Definitions

Poopo Lake

List of ecoregions (WWF)

This is a list of ecoregions as compiled by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). The WWF identifies terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecoregions.

The terrestrial scheme divides the Earth's land surface into 8 terrestrial ecozones, containing 867 smaller ecoregions. Each ecoregion is classified into one of 14 major habitat types, or biomes.

Freshwater ecoregions and marine ecoregions are also classified by geographic region and by habitat type.

The WWF/Nature Conservancy scheme for marine ecoregions groups the individual ecoregions into 12 marine realms, which represent the broad latitudinal divisions of polar, temperate, and tropical seas, with subdivisions based on ocean basins. The marine realms are subdivided into 62 marine provinces, which include one or more of the 232 marine ecoregions. The WWF/Nature Conservancy scheme currently encompasses only coastal and continental shelf areas; ecoregions of the deep oceans have not yet been delineated.

Many consider this classification to be quite decisive, and some propose these as stable borders for bioregional democracy initiatives.

The WWF has also designated the Global 200, a list of priority ecoregions for conservation. Many of the Global 200's terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecoregions are composites of two or more individual ecoregions. For the list of Global 200 ecoregions, see Global 200.

Terrestrial

Afrotropic

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Flooded grasslands and savannas

Montane grasslands and shrublands

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

Deserts and xeric shrublands

Mangrove

Antarctica

Tundra

Australasia

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands

Montane grasslands and shrublands

Tundra

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

Deserts and xeric shrublands

Mangrove

Indomalaya

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

Temperate coniferous forests

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Flooded grasslands and savannas

Montane grasslands and shrublands

Deserts and xeric shrublands

Mangrove

Nearctic

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

Temperate coniferous forests

Boreal forests/taiga

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Tundra

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

Deserts and xeric shrublands

Neotropic

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Flooded grasslands and savannas

Montane grasslands and shrublands

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

Deserts and xeric shrublands

Mangrove

Oceania

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Palearctic

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

Temperate coniferous forests

Boreal forests/taiga

Temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands

Flooded grasslands and savannas

Montane grasslands and shrublands

Tundra

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

Deserts and xeric shrublands

Freshwater

Afrotropic

North African

Nilo-Sudan

Upper Guinea

West Coast Equatorial

Congo

Great Lakes

Eastern and Coastal

Cuanza

Zambezi

Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands

Southern Temperate

  • Amatole-Winterberg Highlands (South Africa)
  • Cape Fold (South Africa)
  • Drakensberg-Maloti Highlands (Lesotho, South Africa)
  • Karoo (South Africa)
  • Southern Kalahari (South Africa)
  • Southern Temperate Highveld (South Africa, Swaziland)
  • Western Orange (Botswana, South Africa

Australasia and Pacific

Montane freshwaters

Temperate coastal rivers

Temperate floodplain rivers and wetlands

Tropical and subtropical coastal rivers

Xeric freshwaters and endorheic basins

Oceanic Islands

Indomalaya

Tropical and subtropical floodplain rivers and wetland complexes

Montane freshwaters

Tropical and subtropical upland rivers

Tropical and subtropical coastal rivers

Large river deltas

Oceanic Islands

Nearctic

Pacific bioregion

Coastal Complex

  • North Pacific Coastal (Canada, United States)
  • Columbia Glaciated (Canada, United States)
  • Columbia Unglaciated (United States)
  • Upper Snake (United States)
  • Pacific Mid-Coastal (United States)
  • Pacfic Central Valley (United States)
  • South Pacific Coastal (United States)

Great Basin Complex

  • Bonneville (United States)
  • Lahontan (United States)
  • Oregon Lakes (United States)
  • Death Valley (United States)

Colorado Complex

Arctic-Atlantic Bioregion

Rio Grande Complex

Mississippi Complex

Atlantic Complex

  • Florida
  • South Atlantic
  • Chesapeake Bay
  • North Atlantic

St. Lawrence Complex

  • Superior
  • Michigan-Huron
  • Erie
  • Ontario
  • Lower St. Lawrence
  • North Atlantic-Ungava

Hudson Bay Complex

  • Canadian Rockies
  • Upper Saskatchewan
  • Lower Saskatchewan
  • English-Winnipeg Lakes
  • South Hudson
  • East Hudson

Arctic Complex

  • Yukon
  • Lower Mackenzie
  • Upper Mackenzie
  • North Arctic
  • East Arctic
  • Arctic Islands

Neotropic

Sinaloan Coastal Complex

Lerma/Santiago Complex

Rio Panuco Complex

Balsas Complex

Pacific Central Complex

Atlantic Central Complex

Isthmus Atlantic Complex

Isthmus Pacific Complex

Bahama Archipelago Complex

Western Insular Caribbean Complex

Eastern Insular Caribbean Complex

Choco Complex

South American Caribbean Complex

High Andean Complex

Inter-Andean Dry Valleys Complex

North Andean Montane Complex

Puyango-Tumbes Complex

Atacama/Sechura Complex

Pacific Coastal Desert Complex

Lake Titicaca/Poopo Complex

Galapagos Complex

Mediterranean Chile Complex

Juan Fernandez Islands Complex

Southern Chile Complex

Subantarctic Complex

Venezuelan Coast/Trinidad Complex

Llanos Complex

Guiana/Orinoco Complex

Amazon Complex

Northeast Atlantic Complex

Mata-Atlantica Complex

São Francisco Complex

Upper Parana Complex

Beni Complex

Paraguay-Parana Complex

Southern Atlantic Complex

Chaco Complex

  • Chaco (Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay)

Pampas Complex

Patagonia Complex

Palearctic

large lakes

large river deltas

montane freshwaters

polar freshwaters



temperate coastal rivers

temperate floodplain rivers and wetlands

temperate upland rivers

tropical and subtropical upland rivers

xeric freshwaters and endorheic (closed) basins

Marine

(by realm and province)

Arctic realm

(no provinces identified)

Temperate Northern Atlantic

Northern European Seas

Lusitanian

Mediterranean Sea

Cold Temperate Northwest Atlantic

Warm Temperate Northwest Atlantic

Black Sea

Temperate Northern Pacific

Cold Temperate Northwest Pacific

Warm Temperate Northwest Pacific

Cold Temperate Northeast Pacific

Warm Temperate Northeast Pacific

Tropical Atlantic

Tropical Northwestern Atlantic

North Brazil Shelf

  • Guianian
  • Amazonia

Tropical Southwestern Atlantic

St. Helena and Ascension Islands

West African Transition

Gulf of Guinea

Western Indo-Pacific

Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

Somali/Arabian

Western Indian Ocean

West and South Indian Shelf

Central Indian Ocean Islands

Bay of Bengal

Andaman

Central Indo-Pacific

South China Sea

Sunda Shelf

Java Transitional

South Kuroshio

Tropical Northwestern Pacific

Western Coral Triangle

Eastern Coral Triangle

Sahul Shelf

Northeast Australian Shelf

Northwest Australian Shelf

Tropical Southwestern Pacific

Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands

Eastern Indo-Pacific

Hawaii

Marshall, Gilbert, and Ellice Islands

Central Polynesia

Southeast Polynesia

Marquesas

Easter Island

Tropical Eastern Pacific

Tropical East Pacific

Galapagos

Temperate South America

Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific

Juan Fernandez and Desventuradas

Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic

Magellanic

Tristan Gough

Temperate Southern Africa

Benguela

  • Namib
  • Namaqua

Agulhas

Amsterdam-St Paul

Temperate Australasia

Northern New Zealand

Southern New Zealand

East Central Australian Shelf

Southeast Australian Shelf

Western Central Australian Shelf

  • Shark Bay
  • Houtman

Southern Ocean

Subantarctic Islands

Scotia Sea

Continental High Antarctic

Subantarctic New Zealand

See also

Biome

External links

References

  • Olson, D., Dinerstein, E., Canevari, P., Davidson, I., Castro, G., Morisset, V., Abell, R., and Toledo, E.; eds. (1998). Freshwater Biodiversity of Latin America and the Caribbean: A Conservation Assessment. Biodiversity Support Program, Washington DC.
  • Ricketts, Taylor H., Eric Dinerstein, David M. Olson, Colby J. Loucks, et al. (1999). Terrestrial Ecoregions of North America: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press, Washington DC.
  • Spalding, Mark D., Helen E. Fox, Gerald R. Allen, Nick Davidson et al. "Marine Ecoregions of the World: A Bioregionalization of Coastal and Shelf Areas". Bioscience Vol. 57 No. 7, July/August 2007, pp. 573-583.
  • Thieme, Michelle L. (2005). Freshwater Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment. Island Press, Washington DC.

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