One of the few Roman officers who survived that fatal day, Publius Sempronius C.f. Tuditanus, advised that the men put on their shields, form a shield-wall, and break out through the lines of the exhausted Carthaginian army. Very few men agreed to go with him, the rest deciding to surrender to Hannibal and trusting that they would be ransomed by the Senate. The 600 men led by Tuditanus cut their way out to reach the larger camp, and from thence marched to Canusium, where they obtained safe refuge. Tuditanus's reputation was thus made with the Senate and the people of Rome. (The Senate refused to ransom those who had surrendered to Hannibal or been captured alive on the field of battle, with a senior senator Titus Manlius Torquatus citing the example of Tuditanus and his group, compared to the cowardly men who had not dared break out).
He was elected censor in 209 BC with Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, although neither he nor his colleague had yet held the consulship. These two young censors managed to complete the first lustrum (ritual cleansing) of the Roman state since the start of the Second Punic War. Other lustrums had been interrupted by the death of at least one censor (sometimes in battle).
It was Tuditanus who had the right of choosing the new Princeps Senatus; Cethegus wanted the most senior censor, namely Titus Manlius Torquatus, to be chosen since he had been censor in 231 BC. However, Tuditanus preferred Quintus Fabius Maximus, the "Delayer", who had been elected censor in 230 BC, and was thus "junior", to be Princeps Senatus since he was the most meritorious of the senior senators. Since Tuditanus had the right to choose, his decision prevailed. His precedent allowed Rome to break with the tradition of choosing the most senior ex-censor as Princeps Senatus; from now, the man determined to be the most distinguished senator would be chosen, which allowed the young Scipio Africanus to become Princeps Senatus in the year of his censorship.
In 205 BC, he was sent into Greece with the title of proconsul, and at the head of a military and naval force, for the purpose of opposing Philip, with whom however he concluded a preliminary treaty, which was readily ratified by the Romans, who were anxious to give their undivided attention to the war in Africa.
In 203 BC, Tuditanus became consul elected in his absence, again with his former co-censor Cethegus. It is not known how well the men worked together again, although Livy does not mention any unseemly fracas. Tuditanus received Bruttii as his province with the conduct of the war against Hannibal. In the neighbourhood of Croton Tuditanus experienced a repulse, with a loss of twelve hundred men ; but he shortly afterwards gained a decisive victory over Hannibal, who was obliged in consequence to shut himself up within the walls of Croton. It was in this battle that he vowed a temple to Fortuna Primigenia, if he should succeed in routing the enemy.
In 201 BC, Tuditanus was one of the three ambassadors sent to Ptolemy, king of Egypt. (Liv. xxii. 50, 60 ; Appian, Annib. 26 ; Liv. xxiv. 43, 44, 47, xxv. 3, xxvi. 1, xxvii. 11, 38, xxix. 11, 12; Cic. Brut. 15, de Senect. 4; Liv. xxix. 13, 36, xxxi. 2.). He is not subsequently mentioned by Livy.
It is not clear how he is related to the other two or three prominent Tuditani: