RAF Woodbridge

RAF Woodbridge

RAF Woodbridge is a former Royal Air Force station situated to the east of Woodbridge in the county of Suffolk, England. It is famous for its wide runway which, along with the two at the former RAF bases at Manston & Carnaby in Yorkshire were originally constructed to assist damaged aircraft to land on their return from raids over Germany.

Woodbridge was used by the RAF during World War II, and by the United States Air Force during the Cold War, being the primary home for the 79th Fighter Squadron and squadrons of the 81st Fighter Wing under various designations from 1951 to 1993. For many years the 81st Fighter Wing also operated nearby RAF Bentwaters, with Bentwaters and Woodbridge being known as the "Twin Bases".

History

World War II

In 1943 Woodbridge was constructed as one of three airfields set up to accept damaged or fuel-short bombers returning from raids over Germany, and were therefore fitted with long, heavy-duty runways. It was initially called RAF Station Sutton Heath. Woodbridge was chosen as the site for one of these as it was 'nearly fog-free and had no obstructions for miles' although more than a million trees had to be cleared from Rendlesham Forest to take the new base. Its first use, however was in July 1943 when it was used by an American B-17 Flying Fortress bomber.

In the spring of 1944, Woodbrige was considered to be the operational base for Operation Aphrodite, a secret plan for drone B-17s (redesignated as BQ-7s) to be used against German V-1 flying bomb sites, submarine pens, or deep fortifications that had resisted conventional bombing. In early July, several B-17s, modified into BQ-7 drones, from the 562d Bomb Squadron, 388th Bomb Group arrived at Woodbrige. The aircraft were stripped of all interior equipment and armament and packed with explosives. The plane would be flown by a pilot until over the English Channel, then turned over to radio control with a primitive television system. Another B-17 would act as a 'mother' ship, guiding the drone.

No Aphrodite mission was ever to be flown from Woodbridge because, after one aborted attempt, the unit moved up to RAF Fersfield, near Diss, Norfolk.

On 13 July 1944, a Luftwaffe Ju 88 G-1 night fighter on North Sea night patrol landed at Woodbridge. This aircraft carried recent versions of the FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar and FuG 227 Flensburg homer which were being successfully used to intercept RAF bombers. The German crew had only just completed 100 hours of flight training and had flown by compass heading, but had proceeded in exactly the wrong direction and thought they were over their own airfield. Within days, the RAE had analysed the radar equipment and devised countermeasures. With the war's end in 1945 Woodbridge was used for some experimental work by the RAF with Lancasters being based there dropping Grand Slam bombs on Orford Ness, and the Blind Landing Experiment Unit was located there. Eventually it was closed on 14 March 1948 and put into 'care and maintenance' status.

Cold War

79th Fighter Squadron

As a result of the Cold War USAF buildup in Europe, Woodbridge was made available to the Americans by the Ministry of Defence in early 1952 Expansion of the facility to bring it up to NATO standards commenced on 16 April 1952 with the establishment of the 3928th Air Base Squadron.

The first operational USAF unit to reside at Woodbridge was the 79 Fighter-Bomber Squadron which arrived on 1 October 1952. The 79th TFS was a component of the 20th Fighter-Bomber Wing based at RAF Wethersfield. Restricted space at Wethersfield compelled the 79th Squadron to move initially to RAF Bentwaters on 6 June then to Woodbridge, three miles southeast of Bentwaters, on 1 October.

The 79th FBS flew the Republic F-84G "Thunderjet". Markings for the F-84s at Woodbridge consisted of yellow lightning flashes on the fuselage and on the external wing tip tanks.

The mission of the 79th was to provide escort for Strategic Air Command Boeing B-47 "Stratoget" rotational deployments from RAF Sturgate. These deployments generally involved about 45 aircraft, together with about 20 KC-97 Stratotanker which were maintained at English bases for 90 days. At the end of the Temporary Duty (TDY), they were relieved by another SAC wing that was generally stationed at a different airfield. These missions continued until 1964.

In 1955 the 79th was upgraded to the swept-wing F-84F "Thunderstreak", with the older "G" models being transferred to other NATO countries or to the Middle East. Lightning flashes were not painted on the "F" models, but the yellow squadron color band around the extreme rear of the fuselage remained a squadron marking. The 79th flew the F-84G only until 1958 when the 20th was redesignated a tactical fighter wing and the squadron was re-equipped with the North American F-100 "Super Sabre". The 79th TFS was tranferrerd to RAF Upper Heyford during January 1970 when Wethersfield was closed and the 20th TFW was reassigned.

Twin Base with RAF Bentwaters

Beginning on 8 July 1958 Woodbridge was operated as "twin base" with RAF Bentwaters and as a single unit with Bentwaters under the 81st Tactical Fighter Wing. Along with the 79th from the 20th TFW, the 78th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron operated from the base, being transferred from RAF Shepherds Grove when the USAF turned Shepherds Grove over to the Ministry of Defence.

Initially flying F-84F Thunderstreaks, in December they were replaced by the McDonnell F-101A/C "Voodoo" and redesignated as a Tactical Fighter Squadron. Markings of the 78th TFS were a red tail with silver star pattern design on the vertical stabilizer.

In November 1965, the 78th TFS received McDonnel F-4D "Phantom II"s to replace the Voodoos, with red fin caps as their squadron marking. In February 1970 the 81st adapted tail codes, with "WR" being used by the 78th.

In 1972, construction began on Woodbrige American High School. Classes began in 1973.

With the arrival of the A-10 Thunderbolt II in USAFE in 1979, the 81st TFW was expanded to six squadrons. Three of these were stationed at Woodbridge:

It was decided to expand the 81st with six A-10 squadrons distributed over both Woodbridge and Bentwaters as follows:

  • 78th Tactical Fighter
    (Received A-10s 3 June 1979)
  • 91st Tactical Fighter
    (Received A-10s 24 August 1979)
  • 509th Tactical Fighter (Activated 1 Oct 1979) (Grey tail stripe)
    (Received A-10s 1 October 1979)

All the A-10 squadrons were tail-coded "WR".

The 91st was transferred to Woodbridge from Bentwaters on 1 February 1980. The 509th was reactivated as an A-10 squadron, previously being an F-102 unit at Clark AB Philippines.

At Woodbridge, USAFE activated the 509th Tactical Fighter Squadron The 509th was previously an F-102 squadron at and the 91st was moved to Woodbridge from Bentwaters. On 1 June 1988 the 509th was transferred to RAF Alconbury when the 10th transitioned from a Tactical Reconnaissance to a Tactical Fighter Squadron.

67th Air Rescue and Recovery Squadron

The 67th Air Rescue and Recovery Squadron (ARRS) moved to Woodbridge from Moron AB, Spain, on 15 January 1970. The 67th ARRS operated HC-130H/N/P fixed wing aircraft and heavy duty HH-53 helicopters and was assigned an air rescue and special operations mission. The 67th ARRS participated in the rescue efforts of the capsized Townsend Thoresen ferry Herald of Free Enterprise outside of Zeebrugge Harbor on 6 March 1987. On 1 June 1988 they were redesignated the 67th Special Operations Squadron. On 1 April 1992 they moved to RAF Alconbury as part of the closure of Woodbridge.

Post Cold War

With the end of the Cold War, the USAF presence at Woodbridge was gradually phased down. It was announced that the base would be closed and the 81st TFW would be deactivated. Woodbridge-based squadrons were phased-down as follows:

  • 78th Tactical Fighter Squadron was inactivated on 1 May 1992. Its aircraft were sent back to the United States to various Air National Guard squadrons.
  • 91st Tactical Fighter Squadron was inactivated on 14 August 1992. Its aircraft were sent back to the United States to various Air National Guard squadrons.

The last A-10 aircraft departed Woodbridge on 14 August 1993, and the airfield was closed as a U.S. military facility. The 81st Tactical Fighter Wing was deactivated on 1 July 1993. With the deactivation, the USAF returned control of Woodbridge to the UK Ministry of Defence.

As of 01 September 2006, RAF Woodbridge is now officially known as MoD Woodbridge, including Woodbridge Airfield and Rock Barracks. It is now home to the newly formed 23rd Engineer Regiment(Air Assault) of the British Army.

The 81st was reactivated as the 81st Training Wing at Keesler AFB Mississippi on 1 July 1993 and is one of Air Education and Training Command's largest technical training wings. The emphasis is on high-technology training in a number of fields, primarily in the electronics specialties. Avionics maintenance, radio and radar systems maintenance, communications-electronics, computer systems programming and maintenance, air traffic control, and weather training are but a few of the main specialties taught at Keesler.

Additional history

The following information is taken from an information board outside the base, provided by Suffolk County Council.

“The airfield was constructed as an Emergency Landing Ground and was operational from 1943. It had a massive runway which was 5 times the normal width and 3,000 yards long with additional overshoots at either end. By the end of World War II 4,200 aircraft had made emergency landings at RAF Woodbridge.

About 30% of the emergency landings were caused by bad weather, especially fog. FIDO {Fog Investigation and Dispersal Operation} was an extraordinary system. Petrol [gasoline] was pumped along a system of pipes along the side of the runway. The vapours were lit from a series of burners, producing walls of flame. The heat produced lifted the fog. FIDO used huge quantities of fuel, as much as 100,000 gallons [125,000 US gallons, 450,000 litres] per hour. Fuel was transported to Melton railway station before being piped to the airfield.

The hostility between the USA and the USSR overshadowed the world during the Cold War (1945-90). RAF Woodbridge formed part of NATO’s defence during this period. The F-101 Voodoo aircraft of the USAF’s 81st Tactical Fighter Wing could be loaded with a single atomic weapon for the one way trip to the target.

The 67th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron was based here from 1969. Using Hercules aircraft and helicopters, the Squadron was able to rescue aircrew and the North Atlantic area; as well as work with US Special Forces behind enemy lines and provide rescue cover for space missions.

The alleged Rendlesham Forest Incident is said to have taken place near RAF Woodbridge in December 1980.

See also

References

  • Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947-1977. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799129.
  • Endicott, Judy G. (1999) Active Air Force wings as of 1 October 1995; USAF active flying, space, and missile squadrons as of 1 October 1995. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. CD-ROM
  • Menard, David W. (1998) Before Centuries: USAFE Fighters, 1948-1959. Howell Press Inc. ISBN 1574270796
  • Martin, Patrick (1994). Tail Code: The Complete History of USAF Tactical Aircraft Tail Code Markings. Schiffer Military Aviation History. ISBN 0887405134.
  • Rogers, Brian (2005). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. Hinkley, England: Midland Publications. ISBN 1-85780-197-0.
  • USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers--1908 to Present

External links

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