Definitions

Progressive Adventism

Progressive Adventism

Progressive Adventists are members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church who disagree with certain beliefs traditionally or commonly held today in the church. They think of themselves as theologically progressive relative to the denomination's mainstream, and place an emphasis on the gospel. They are often described as liberal Adventism by other Adventists, however the term "progressive" is generally preferred as a self-description. This is partly because most are not liberal Christians (although a small portion actually are). This article describes terms such as evangelical Adventism, cultural Adventism, charismatic Adventism, and progressive Adventism and others, which are generally related but have distinctions.

Progressives typically question one or more of the church's more peculiar, or "distinctive" beliefs such as the investigative judgment, the remnant, a future global Sunday-law, or an overuse of Ellen G. White's writings. A major factor in its rise was as a result of Adventists mixing more widely with other Christians, which was sparked by the need for government accreditation for its educational institutions. However it is an emerging movement with an emerging definition, and its proponents resist drawing up any formal belief statement. Perceptions and definitions of it may differ somewhat depending on the author, although much in common is also clearly discernible.

Many scholars of the church are progressive, and progressive Adventism has strong connections with Adventist higher education. Numerous magazines and conferences support the movement. A higher proportion of younger generations may be progressive. As the church varies by the demographics of location, culture, ethnicity, age group and other factors, progressive Adventism has a stronger presence in some places (such as the West Coast of the United States) than others.

Madelynn Jones-Haldeman wrote in 2001,

"It is only within the last few decades that the Adventist Review has recognized editorially that there exists within the Seventh-day Adventist Church, at least in North America, 'liberals,' 'liberal churches,' 'liberal colleges/universities' and 'liberal conferences.' Depending on the author and his/her agenda, Adventist liberals are compared and/or contrasted with 'conservative Adventists,' 'historic Adventists,' 'Bible-believing (or EGW-believing) Adventists,' 'traditional Adventists,' 'evangelical Adventists,' 'cultural Adventists,' and/or 'ecumenical Adventists.'"

The younger generation of Adventists is often acknowledged as thinking differently to earlier Adventists. See for example, " Young Adults Make Adventism Their Own" by a twenty-something Adventist, with responses " Out on a Limb!" and " Right On".

Beliefs overview

Progressives tend to agree on many beliefs, while there is greater variation on others. They resist drawing up any formal belief statement. This is in contrast to historic and perhaps conservative Adventism, which do draw up belief statements or hold quite similar beliefs.

Inclusive. Progressives are inclusive of other types of Adventists, and believe different types should be welcomed as part of the community.

That being said, the common factor shared by all progressive Adventists is some degree of discomfort with certain of the church's official or traditional doctrinal positions.

Ron Corson identifies four common areas of progressive belief:

  • Investigative judgment. A different view of the investigative judgment, or a denial of its biblical basis.
  • Remnant. An inclusion of other Christians in the term remnant.
  • Ellen White. A less rigid view of the Inspiration of Ellen White, from recognizing her fallibility to perhaps even denying her prophetic gift.
  • Sabbath. An emphasis on the benefits of the Sabbath, but a denial that it is the "seal of God" or that Sunday keeping will ever become the mark of the beast.

Madelynn Jones-Haldeman defines the six points:

  • "Felt need produces doctrine"
  • "Present truth must be recycled"
  • "Pluralistic interpretations are all right"
  • "Trappings don’t make the person"
  • "The Bible deserves genuine study"
  • "New questions are not addressed by the Bible".

Present Truth. Progressive Adventists appreciate the church's pioneers particularly in their concept of "present truth", rather than specific beliefs themselves. They believe the church should not be limited by its founders' teaching. Present truth refers to the ongoing search for truth and an attitude of humility that there is no time at which the church's beliefs are perfect.

Young earth creationism. Other traditional teachings may also be challenged, such as young earth creationism. In a 1994 survey of North American Division science educators, 43% of the respondents affirmed the statement "God created live organisms during 6 days less than 10,000 years ago. The book Understanding Genesis: Contemporary Adventist Perspectives edited by Brian Bull, Fritz Guy and Ervin Taylor challenges the traditional beliefs. However other progressive Adventists believe in a more traditional view. Clifford Goldstein has argued that evolution and Adventism are incompatible, while Ervin Taylor disagrees.

Bible. The same survey showed close agreement on the nature of the Bible, with 92.6% affirming the moderate statement "Bible is God's word with human thought forms and perspectives." Only a minority affirmed the competing statements, "Bible is the actual word of God, to be taken literally word for word" or "Bible is ancient book of myths, history, and moral precepts." Alden Thompson argues for a small use of the historical-critical method.

Church structure. Progressive Adventists typically believe the present church structure is very "top heavy" with too many levels of leadership, and possibly too much hierarchical control. (Many mainstream Adventists such as George Knight have also called for change in this area.)

Reporting of events. Progressive Adventists typically believe in candid reporting of news and information about the church. They believe in open discussion in a free press. (This view is also shared by many more mainstream Adventists such as former editors of the Australian Record James Coffin and Bruce Manners. Coffin was also on the staff of the Adventist Review.)

Music. Progressive Adventists are typically open to a variety of styles of worship music in church including contemporary Christian music.

According to one author, Progressive Adventism

"regrets the anti-intellectual, authoritarian and obscurant tendencies that characterize a significant segment of traditional, historic Adventism, along with the attempts at creating a creed out of the "27 Fundamental Doctrines.""

Fritz Guy wrote " Four Ways Into the Next Millennium and forecasted " A More 'Liberalized' Adventist Future 24" in 1994. See also the definitions by Julius Nam (also his forecast future changes in " Change: The Adventist Constant") and by Johnny A. Ramirez who resist the idea that Progressive Adventism is about a political agenda and present it as an historically Adventist ethos, an attitude towards change which is beyond present definitions of liberal and conservative. See also the description by Raymond Thompson, the description by evangelical Kenneth Samples, the " Generous Adventist Orthodoxy" from Re-inventing the Adventist Wheel, Jim Walters' definition, and the (unpublished) definition by Raymond Cottrell.

Varieties of evangelical/progressive Adventism

Evangelical Adventism

According to the evangelical Christian Research Institute, "mainstream Adventism is primarily evangelical", in that "the great majority of Adventist scholars, teachers and pastors that [the author has] spoken with believe firmly in salvation by grace through faith alone. "Evangelical Adventism" could also be described as "'gospel-oriented' Adventism". It is the stream with which Walter Martin and Kenneth Samples of the Christian Research Institute "most identified".

Cultural Adventism

A similar group have been referred to as "cultural Adventists". This term may be used of the majority of Adventists who are not overly concerned with theology, such as evangelical Kenneth Samples' description of "a segment that is atheological in nature and reflects what [he] would call a cultural Adventism." It may also refer to those who feel an attachment towards the Adventist church for cultural reasons rather than strict theological conformity. Some authors have commented that the Adventist cultural is a strong binding force.

Clifford Goldstein has declared,

"A cultural Adventist? The concept's incomprehensible to me... I'm an Adventist for one reason: the beliefs, the teachings, the doctrines that this church — and this church alone — espouses. If it were not for them, I'd be gone faster than the junk food at church potlucks. The Seventh-day Adventist culture had nothing to do with bringing me here. On the contrary, coming as I did from a secular Jewish background, the culture was the biggest obstacle.

Compare "Cultural Christian".

Charismatic Adventism

While Adventist church worship is commonly conservative, a segment of the church is charismatic in nature. Phenomena of this nature have been present throughout Adventist history, which is a surprise to those aware of the generally conservative nature of Adventist worship.

Liberal Adventism

The term liberal Adventist or left-wing Adventist usually means "progressive Adventist" (the preferred self-designation; see above). This is appropriate because most progressive Adventists are still "conservative" or evangelical Christians, for example most do believe in the resurrection of Jesus. They do not hold to a "libertine" or "anything goes" attitude which the term "liberal" sometimes implies. However a small number of Adventists are actually liberal Christians, which this section describes.

According to evangelical Kenneth Samples, "It should also be mentioned that, though small, there was and is a segment in Adventism which could be described as being theologically liberal" or even "very liberal".

Ron Corson wrote,

"[Progressive Adventists] could be termed liberal, except that the term 'liberal Christian' generally refers to those who don't believe that Christ was resurrected nor that he performed miracles, and who hold other tenets with which most Progressive SDA's would not agree. These 'liberals' are often involved in the Jesus Seminars. While some Adventist church members sympathize with these views, they would not make up a sizable proportion of the Progressive SDA's.

Usually the phrase "liberal Adventist" means liberal for an Adventist, so in the context of the Adventist church being a conservative denomination, this usually does not mean "liberal Christian". However, less commonly, it may.

Social action

Some Adventists describe themselves as "liberal" to mean they are liberal or left-wing politically, and have a concern for social action.

Other terms

Also compare to the "Evangelical left" and "Progressive Christianity". Also compare to the "Christian/religious left" (although this term is associated with left-wing politics).

Progressive Adventists may be contrasted with "historic Adventists", who lie at the other end of the Adventist theological spectrum, and more mainstream Adventists who lie somewhere in between. While progressive Adventists may not be mainstream in the context of the theology of the world church, they are mainstream in the sense that many are employed as university lecturers in church operated institutions. By contrast, historic Adventists generally operate outside of the official church structure.

Other terms such as ecumenical Adventist and evangelical Adventist have been used, with presumably related meaning. (Compare the much broader movements "Ecumenism" and "Evangelicalism" within Christianity as a whole).

History of evangelical/progressive Adventism

Throughout the history of the Adventist church there have been thinkers who were progressive, relative to their time. Its roots go back to the nineteenth century. Many of these individuals and movements would also be claimed by mainstream Adventists today. They did not necessarily hold identical beliefs to modern progressives.

Early leaders

Church co-founder Ellen G. White fought for Christ-centeredness (such as during the 1888 conflict), emphasized the theme of "present truth", urged for church restructuring, her encouragement to try new things, and her spiritual depth and personal counsels. Her writings also formed a key part of the conversion experience of many modern progressives, although they typically disagree with parts of her writings, such as certain sections of The Great Controversy and others. However progressive Adventists tend to disagree with certain of White's specific teachings.

General Conference president A. G. Daniells showed many Christ-like and progressive tendencies regarding White's inspiration (such as exhibited at the 1919 Bible Conference) and other matters. His 1926 book Christ Our Righteousness moved towards a Reformation view of righteousness by faith. Willie White had a moderate understanding of her inspiration. W. W. Prescott had quite progressive views for his time. Many of these leaders resisted the influence of Christian Fundamentalism on the Adventist church during the early 1900s.

The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary published in the mid-1950s marked the period when, according to Raymond Cottrell, "Seventh-day Adventist study of the Bible came of age", and the so-called 'proof-text' method of defending Adventist beliefs "began to give way to an objective investigation of Scripture using the historical-contextual-linguistic method.

Moves toward mainstream Christianity

The 1957 publication of Questions on Doctrine (QOD) as a result of dialog with Walter Martin and others moved Adventists closer to the evangelical mainstream, and marginalized historic Adventism. According to one author, the roots of evangelical Adventism can be traced to the scholars who met with Martin and Barnhouse, or earlier. According to Julius Nam, the mainstream majority came to see Adventism as part of "the larger flow of biblical Christianity and to regard themselves as evangelical" while the traditionalist heirs of Andreasen viewed these developments as "the beginning of the end-time apostasy". "The seeds of this movement were sown within the denomination via the book QOD in 1957, and the seed-plot was watered by the public ministries of such men as R. A. Anderson, H. M. S. Richards, Sr., Edward Heppenstall, Robert Brinsmead, Desmond Ford, Smuts van Rooyen, and others. This book precipitated the different factions. This movement grew throughout the 1970s with Ford and Brinsmead as its main spokesmen.

At least one author considers the various streams existed earlier, but the book polarized them.

According to one author, this group was united by belief in righteousness by faith alone, the sinless nature of Jesus (who was primarily our substitute rather than example), assurance of salvation, perfectionism impossible, Jesus ascended straight to the most holy place (heaven) at his ascension (although opinions varied on a pre-advent judgment), Ellen White had the gift of prophecy but was not infallible nor should be used for doctrine.

As part of the broader social and political changes during the 1960s, many Adventists began to challenge their tradition as well. During the 1960s many Adventists completed PhDs at secular universities. This occurred partly because of a new requirement that feeder colleges to medical institutions needed to be accredited, which meant that a large number of professors at the union colleges were required to take PhDs in secular universities. Percy Tilson Magan pushed for accreditation. Pacific Union College was the first to receive accreditation in 1932, although the General Conference did not allow this for all senior colleges until 1936. Union College was particularly open to the concept of accreditation. This interaction allowed a widening of ideas and a greater degree of open-mindedness, and a greater appreciation of other Christians. Groups of these students started to meet. They merged to form the Association of Adventist Forums (now Adventist Forums) in 1967, and the founding of its publication Spectrum magazine in 1969.

Doctrinal challenges and adjustment

In the 1970s, Australians Desmond Ford and Robert Brinsmead "spearheaded what would be the beginnings of an evangelical Adventism, centered on justification by faith, not Adventism's uniqueness. Some regard Ford as the father of evangelical Adventism. One driving force behind their fresh perspectives "was the sense that traditional Adventism was doomed to failure unless grounded on the gospel of Jesus Christ.

In the 1970s, scholars such as Walter T. Rea and Ronald Numbers did much study on how White's background impacted her writings. While Rea's book is regarded as caustic by many Adventists and non-Adventists alike, his work did increase understanding of White's work.

Raymond Cottrell was a progressive, and an associate editor of the Adventist Review and the Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary amongst other major positions, and later a founding member of Adventist Today. He described a "triumvirate" of Robert H. Pierson, Gordon M. Hyde and Gerhard Hasel were the "architects" behind "the decade of obscurantism (1969-1979)". According to Cottrell, this trio attempted to gain control of Adventist biblical studies, and Hasel (who was dean of the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary) made Drs. Sakai Kubo, Ivan Blazen, Fritz Guy, and Larry Geraty feel very unwelcome. Scholars at other institutions were also moved on or pressured.

When Fred Veltman was called to closely investigate literary parallels in Ellen White's writings following the plagiarism charges of the 1970s and 80s, he was highly concerned about his ongoing employment in the church, due to the controversial nature of Ellen White studies. He was also concerned that the results of his study might be swept under the rug and not publicized to the church, as he believed had happened to many other studies. He writes that he was constantly reassured by then General Conference president Neil C. Wilson that both his employment was secure and that his work would not be in vain. Sure enough, his study is now available online from Adventist Archives.

The fundamental beliefs of the church, established in 1980, contain a preamble allowing for change. The controversial dismissal of Desmond Ford from ministry over the investigative judgment was viewed with concern by some outside observers who questioned if the church was still gospel-centred or "evangelical". Ford founded the ministry Good News Unlimited. Ford retains many Adventist beliefs, such as the Sabbath, the inspiration of Ellen White, and a healthy lifestyle. While he rejects the investigative judgment and the day-year principle, he believes they were providential – that is, God used them at the time. As of 2008, Ford still writes and preaches regularly.

In 1980, Brinsmead compared progressive and traditional Adventists in Judged by the Gospel (Verdict 1980).

While harsh in tone, Walter T. Rea's work on Ellen White caused a shift in the church's position, along with other authors. Fred Veltman was concerned about the implications of his research into her writings, yet was constantly reassured by then General Conference president Neal C. Wilson that both his employment was secure and that his work would not be in vain. His study is now available online from Adventist Archives.

Richard Rice's book Believing, Behaving, Belonging: Finding New Love for the Church was published by the Association of Adventist Forums. He is a leading contributor to the open theism understanding of God, a term he created, which is supported by many progressive Adventists. Alden Thompson publishes regularly for Spectrum and Adventist Today. Bonnie Dwyer, the editor of Spectrum as of 2008, is known as a "liberal".

In Adventism for a New Generation, Steve Daily argues strongly for changes in Adventism for it to remain relevant, and denies many traditional Adventist beliefs. Ervin Taylor is the emeritus professor of anthropology at the University of California and as of 2007, executive editor of Adventist Today. He rejects young earth creationism and a recent global flood, and could be described as a theistic evolutionist.

Magazines and internet blogs

The primary progressive magazines still published today (as of 2008) are Spectrum and Adventist Today, and also Ford's Good News Unlimited. However numerous others have also been published in the past.

Spectrum

Spectrum (archives) is a quarterly journal published by Adventist Forums, and has been the premier progressive Adventist magazine since its founding in 1969. Its main concern is analysis and commentary on current issues in the church. As of 2008, it continues publication.

Adventist Today

Adventist Today (archives) is a bimonthly magazine first published in 1993 and continues to be published, as of 2008. It is more concerned with news reporting. In 2008 it made a renewed commitment to reporting a greater diversity of Adventist views.

Adventist Heritage

Adventist Heritage: A Journal of Adventist History (archives), "which provided an important liberal platform", from 1974 to 1998 in roughly 18 volumes. It was supported by the Association of Seventh-day Adventist Historians and other groups. Gary Land was a founding editor, as was Ronald Numbers. Jonathan M. Butler served as editor for a decade. Published twice yearly, it was acquired by Loma Linda University.

Present Truth Magazine

Present Truth Magazine (archives) was founded by Robert Brinsmead in 1972 and was grace/gospel-centered. In 1978 Brinsmead changed its title to Verdict, to reflect his move away from evangelical Christianity. The material on the Present Truth Magazine website is produced by the " Gospel Friends Christian Fellowship", which they explain to be an association of evangelical Seventh-day Adventists. It does not necessarily represent Brinsmead's current views. 52 issues were apparently published.

Good News Unlimited

The Good News Unlimited magazine (archives) is published by Desmond Ford's ministry of the same name. It began in 1981 as a bimonthly, switched to monthly publication in mid-2003, and continues to be published today, as of 2008.

Adventist Professional

Adventist Professional was an Australian magazine published quarterly from 1989 to 1999 by the Association of Business and Professional Members (formerly "Men") based in Sydney, an organization of Australia and New Zealand Adventist business and professional laypeople established in 1961. Eleven volumes were published, and Trevor Lloyd is a former editor.

Adventist Currents

The magazine Adventist Currents was published from 1983 to 1988 in California as a response to Ford's dismissal. Three volumes totaling 11 issues were published, as well as several issues of a newsletter in 1990.

Evangelica

The magazine Evangelica was published from 1980 until 1987 in 8 volumes and promoted the cause of evangelical Adventism. It was started by Desmond Ford after his dismissal from the ministry.

Material by former Adventists

Former Seventh-day Adventists have also written material. Limboline was a monthly newsletter issued by a group of former Adventists in California.

Blogs

The internet is having an increasing role in Adventist theology. Various Adventist blogs are progressive. One non-Adventist author believes "Adventism is currently in a conservative phase, and... a new liberal epoch in Adventism is due anytime from now... Maybe it has already started with [Julius Nam and his] fellow progressive bloggers—the Julius-Monte-Alex-Ryan-Johnny axis!" This presumably refers to the blogs Progressive Adventism (Julius Nam), Faith in Context (Monte Sahlin), Spectrum Blog (Alexander Carpenter), intersections (Ryan J. Bell), and Johnny's Cache (Johnny A. Ramirez).

Conferences

Numerous Adventist conferences and meetings have a progressive flavor.

West Coast Religion Teachers' Conference

In the United States, Adventist colleges and universities on the West Coast are considered more progressive – such as Loma Linda University, La Sierra University, Pacific Union College and Walla Walla University. Academics meet at the West Coast Religion Teachers' Conference.

Adventist Forums Conference

Adventist Forums hosts an annual conference.

Adventist Forum groups meet regularly around the world.

Adventist Today Conference

Adventist Today hosted meetings in Monterey, California in December 2005, which featured Desmond Ford as speaker.

The first camp meeting was held in 1998 in Riverside.

Spiritual Renaissance Retreat

The Spiritual Renaissance Retreat is an annual event hosted by John and Joan Hughson of Pacific Union College Church, and co-sponsored by Adventist Forums and Adventist Today. Held in Monterey, California, it is based partly on a yearly retreat concept popularized by Bill Clinton. Desmond Ford has been invited as a speaker, but after complaints to church leadership this invitation was withdrawn.

Relations with others

Relations with church administrators

The church administrators are generally thought of as more conservative, which has led to differences of opinion with academics, which are generally thought of as more liberal.

A number of articles in Spectrum critiquing the church's structure were met with opposition.

According to conservative scholar Samuel Koranteng-Pipim, a significant number of Adventist scholars are "liberal". In an 1980s survey of Adventist theologians, 45% described their beliefs as "liberal" compared to other church members; 40% as "mainstream", 11% as "conservative", and 4% did not respond to the question.

Progressives believe in academic freedom for the church's theologians and scientists. Progressive Adventists and many other church scholars have reacted against certain proposals to introduce centralized oversight of theological education, such as former General Conference president Robert Folkenberg's " Total Commitment to God" initiative, which was voted by the Annual Council at Costa Rica in 1996.

The relationship more progressive Adventists have had with church administrators tends to depend on the nature of the administration at the time. General Conference Presidents, editors of the Adventist Review, book editors at Pacific Press and Review and Herald etc. have been of varying theological persuasions at different times.

See also the official church statement " A Statement on Theological and Academic Freedom and Accountability", 1987.

At times there has been intense discussion between educators and church administrators.

Raymond Cottrell describes "the decade of obscurantism (1969–1979)" as when a "triumvirate" consisting of General Conference President Robert H. Pierson, Gordon M. Hyde and Gerhard Hasel attempted to gain control of Adventist biblical studies. According to Cottrell, Hasel used his position as dean of the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary at Andrews University to make Drs. Sakai Kubo, Ivan Blazen, Fritz Guy, and Larry Geraty feel very unwelcome.

Fred Veltman, who was called to closely investigate "literary parallels" in Ellen White's writings, was concerned about his ongoing employment in the church, and whether the results of his study would be publicized. He wrote that General Conference President Neal C. Wilson that both his employment was secure and that his work would not be in vain. His study is now available online from Adventist Archives.

Former General Conference President Robert S. Folkenberg's " Total Commitment to God" initiative was voted by the Annual Council in Costa Rica in 1996. In 1998 Folkenberg's action to establish a "Board of Ministerial and Theological Education" in every Division of the church to oversee its theological seminaries "has evoked significant criticism in some areas, including North America", and was put on hold. There was concern over the document International Coordination and Supervision of Seventh-day Adventist Ministerial and Theological Education. GC (General Conference) Sets Standards for Ministerial and Theologic Education See a response " Toward Spiritual Assessment in Seventh-day Adventist Colleges and Universities" by Duane C. McBride, which appeared in the April/May 1998 issue of Adventist Education.

According to one article, at the 2001 annual meeting of the Andrews Society for Religious Studies, "not a single person had anything good to say about this program. No one. Perhaps there was secret support for it, but no one spoke out loud expressing the slightest support". This is despite a range of people being present.

See also 2003 Conference on Religious and Theological Education, Adventist Today article. See the 1997 articles Tensions Peak in Adventist Higher Education and Religion Professors Face Conference Presidents

See also the official church statement " A Statement on Theological and Academic Freedom and Accountability", 1987.

Relations with other Christians

Progressive Adventists display an open and inclusive attitude towards other Christians and other people. Other Christians have often had positive experiences interacting with more progressive Adventists. Tony Campolo has had positive experiences speaking on numerous Adventist university campuses. Clark Pinnock gave very favourable reviews of Alden Thompson's Inspiration, despite the significant attention given to Ellen White in the content, and Richard Rice's theology textbook Reign of God. Pinnock was also impressed by Richard Rice's book The Openness of God, and later was the editor for another work of the same name, contributed by authors Rice, John E. Sanders and others.

The evangelical Christian Research Institute has offered "a hand of fellowship and encouragement" to what they describe as Evangelical Adventism.

Criticism

Samuel Koranteng-Pipim's book Receiving the Word, particularly the section "Liberals are not bad people" on pages 198-200, displays a strong concern about progressive Adventist scholars. According to Alden Thompson's count, "The footnotes label some 66 Adventist scholars, authors, administrators as being on the wrong side of the divide. Former General Conference president Robert S. Folkenberg wrote "Will the real evangelical Adventist please stand up?". An article in Proclamation!, a magazine produced by former Adventists critical of Adventism, criticizes progressive Adventism in particular, claiming that evangelicalism and Adventism are incompatible. Clifford Goldstein has criticized cultural Adventists and the Adventist left, as described above. The authors of Seeking a Sanctuary have argued that a common theology keeps Adventists together. They claim religions usually remain unified by ethnicity, but this doesn't hold for Adventism which is very culturally diverse.

Former Adventist J. Mark Martin gave talks entitled, "An Evangelical Adventist?

See also

References

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External links

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