In 1945 the Soviets captured several key V-2 rocket production facilities, and also gained the services of some German scientists and engineers connected to the project. In particular the Soviets gained control of the main V-2 manufacturing facility at Nordhausen, and had 30 V-2 missiles assembled there by September, 1946.
In October, 1946 the Soviets transferred the German missile engineers working for them to a special research facility near Moscow, where they were forced to remain until the mid-1950's. However, the best members of the German V-2 design team ended up in the USA, and the group in Moscow played only a secondary, though still useful, role in the Soviet effort. The Soviets established a missile design bureau of their own (OKB-1), under the direction of Sergey Korolev. This team was directed to create a Soviet capability to build missiles, starting with a Soviet copy of the German V-2 and moving to more advanced, Soviet-designed missiles in the near future.
In April, 1947 Stalin authorised the production of the R-1 missile, the designation for the Russian copy of V-2. The GRAU index 8A11 was also used. The first tests of the missile began in September, 1948. The system was accepted by the Soviet army in November,1950. The R-1 missile could carry a 785 kg warhead of conventional explosive to a maximum range of 270 km, with an accuracy of about 5 km.
In 1947, the R-1A was tested, a variant with a separable warhead. High-altitude scientific experiments were flown with two of the R-1As, and later a series of specialized scientific rockets were built on the basis of the R-1: The R-1B, R-1V, R-1D and R-1E. These carried dogs, and experiments to analyze the upper atmosphere, measure cosmic rays and take far-UV spectra of the Sun.