There are about four thousand Catholics in Yemen. They belong to the Apostolic Vicariate of Arabia. The World Christian Encyclopedia, Second edition, Volume 1, states the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church as largest denominations in Yemen. In Aden there are three Catholic and one Anglican church. In San'a there are weekly Protestant services. Conversion from Islam to Christianity is punished with death. Christian missions from several countries are active in Yemen. There are hospitals that belong to foreign Christian institutions. Proselytizing by non-Muslims is prohibited. Most non-Muslims in Yemen are foreigners. Non-Muslims cannot stand for election.
Yemen was Christian until the conquest by Muslims in the 7th century.