Over the 19th century the term has been combined with various notions and doctrines and various flavors of radicalism have been spoken about: working-class, middle-class, philosophical, democratic, bourgeois, Tory, plebeian. Furthermore, every influential radical leader gave rise to their own trend, such as Spencean radicalism or Carlilean radicalism. Still, there existed a certain degree of unity and identity among all these currents. Conservatives frequently used the term "radical" as a general-purpose pejorative.
In modern usage, the terms "radical" and "radicalism" refer to the political views of the far left (radical left, leftist radicalism) and far right (radical right) of the conventional political spectrum.
Veterans' Associations and Political Radicalism in West Germany 1951-54: A Case Study of the Traditionsgemeinschaft Grossdeutschland
Aug 01, 1999; Following the annulment of the Allied law forbidding soldiers to hold meetings in December 1949, and the founding of the Bund...