is the largest of the seventeen administrative regions
. With , of which are lakes
, it covers much of the Labrador Peninsula
and about 55% of the total land surface area of Quebec. Its land area covers an area larger than the U.S. State of Texas
Before 1912, the most northernly part of this region was known as the Ungava District of the Northwest Territories, and until 1987, it was referred to as Nouveau-Québec, or New Quebec. It is bordered by Hudson Bay and James Bay in the West, Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay in the North, Labrador in the North-East and the administrative regions of Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Mauricie, Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean and Côte-Nord in the South and South-East.
The Nord-du-Québec region is part of the territory covered by the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975; other regions covered (in part) by this Agreement include the Côte-Nord, Mauricie and Abitibi-Témiscamingue administrative regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region is itself composed of two smaller regions, the Jamésie region
south of the 55th parallel and the Nunavik
region in the north. The Jamésie region has a land area of 303,473.27 km2
(117,171.68 sq mi), which is larger than Arizona
, and a 2006 census
population of 28,190 inhabitants. Its largest community is the city of Chibougamau
. The Nunavik region has a land area of 443,684.71 km2
(171,307.62 sq mi), which is larger than California
, and a resident population of 11,627 persons. Its largest community is the village of Kuujjuaq
The Jamésie region, which extends from the eastern shore of James Bay to the Otish Mountains of the Laurentian Plateau, is mainly boreal forest. Nunavik has some boreal forest in its southern portion but is mainly tundra which covers the entire Ungava Peninsula.
Population and local government
The 39,817 inhabitants of Nord-du-Québec include 13,000 Cree
Indians, mostly living in the Jamésie region, and about 9,500 Inuit
, most of whom live in coastal Northern villages in Nunavik. The remaining population, concentrated in the south, are of European descent.
The administrative structure of Nord-du-Québec is divided between 2 native semi-autonomous governments and 5 municipalities. The Cree Regional Authority, which in practice has been incorporated into the Grand Council of the Crees (Eeyou Istchee), represents all 9 Cree villages of northern Quebec. The Kativik Regional Government offers local services to all residents of the 14 villages of the Nunavik region, both Inuit and non-Inuit, with the exception of the Cree village of Whapmagoostui whose residents participate in the Cree Regional Authority. The largest of the 5 municipalities is Baie-James, almost entirely covering the Jamésie Territory.
The principal towns and villages of Nord-du-Québec are Chibougamau (largest town in this region), Chisasibi, Mistissini and Kuujjuaq.
Transportation and Access
There is a limited network of roads in the Jamésie region which reaches most of the few, small communities. Most were constructed as part of the James Bay Project
. The "main road" of the region is the Route de la Baie James
, a paved (albeit remote) extension of Route 109
. The 407 km long gravel Route du Nord
connects the Route de la Baie James to Route 167
. The 666 km gravel Route Transtaïga
branches off the Route de la Baie James to Caniapiscau
, the northernmost connecting road in eastern North America.
The few provincial routes are concentrated in the far south of the region, including Route 109 to Matagami, Route 113, which ends near Chibougamau, and Route 167 to Mistissini
There are no roads to Nunavik from the south. Access is limited to air travel, sea travel to coastal areas, or hiking great distances. There are isolated roads in and around villages, as well as an isolated road running from the Raglan Mines to Deception Bay, connecting to Salluit.
Cree Reserved Territories