Sweet, fortified wine of rich taste and aroma made in Portugal. The name derives from Porto, the town where it is traditionally aged and bottled. Most port is red, but lesser amounts of tawny and white are produced. Peculiar to the manufacture of port is a large dose of brandy given to the still-fermenting liquid (called must). Much time, often decades, is needed for the maturing of fine ports.
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City (metro. area pop., 1997: 1,556,000), seaport, and capital of Haiti, West Indies, on the southeastern shore of the Golfe de la Gonâve. Founded by the French in 1749, it was destroyed by earthquakes in 1751 and 1770 and has frequently suffered from fires and civil strife. In 1807 the port was opened to foreign commerce. It is the country's principal port and commercial centre, producing sugar, flour, cottonseed oil, and textiles.
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City (pop., 1996 est.: 43,396), seaport, and capital of Trinidad and Tobago. Formerly the capital of the West Indies Federation, it is located in the northwestern part of the island of Trinidad on the Gulf of Paria. It is an air transport centre for the Caribbean and has a diversified economy, producing rum, beer, and lumber. It is also a principal port and shipping centre; exports include oil, sugar, citrus, and asphalt.
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Seaport city (pop., 2006: 570,603), northeastern Egypt. It is on the Mediterranean Sea at the northern end of the Suez Canal. It was founded in 1859 on a narrow sandy strip separating the Mediterranean from Lake Manzilah and became the world's most important coaling station. It was the landing point of French and British troops during the Suez Crisis (1956) that followed Egypt's nationalization of the Suez Canal. In the Six-Day War of 1967, Israeli forces occupied the eastern bank of the canal, which was closed until 1975. The city was revitalized after 1975, and its industries include textiles, clothing, cosmetics, and glass.
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City (pop., 2000: 254,158), capital of Papua New Guinea, on the southeastern coast of the Gulf of Papua. Its large, sheltered harbour was explored by British Capt. John Moresby in 1873. The British annexed the area in 1883–84. The town became a main Allied base in World War II. The National Capital District, established in 1974, includes all of Port Moresby; it became the capital when Papua New Guinea became independent in 1975. A commercial centre, the city is also the site of a university.
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City (pop., 2003 est.: 147,688), capital, and main port of Mauritius. It was founded circa 1736 by the French as a port for ships rounding the Cape of Good Hope to and from Asia and Europe. With the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, the city's importance declined. It is the principal commercial centre of the island of Mauritius; its primary exports are textiles and sugar. Manufacturing and service industries, including tourism, are also based in the city. Aapravasi Ghat, an immigration depot used from 1849 to 1923 and designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2006, is located there.
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Inlet of the South Pacific Ocean, New South Wales, southeastern Australia. It is one of the world's finest natural harbours. It was sighted in 1770 by Capt. James Cook. Its entrance is between North and South Heads, where naval and military stations are located. Sydney is on its southern shore and the northern suburbs of Sydney are on its northern shore; the shores are joined by the Sydney Harbour Bridge, which was built in 1932.
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City (pop., 2001: 99,984), capital of Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory, India, in the Bay of Bengal. It was occupied by the British in 1789 but soon abandoned. The town was made a penal colony in 1858. It was occupied by the Japanese in 1942–45. The penal colony was abolished in 1945. The city was damaged by an earthquake-generated tsunami in 2004. Port Blair, a market town and tourist destination, has several local museums and an airport.
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City (pop. 2004 est.: 234,300), seaport, and capital of Benin, on the Gulf of Guinea, western Africa. Situated on a coastal lagoon in the southeastern part of the country, it was probably founded in the late 16th century as the centre of the kingdom of Porto-Novo. The Portuguese established a trading post in the 17th century, and it became a centre of the Atlantic slave trade. It became a short-lived French protectorate in 1863 and attained that status again in 1882. The ruins of old African palaces remain, and there are many colonial-style buildings, including the old Portuguese cathedral. Porto-Novo was established as the official capital of the country by the constitution, but only the legislature is found there; the president, most government ministers, and the judiciary reside in Cotonou.
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Seaport city (pop., 2001 prelim.: 262,928), northwestern Portugal. On the right (north) bank of the Douro River, Porto was called Portus Cale in Roman times and was earlier a flourishing settlement on the Douro's south bank. Held successively by the Alani, Visigoths, Moors, and Christians, it became an important port in the 14th century. Henry the Navigator was born there in 1394. It was the site of a British victory over the French in the 1809 Peninsular War. World-famous for its port wine, Porto is Portugal's second largest city and the region's commercial and industrial centre.
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