Pima

Pima

[pee-muh]
Pima, Native North American tribe of S Arizona. They speak the Pima language of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic family (see Native American languages). There are two divisions, the Lower Pima and the Upper Pima. Before the mission period, the Pima and the Tohono O'Odham, who spoke variations of the same language, called themselves the People—River People (Akimel O'Odham, the Pima) and Desert People (Tohono O'Odham). Archaeological evidence shows their probable ancestors to have been the Hohokam, who built a network of irrigation canals for farming. Many of the ruined pueblos in the Pima territory have been attributed to an ancient Pueblo tribe. Tradition further states that increased population caused the Pima to spread over a larger territory, but invading hostile tribes (probably Apache) forced them to consolidate. Thus in 1697, when visited by Father Eusebio Kino, the Pima were living on the Gila River in S central Arizona.

Although the Pima were warlike toward the Apache, they were friendly to the Spanish and later to the pioneers from the E United States; the Pima villages were a stopping place for pioneers who took the southern route to California. The Pima were sedentary farmers of the Southwest area; they farmed corn, squash, beans, cotton, and wheat (introduced by the Spanish). They lived in dome-shaped huts built of poles and covered with mud and brush. Women performed much of the labor, including basket making; their baskets are noted for their beauty. The Pima were expert with the bow and arrow and had war clubs and rawhide shields. The Pima numbered some 2,500 in 1775, but their population was increased when the Maricopa joined them in the early 19th cent. The Pima now live, together with the Maricopa, on the Gila River and Salt River reservations and, with the Tohono O'Odham, on the Ak-Chin reservation, all in Arizona. They earn their income from agriculture, crafts, and leasing land for mineral development. In 1990 there were over 15,000 Pima in the United States.

See P. H. Ezell, The Hispanic Acculturation of the Gila River Pimas (1961).

North American Indian people living mainly in Arizona, U.S. The Pima language is of Uto-Aztecan language stock, and the name Pima was given by the Spanish, who may have derived it from the phrase pi-nyi-match, meaning “I don't know.” They call themselves Akimel O'odham, meaning “river people.” Their traditional lands are located in the core area of the prehistoric Hohokam culture, from which they probably descend. The Pima originally were sedentary corn farmers who lived in one-room houses and used the Gila and Salt rivers for irrigation. Some hunting and gathering were also done. Their villages were larger than those of the related Tohono O'odham (Papago) Indians, and they possessed a stronger tribal unity. The Pima were long friendly with settlers but enemies of the Apache. At the turn of the 21st century they numbered some 11,000.

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Pima is a town in Graham County, Arizona, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the town is 1,965. It is part of the Safford Micropolitan Statistical Area.

History

Pima was founded by Mormon settlers in 1879. It was originally named Smithville. The first settlers had been living in Forrest Dale, but then were told they had to leave because the location was on Indian land. Unlike other Mormon settlements of the era, Smithville was not planned by the leaders of the church.

Joseph K. Rogers was the first branch president at Pima, being appointed to this office before any of the settlers arrived.

The branch was organized into a ward in 1880.

In 1930 the ward had 666 members. Pima had a population of 980, and a total of 1,260 people resided within the boundaries of the Pima ward.

In 1990 Pima had 1,725 residents.

Geography

Pima is located at (32.888631, -109.828279).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.5 square miles (6.6 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

2006 Census estimates placed Pima's population at 1,970.

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,989 people, 663 households, and 521 families residing in the town. The population density was 787.0 people per square mile (303.5/km²). There were 735 housing units at an average density of 290.8/sq mi (112.2/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 87.03% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.75% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 9.85% from other races, and 2.11% from two or more races. 20.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 663 households out of which 42.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.3% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.4% were non-families. 18.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.43.

In the town the population was spread out with 34.3% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.8 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $30,985, and the median income for a family was $34,900. Males had a median income of $31,765 versus $21,042 for females. The per capita income for the town was $12,896. About 15.0% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 15.6% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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