The Portuguese naming system is quite flexible. In theory, Law just establishes the need for a child to have one given name and one last name from either parent (although having only one last name is nowadays extremely uncommon). In fact, in ancient times it was a common practice that daughters would receive the mother's family name and sons would take their father's - for example, from Vasco da Gama's marriage with Catarina de Ataíde were born, accordingly, six sons who bore the surname da Gama and one daughter who took the surname de Ataíde. Even these days, among older population, it is still not unusual to find siblings with fully different combinations of surnames among them.
To add to the "basic pattern", a second given name, or other father or mother surnames are optional for the parents to choose, till the limit of two given names, and four surnames (both limits are sometimes not respected, specially among families of the former aristocracy). So, at birth, a child can be given one or two given names and up to four surnames. Children usually receive surnames from both their parents. Usually, the mother's surname(s) precedes the father's, but the opposite is possible too.
Complete names are formed as it is generally practiced in Western Europe, i.e., by first names, followed optionally by one or more middle names, followed by the mother's family surname, followed by the father's family surname. Examples:
For example, if José Santos Almeida and Maria Abreu Melo had a daughter, her name could simply be Joana Melo Almeida (given name + mother's last name + father's last name). However, they could very well give her two given names, for example Joana Madalena and combine their surnames in various ways, such has Joana Madalena Melo Almeida, Joana Madalena Abreu Melo Almeida (two surnames from the mother, one from the father), Joana Madalena Abreu Santos Almeida (one name from the mother, two from the father) or even Joana Madalena Abreu Melo Santos Almeida (two names from each parent). It would also be possible to use surnames that are not part of either parent's legal name, but which the parents would be entitled to use (e.g., a surname from a grandparent or a great-grandparent that has not been transmitted to the father or the mother). This child would probably become known by her final surname, in this case Joana Almeida.
However, her parents could decide to change the order of surnames and name her Joana Almeida Melo and so on. In this case she would probably become known by Joana Melo.
Note that is quite common for a person to go by one of their surnames which is not the "last" one, especially if the other surname(s) are very common. For example, the Portuguese President Aníbal Cavaco Silva is commonly called "Cavaco", not "Silva". The same happens in Brazil, one notable example of this being Formula One great Ayrton Senna da Silva, who chose to be known as Ayrton Senna.
It should also be noted that some Portuguese family names are made of two words (most often not hyphenated), but are not composite names, as they were not the result of combining two family names on past past generations and, in fact, constitute a single logical unit. These include toponyms (e.g. Castelo Branco), religious references (e.g. Espírito Santo, Santa Rita) or other expressions (e.g. Corte Real, Mil-Homens). In this case both words must be cited (e.g. writer Camilo Castelo Branco is never referred to as Camilo Branco, and in alphabetical order goes under 'C').
"Middle names" (that is, second given names and surnames that are not the "last one", usually considered the most important) can be abbreviated, as well as suffixes, but usually not the first name and the surname (a notable exception was writer Ruben A., whose complete name was Ruben Andresen Leitão). Example: José E. C. Lima (Jr.). This differs from rules in Spanish names, which use the mother's family name at the end. Example: Norberto Garcia C.
In Brazil, recent immigrants - especially Italians, Germans and Japanese using only their father's family name - usually do not follow the Portuguese pattern. Although there is no legal restriction to this practice, the pattern in succeeding generations may change to a traditional Portuguese pattern due to assimilation.
Today one can find people who use two Italian surnames (like "Guglielmo Bianchini") or two Japanese surnames (like "Sugahara Uemura") which is unusual in Italy or noexistent in Japan. Of course, two surnames of distant lands immigrants are usual (like "Sato Rahal", an Arab and a Japanese surname together).
For Spanish immigrants, the Spanish pattern is to use both the names of the father's and mother's family, therefore they just changed the order of the family names in order to comply with the Portuguese pattern.
This pattern is most used among Japanese and Syrian-Lebanese immigrants sons and grandsons. So one can find names like "Paulo Salim Maluf" where Paulo is a Portuguese given name, Salim is an Arabian given name, and Maluf is his father's surname; or "Maria Heiko Sugahara" where Maria is a Portuguese given name, Heiko a Japanese given name and Sugahara is her father's surname. This practice allows the person to be recognized as "Paulo Maluf" or "Maria Sugahara" (in the large Brazilian society) or as "Salim Maluf" or "Heiko Sugahara" (in the immigrants' social community).
This pattern became almost a general rule in São Paulo and other southern states. Miscegenation slowed down this use; but it is commonly used when both father and mother belong to the same ethnicity. Younger generations tend to use both the father and the mother family name, thus giving four names to their sons (like "Paulo Salim Lutfalla Maluf" or "Maria Heiko Sugahara Uemura").
In Portugal, since 1977, a husband can also adopt his wife's surname, and this is also becoming common. When this happens, usually both spouses change their name after marriage (for example, José Santos Almeida and Maria Abreu Melo could become José Santos Melo Almeida and Maria Abreu Melo Almeida).
In Brazil until the recent reform of the Civil Law, women had to take their husbands' surnames; not doing so was seen as evidence of concubinage. The mandatory adoption of the new name led to unusual combinations, like in the (not uncommon) case of both spouses having the same surname. This custom has been fading since the 1970s and nowadays it is rarely found, due to the cumbersome need to update registries, documents, etc. after the name change and back again in the event of divorce. Recently, the new Civil Code stated that a woman has the option of whether or not to change her name after marriage and a man may choose to take his wife's surname.
In Portugal, the custom of giving a child four last names is getting popular, since this way a child can have each of their grandparents' last name. Some people view this as a sign of snobbery, since it used to be the noble families who had a large number of surnames (for instance, the 4th Duke of Lafões (1797-1851), whose full name was Caetano Segismundo de Bragança e Ligne de Sousa Tavares Mascarenhas da Silva). For the sake of simplicity, most Portuguese people have two surnames. Having only one surname is rare, and it usually happens when both the parents have the same last name (to avoid repetitive combinations such as António Santos e Santos).
Combining the name Maria with a religious concept used to be extremely common, creating combinations such as Maria da Conceição (after Our Lady of Conception) Maria das Dores (after Our Lady of Sorrows), Maria das Neves (after Our Lady of Snows), and many more. Using a religious place (usually the place of a Marian apparition)) is also frequent: 'Maria de Lurdes' (after Lourdes), Maria de Fátima, Maria de La Salette, just to name a few. These women are likely to be addressed by just the second element of their name: Conceição, Dores, Fátima, etc. Adding a "nature-related" or a "virtue" word to Maria is also common: Maria do Céu (heaven or sky), Maria da Luz (light), etc.
Thus Maria Madalena (after St. Mary Magdalene) would be 'Madalena', Maria Antónia would be 'Antónia' and Maria Teresa would be 'Teresa' (see Teresa Heinz). The popular combination Maria Ana evolved to a single name, Mariana (by influence of the French Marianne). The same thing happens with the name Ana (Anne or Hannah), also very common in double-name combinations (especially in the younger generations): a Ana Paula would be called 'Paula', Ana Carolina would be 'Carolina' and so on - although this is not universal and (unlike with Maria) many of this woman go by Ana only.
It is also possible to attach a masculine name to Maria, creating composite feminine names such as Maria João, Maria José, Maria Manuel, Maria Luís, etc. A woman in these circumstances would be informally called João ("John"), Zé, Zezinha (short for José) and so on. More rarely, it is possible to create composite names honoring masculine Catholic saints, such as Maria de São José (Maria of Saint Joseph). This woman would be commonly known as "Zé" or even "São José".
A similar procedure occurs with masculine names; it is not unusual to find names like João Maria, José Maria, Manuel Maria, etc. In this case, Maria would always be the second given name, in honour of Virgin Mary, and the first name would be a masculine name. This custom is fashionable among the nobility and the upper classes.
However, in areas such as a telephone directory or bibliography, the practice of using the (last) surname as the key is preferred. The conjunctives and affixes preceding or following it, such as "da" and "Filho", should not be used. When a full composite surname is known, it is alphabetised according to the first name, even if it is not separated by a hyphen. When it is not known, the last name should be used (because of this many errors are committed in the alphabetisation of Portuguese surnames, such as in a telephone directory). For example:
Note, however, that these rules may change if the Portuguese name has been absorbed into a different culture, like in Anglo-Saxon countries. In the United States, for example, where many Portuguese immigrants established themselves since the 18th century around New Jersey and New Hampshire, alphabetising rules use "da" and "de" as part of the surname (the famous Portuguese-American author John Dos Passos, who is referred to as having the surname Dos Passos, is a good example).
Other practices include the repetition of a syllable (Nônô from Leonor , Zézé from José), a simple shortening of the name (Fred from Frederico, Bea or Bia from Beatriz), the contraction of the name (Manel or Mané from Manuel) or a fraction of it (Beto from Alberto or Roberto, Mila from Emília). Sometimes, a foreign language nickname is used for the corresponding Portuguese name ("Rick" for Ricardo, "Charlie" from Carlos, "Maggie" from Margarida). Most given names have one or more standard diminutives.
Some typical Portuguese hypocoristics:
Note that a hypocoristics can receive the suffix -inho (meaning little) giving a more intense feeling of protection or intimacy, such as Chiquinho (from Chico, the hypocoristics for Francisco - Francis), Xandinho (from Xandre, for Alexandre - Alexander), Zequinha (form Zeca, for José = Joseph).
One single name or a name followed by a patronym was the most common way that the native pre-Roman people named themselves. The names could be Celtic (Mantaus), Lusitanian (Casae), Iberian (Sunua) or Conii (Alainus). The names were clearly ethnic and some typical of a tribe or region. A slow adoption of the Roman onomastic occurred after the end of the first century a.c. with the adoption of a Roman name or of the tria nomina:praenomen (given name), nomen (gentile) and cognomen.
Most of Portuguese surnames have a patronymical, locative or religious origin.
In Portuguese, patronymics are surnames like Henriques, Rodrigues, Lopes, Nunes, Mendes, Fernandes, Gonçalves. Esteves and Álvares, where the ending -es- means (son of). In other languages, patronymics have other suffixes (-son, -sen, -sohn, -vitch) or prefixes (Mac, O', Fitz, Ibn, Bin, Ben) in surnames such as Johnson, MacDonald, O'Niel, Nielson, Fitzgerald, Johansohn, Jansen, Mendelessohn, Ben Gurion. Some people use patronymics only as a second given name, not as a surname, like Russian (Ivanovitch - son of Ivan, Ivanovna - daughter of Ivan) and Arab people (Ibn Hanna - son of Hanna); in Iceland, the small population allows that people do not use a surname, only the patronymic (Björnsson - son of Björn, Bjönrdottir - daughter of Björn).
In Portuguese almost all patronymics end with the -es suffix, that sounds similar, but not equal to the -ez suffix used in Spanish patronymics. But some family names with -es- endings are not patronymics such as Tavares, Pires, Cortes (in Spanish Cortés or Cortez) and Chaves (in Spanish Chavés or Chávez) that are toponymics, so not derived from a given name. The ending suffix -es- it is not always used in patronymics. Some of them influenced by or originated from Spanish have the ending -iz- like Muniz (son of Monio) and Ruiz, (son of Ruy, a short form of Rodrigo).
In the beginning of the surname formation, the ending -es- was not used. So, Joana daughter of Fernanda could be called Joana Fernanda, as like as André João meant André son of João. One can find today in Portugal and Brazil people who still use surnames that for other people are just given names, although were passed from parents to sons for generations and do not have the ending -es-, such like Valentim, Alexandre, Fernando, Afonso (note the family name de Melo Afonso) and Antonio (note de Melo Antonio). Names like Dinis, Duarte, Garcia and Godinho were originally given names, but today they are used in Brazil almost exclusively as patronymics, i.e. as surnames, without the suffix -es- (Duarte and Dinis are very common given names in Portugal, though). The surname Mamede is derived from the name of the holiest prophet of Islam - Muhammad -, certainly a patronymic of converted Muslims (observe the name São Mamede - Saint Muhammad - a famous winery region in Portugal).
Matronymics (surnames derived from female given names) are almost never used in Portugueses, but surnames such as "Catarino" (from Catarina) and "Mariano" (the original meaning is "son of Maria; that could be the name of a real mother or of a spiritual mother, the Virgin Mary).
Some patronymics are not easily recognized by the people who bear them for two main reasons. First, sometimes the original name (the given name) is very seldom or never used today such as Lopes (son of Lopo), Mendes (son of Mendo or son of Mem), Soares (son of Soeiro or Suário), Muniz (son of Muneo, Munio or Monio), Peres (son of Pero, an old form of the name Pedro), Sanches (son of Sancho). Second, sometimes the given names or the related patronymic changed through centuries - although always some resemblance can still be noted - such as Antunes (son of Antão or Antonio), Marques (son of Marcos), Vasques (son of Vasco), Martins (from Martines, son of Martim or Martinho) and Alves (from Alvares, son of Álvaro).
Not all villages and towns that originated surnames exist, kept the same name or are inhabited today. This fact is easily understood in Portugal, but most of Brazilians do not know the meaning of their locative surnames because they do not know a city, town or village which has the same name.
Names of trees or plantations are also locative surnames that were used to distinguish people who lived near or inside this vegetation. Such are names like Silva (a kind of berry bushes, also meaning woods), Silveira (a place covered with silvas, a kind of berry bush), Matos (woods, forest), Campos (grass fields, prairie), Vale (valley, dale), Teixeira (a place covered with teixos, a kind of tree), Queirós (a kind of grass), Cardoso (a place covered with cardos, i.e. with cardoons and thistles), Correa (a place covered with corriolas or correas, a kind of plant), Macedo (an apple tree garden), Azevedo (a forest of azevinho, i.e. a holly wood), Cabral (a field where goats graze).
Tree names are very common locative surnames - Oliveira (olive tree), Carvalho (oak tree), Salgueiro (willow), Pinheiro (pine tree), Pereira (pear tree), Moreira (from amoreira, i.e. mullberry tree), Macieira (apple tree), Figueira (fig tree) - always used to identify an ancestor who lived near or inside a plantation or a garden of these trees.
Some geological or geographical words were also used to name people like Pedroso (stony or full of peddles land), Rocha (rock), Souza (from Latin saxa, a place with seixos, i.e. peddles), Ribeiro (little river, brook), Siqueira or Sequeira (a non-irrigated land), Castro (castle or ruins of ancient buildings), Dantas (from d'Antas, a place with antas, i.e. prehistoric stone monuments or dolmens), Costa (coast of the sea). The name Ferreira and Ferreiro" means (blacksmith, ironsmith), but also is a locative surname used by people who came from many towns and villages named Ferreira, i.e. a place where one can find iron ore - ferro. A surname like Leão (lion) means that an ancestor came from the old Spanish kingdom of Leon (today Northwestern Spain) or the French city of Lyon.
An orphan with unknown parents or a converted (Jew, slave or Brazilian native) baptized with the name of a saint like João Batista (from Saint John Baptist), João Evangelista (from Saint John the Evangelist), João de Deus (from Saint John of God), Antônio de Pádua (from Saint Anthony of Padova), João Nepomuceno (from Saint John of Nepomuk), Francisco de Assis (from Saint Francis of Assisi), Francisco de Paula (from Saint Francis of Paola), Francisco de Salles (from Saint Francis de Salles), Inácio de Loiola (from Saint Ignatius of Loyola), Tomás Aquino (from Saint Thomas Aquinas), José de Calanzans (from Saint Joseph of Calasanz) or José de Cupertino (from Saint Joseph of Cupertino) usually passed only the name Batista, Evangelista, de Deus, Pádua, Nepomuceno, Assis, de Paula, Sales, Loiola, Aquino, Calanzans or Cupertino to his sons as a surname.
Note that a surname like Xavier can be originated from someone baptized after Saint Francis Xavier or from the old Portuguese family Xavier.
Such are names like Peixoto ("little fish", applied to a nobleman who used a fish to trick his enemies during a siege), Peixe (fish, i.e. swimmer, or also fisherman or fishmonger), Veloso (wooly, i.e. hairy), Ramalho (full of tree branches, bushy, i.e. with a thick beard), Barroso (clay covered, i.e. with pimples), Lobo (wolf, i.e. fierce, savage), Lobato (little wolf, wolf cub), Raposo (fox, i.e. smart), Pinto (chick, i.e. gentle and kind), Tourinho (little bull, i.e. stout, strong), Vergueiro (that bends, i.e, weak), Medrado (grown-up, i.e. tall), Tinoco (short, small), Porciúncula (small part, small piece), Magro (thin), Magriço (skinny), Gago (stutterer, stammerer), Galhardo (gallant, chivalrous), Terrível (terrible), Penteado (hairdressing, the nickname of a branch of the German originated Werneck family whose members used to wear wigs), Romero (from romeiro, pilgrim, i.e. someone who had made a religious voyage to Rome, Santiago de Compostela or Jerusalem).
Most of these names are Spanish, such as Toledo (a city in Spain), Ávila or Dávila (a city in Spain) and Padilha. Other common "foreign" surnames are Bittencourt (from Béthencourt , French), Goulart, Goulard or Gullar (French, original meaning is glutton), Fontenele or Fontenelle (French, from fountain), Rubim (from Robin, French), Lencastre (from Lancaster, English), Drummond (Scottish), Werneck, Vernek or Berneque (southern German, the name of the Bavarian city Werneck), Wanderley (from van der Ley, Flemish), Dutra (from De Ultra, a Latin name meaning "from beyond" assumed by the Flemish family Van Hurtere), Brum (from Bruyn, Flemish), Bulcão (from Bulcamp, Flemish), Dulmo (from van Olm, Flemish), Acioli (Italian), Doria (Italian), Cavalcanti (Italian), Mota or Motta (Italian), Netto or Neto (Italian, not to be confused with the name suffix Neto - grandson - that is used in Portuguese to distinguish a grandson and grandfather who bear the same names).
The Portuguese Jews up living in Portugal up to 1497 bore given names that could distinguish them from the Christian population. Most of these names are Portuguese versions of older semitic (arabian, hebrew, aramaic) names like Abenazo, Aboab, Abravanel, Albarrux, Azenha, Benafull, Benafaçom, Benazo, Caçez, Cachado, Çaçom/Saçom, Carraf, Carilho, Cide/Cid, Çoleima, Faquim, Faracho, Faravom, Fayham/Fayam, Focem, Çacam/Sacam, Famiz, Gadim, Gedelha, Labymda, Latam/Latão, Loquem, Lozora, Maalom, Maçon, Maconde, Mocatel, Mollaão, Montam, Motaal, Rondim, Rosall, Samaia/Çamaya, Sanamel, Saraya,Tarraz, Tavy/Tovy, Toby, Varmar, Zaaboca, Zabocas, Zaquim, Zaquem, Zarco. Some were locative names like Catelaão/Catalão (Catalan), Castelão/Castelhão (Castilian), Crescente (crescent, from Turkey), Medina (Medinah), Romano (Roman), Romão, Romeiro, Tolledam/Toledano (from Toledo), Vallency (Valencia) and Vascos (Basque); some were patronymics from Biblical names like Abraão (Abraham), Lázaro (Lazar), Barnabé, Benjamim, Gabril (Gabriel), Muça (Moses) and Natam (Nathan); some are profession names such as Caldeirão (cauldron), Martelo (hammer), Pexeiro (fishmonger), Chaveirol (locksmith) and Prateiro (silversmith); some are nicknames such as Calvo (bald), Dourado (golden, like the german Goldfarb), Ruivo (red-headed), Crespo (curly), Querido (beloved) and Parente (family relative). A few names are not distinct from old Portuguese surnames like Camarinha, Castro, Crespim.
Some scholars proved that the converted Portuguese Jews usually chose a patronymic as their new surname and, when the conversion was not forced, they used to choose to bear the surname of their godfather.
Despite that, the Jewish-Portuguese community that flourished in the Netherlands and Hamburg, Germany, after their expulsion from Portugal used surnames that were usual among the old Christian Portuguese people such as Camargo, Costa, Fonseca, Dias, and Pinto. Maybe, most of them had parents or grand-parents that were forced to conversion in Portugal and after emigration to the Netherlands they embraced openly their Jewish faith, but kept using the surnames of their godfathers.
Some of the most famous descendants of Portuguese Jews who lived outside Portugal are the philosopher Baruch Spinoza (from Portuguese Bento de Espinosa), the classical economist David Ricardo, and the Nobel-prize-winning playwright Harold Pinter (from Portuguese Pinto). Other famous members of the Portuguese Synagogue of Amsterdam bore names such as Isaac Aboab da Fonseca, Isaac de Pinto, Menasseh ben Israel (whose original surname was Soeiro), and Uriel Acosta (or Costa).
The Belmonte Jews (crypto-Jews who live in the Belmonte region in Portugal) also bear surnames that cannot be used to distinguish them from the older Catholic Portuguese families.
For example, few Brazilians who bear the surname Guimarães know that it is also the name of a very important city in the history of Portugal. In the same way, although most Brazilians know that Oliveira - a very commom surname - is the name of a tree (olive tree), only those who travelled abroad could have seen one. So, names like Faria (a town), Almeida (another town), Teixeira (a place with teixos) or Cardoso (a place with cardos) are totally meaningless to almost all Brazilians.
Portuguese from the lower classes who had no surname and immigrated to Brazil during the golden rush of the XVII century, usually adopt as surname the name of the village or town where they came from (Serpa, Guimarães, Almeida, Braga, Faria, Barros, Lisboa, Junqueira).
It was a common practice to name the free slaves after their former owners, so all of their descendants have the Portuguese surnames of their former owner.
Indigenous people who were not slaves also chose to use their godparents' surnames as their own.
Religious names are also more common among people with African or Brazilian native ancestors than among people with just European ancestors. A slave who had just a given name like Francisco de Assis (Francis of Assisi) could use the partial name de Assis as a surname, since the connective -de- gives the appearance of surname.
The practice of naming Afro-Brazilians with religious surnames was proved even by some indirect approaches. Medical researchers demonstrated that theres is a statistical correlation between a religious name and genetic diseases related to African ancestry such as the sickle-cell disease. Due to miscegenation, the correlation exists even among white people that have a religious surname.
It was also common to name indigenous people and freed slaves with surnames which were already very common such as Silva or Costa. That is why Silva is the most common surname in Brazil.
Due to immigration, nowadays one can find these surnames even in Portugal.
These are surnames like Brasil, (Brazil), Brasiliense (Brazilian), Brasileiro (Brazilian), América, Americano (American), Bahiense (from Bahia city, today called Salvador), Cearense (from Ceará State), Maranhão (from Maranhão State), Parahyba (related to Paraíba do Sul river, not related to Paraiba State, Paraiba river or Paraiba city - today called João Pessoa) and Carioca (from Rio de Janeiro city).
Due to immigration, nowadays one can find these surnames even in Portugal.
Some foreign surnames were misspelled after many generations and today cannot be recognized in their original country (the French-Swiss family name Magnan changed to Manhães after some decades). Some misspelled foreign surnames are hard for speakers of the original language to recognize: these include Collor from German Koeller, Chamareli from Italian Sciammarelli, Branquini from Bianchini. Sometimes, different rules of romanization were applied to Japanese and Arabian names (like Nacamura and Nakamura, Ishigawa and Ichigawa, Sabag and Sappak, Bukhalil and Bucalil).
Thus there are extensively adapted or misspelled foreign surnames that become true Brazilian surnames, that used only by Brazilians or descendants of Brazilian immigrants.
This practice was most used during World War II by Italian immigrants because Italy was an enemy country for a few years. The new Portuguese surname was chosen based on the original meaning of the foreign suname (Olivetto, Olivetti or Oliva changed to Oliveira), but sometimes the new surname had only a phonetical resemblance (Livieiro changed to Oliveira, Salviani to Silva, Jabarrah to Gabeira).
As Italians are Catholics, the practice is not perceived after a single generation, but one can find many translated names among the old Brazilian Jewish families, e.g., Monteverde (Greenberg), Bento (from Baruch, meaning blessed in Hebrew), Luz (from Licht, a short form of Lichtenstein), Lobo Filho (Wolfsohn), Diamante (Diamant). Dourado can be a translation from Goldfarb or an ancient portuguese-jewissh name.
Some sociologists have suggested that that members of the Brazilian upper classes were often raised by slave women who gave them an informal name, and that childish name continued to be used in an respectful way when they grew up.
Today, this practice is not used formally, but one can find people informally, but respectfully, called "Seu Zé" (Mr Joe, Seu is a short Mister) or "Dona Ritinha" (Lady Little Rita).
Eventually, when forced by their migration to a civilized place, they are forced to civil registration and adopt a traditional Portuguese surname of their choice.
In Brazil, there is no legal restriction on naming a newborn child, unless the given name has a meaning that can humiliate or embarrass those who bear it. An immigrant can give a foreign first name to his or her child without bureaucratic procedures.
Brazilians living far from the big cities or lower-class people are prone to create new given names, joining together the given names of the parents or classical given names, changing the spelling of foreign names or even using foreign suffixes that - they may believe - give a sophisticated or modern sound to the new name (see Mauren - from Maureen - , Deivid - from David, Robison).
Foreign surnames are also widely used as given names such as Wagner, Mozart, Donizetti, Lamartine, Danton, Anderson, Nelson, Emerson, Edison, Wilson, Washington, Jefferson, Jensen, Kennedy, Lenin and Rosenberg. These names showed the political ties or artistic admiration of the parents who first used them to name their sons.
These are names like Araci, Caubi, Guaraci, Iara, Iberê, Ioná, Juçara, Jaci, Jandira, Juraci, Jurema, Janaína, Maiara, Moacir, Ubiratã, Ubirajara, Iracema and Peri (the last three taken from José de Alencar's works).
Recently, Brazilians have started to use other given names of Brazilian native origin like Rudá (love), Cauã and Cauê (sun), although these are now very rare and their use connotes the hippy culture.