is a movement around the late 1800s that, typically, tried to show that none of the Pauline epistles
are authentic. This group of scholars often postulated that Jesus and the apostles were ahistorical constructions.
The Dutch Radical Critics include A.D. Loman, W.C. van Manen, Gerardus Johannes Petrus Josephus Bolland and G.A. van den Bergh van Eysinga.