 1951. He met Martin Luther King, Jr., a few years later when the latter became pastor of another Baptist church in Montgomery. In 1955–56 the two men organized a nonviolent boycott of the city bus system, marking the beginning of the U.S. civil rights movement. In 1957 they founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Abernathy became its president on King's assassination in 1968; in 1977 he resigned to resume work as a pastor in Atlanta. His autobiography, And the Walls Came Tumbling Down, appeared in 1989.

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(born 1617, Aler, Somerset, Eng.—died June 26, 1688, Cambridge) English theologian and philosopher. Reared as a Puritan, he eventually adopted Nonconformist views such as the notion that church government and religious practice should be individual rather than authoritarian. He became a leader of the Cambridge Platonists. In ethics, his outstanding work is A Treatise Concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality (1731), which was directed against Puritan Calvinism, the theology of René Descartes, and the attempt by Thomas Hobbes to reduce morality to obedience to civil authority. He stressed the natural good or evil inherent in an event or act, in contrast to the Calvinist-Cartesian notion of divine law. “Things are what they are,” he wrote, “not by Will but by Nature.” Seealso intuitionism; voluntarism.

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orig. Charles William Gordon

(born Sept. 13, 1860, Indian Lands, Glengarry county, Ont., Can.—died Oct. 31, 1937, Winnipeg, Man.) Canadian novelist. Ordained a Presbyterian minister in 1890, Connor became a missionary to mining and lumber camps in the Canadian Rocky Mountains; this experience and memories of his childhood in Glengarry, Ont., provided material for his novels, including The Sky Pilot (1899) and The Prospector (1904), which, combining adventure with religious messages and wholesome sentiment, made him the best-selling Canadian novelist of the early 20th century. His best books are considered to be The Man from Glengarry (1901) and Glengarry School Days (1902).

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(born Oct. 15, 1847, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 9, 1919, near Elizabethtown, N.Y.) U.S. painter. A self-taught artist, he developed a highly original and subjective style of landscape painting, characterized by luminous impasto images of moonlit scenes with nocturnal lighting and strangely dappled trees and foliage. Neglected by the public and constantly under the strain of poverty, he suffered a breakdown in 1899, ceased to paint, and spent the rest of his life in an asylum. During his confinement he achieved some fame, and forgeries of his work became common as his popularity rose.

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(born Oct. 15, 1847, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 9, 1919, near Elizabethtown, N.Y.) U.S. painter. A self-taught artist, he developed a highly original and subjective style of landscape painting, characterized by luminous impasto images of moonlit scenes with nocturnal lighting and strangely dappled trees and foliage. Neglected by the public and constantly under the strain of poverty, he suffered a breakdown in 1899, ceased to paint, and spent the rest of his life in an asylum. During his confinement he achieved some fame, and forgeries of his work became common as his popularity rose.

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(born Feb. 27, 1934, Winsted, Conn., U.S.) U.S. lawyer and consumer advocate. The son of Lebanese immigrants, he attended Princeton University and Harvard Law School. In 1963 he left his private law practice in Hartford, Conn., to hitchhike to Washington, D.C., where he began public interest work. His concern about unsafe car designs resulted in the best-selling book Unsafe at Any Speed (1965), which led directly to the passage of national auto-safety standards. Since then he and his associates, known as “Nader's Raiders,” have performed numerous studies on consumer health, safety, and financial issues and have lobbied for greater government regulation of business and industry in a variety of areas. He was instrumental in the passage of the Freedom of Information Act (1966) and in establishing the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Environmental Protection Agency. He also founded the consumer organization Public Citizen and the U.S. Public Interest Research Group, an umbrella organization for other public interest research groups. As the Green Party candidate in the 2000 U.S. presidential election, he won 3percnt of the national vote. Nader also ran for president in 2004 and 2008. His work has had major and lasting effects on many aspects of American life.

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orig. Ralph Lifshitz

(born Oct. 14, 1939, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. fashion designer. Lauren grew up in the Bronx, in New York City. While working for a tie company, he was inspired to begin designing his own neckwear, and in 1967 he went into business for himself. From the inception of his brand, Lauren's creations were characterized by a moneyed style that evoked the look of English aristocracy, as adapted by the sporty, East-Coast American elite. His first menswear line in 1968 featured classic tweed suits, and his first womenswear line in 1971 continued his explorations of classic tailoring and good taste, but with a feminine twist. In 1972 Lauren debuted what would become his signature piece: the mesh sport shirt, available in a variety of colours and featuring his trademark emblem, the polo player. Throughout the following decades he explored new ideas—including Southwestern themes and safari looks—but maintained his central focus on classic American clothing. At the turn of the 21st century, the presence of both his shops and his brand name had become global.

Learn more about Lauren, Ralph with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Ralph Waldo Emerson, lithograph by Leopold Grozelier, 1859

(born May 25, 1803, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died April 27, 1882, Concord) U.S. poet, essayist, and lecturer. Emerson graduated from Harvard University and was ordained a Unitarian minister in 1829. His questioning of traditional doctrine led him to resign the ministry three years later. He formulated his philosophy in Nature (1836); the book helped initiate New England Transcendentalism, a movement of which he soon became the leading exponent. In 1834 he moved to Concord, Mass., the home of his friend Henry David Thoreau. His lectures on the proper role of the scholar and the waning of the Christian tradition caused considerable controversy. In 1840, with Margaret Fuller, he helped launch The Dial, a journal that provided an outlet for Transcendentalist ideas. He became internationally famous with his Essays (1841, 1844), including “Self-Reliance.” Representative Men (1850) consists of biographies of historical figures. The Conduct of Life (1860), his most mature work, reveals a developed humanism and a full awareness of human limitations. His Poems (1847) and May-Day (1867) established his reputation as a major poet.

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(born April 29, 1951, Kannapolis, N.C., U.S.—died Feb. 18, 2001, Daytona, Fla.) U.S. automobile racer. He earned Rookie of the Year honours on the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing's Winston Cup series in 1979. In his career he drove to seven Winston Cup h1s (1980, 1986–87, 1990–91, 1993–94), equaling the mark of Richard Petty. Earnhardt gained a reputation as an aggressive driver and became known as “the Intimidator.” He died from injuries suffered in a crash during the final lap of the 2001 Daytona 500.

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(born 1617, Aler, Somerset, Eng.—died June 26, 1688, Cambridge) English theologian and philosopher. Reared as a Puritan, he eventually adopted Nonconformist views such as the notion that church government and religious practice should be individual rather than authoritarian. He became a leader of the Cambridge Platonists. In ethics, his outstanding work is A Treatise Concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality (1731), which was directed against Puritan Calvinism, the theology of René Descartes, and the attempt by Thomas Hobbes to reduce morality to obedience to civil authority. He stressed the natural good or evil inherent in an event or act, in contrast to the Calvinist-Cartesian notion of divine law. “Things are what they are,” he wrote, “not by Will but by Nature.” Seealso intuitionism; voluntarism.

Learn more about Cudworth, Ralph with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Charles William Gordon

(born Sept. 13, 1860, Indian Lands, Glengarry county, Ont., Can.—died Oct. 31, 1937, Winnipeg, Man.) Canadian novelist. Ordained a Presbyterian minister in 1890, Connor became a missionary to mining and lumber camps in the Canadian Rocky Mountains; this experience and memories of his childhood in Glengarry, Ont., provided material for his novels, including The Sky Pilot (1899) and The Prospector (1904), which, combining adventure with religious messages and wholesome sentiment, made him the best-selling Canadian novelist of the early 20th century. His best books are considered to be The Man from Glengarry (1901) and Glengarry School Days (1902).

Learn more about Connor, Ralph with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Ralph Bunche.

(born Aug. 7, 1904, Detroit, Mich., U.S.—died Dec. 9, 1971, New York, N.Y.) U.S. diplomat. He earned graduate degrees at Harvard University and taught at Howard University from 1928. After studying colonial policy in Africa, he collaborated with Gunnar Myrdal in An American Dilemma (1944), a study of U.S. race relations. He worked in the U.S. war and state departments during World War II. In 1947 he became director of the trusteeship department of the UN Secretariat. His work in forging a truce between Palestinian Arabs and Jews earned him the 1950 Nobel Prize for Peace. As UN undersecretary for political affairs, he oversaw UN peacekeeping forces around the Suez Canal (1956), in the Congo (1960), and in Cyprus (1964). He also served on the board of the NAACP for 22 years.

Learn more about Bunche, Ralph (Johnson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 11, 1926, Linden, Ala., U.S.—died April 17, 1990, Atlanta, Ga.) U.S. pastor and civil rights leader. He was educated at Alabama State University and Atlanta University. Ordained a Baptist minister in 1948, he became pastor of the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala., in 1951. He met Martin Luther King, Jr., a few years later when the latter became pastor of another Baptist church in Montgomery. In 1955–56 the two men organized a nonviolent boycott of the city bus system, marking the beginning of the U.S. civil rights movement. In 1957 they founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Abernathy became its president on King's assassination in 1968; in 1977 he resigned to resume work as a pastor in Atlanta. His autobiography, And the Walls Came Tumbling Down, appeared in 1989.

Learn more about Abernathy, Ralph David with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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