Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau (May 30, 1820 – April 4, 1890), born in Charlesbourg, near Quebec City, was the first premier of the Canadian province of Quebec following Canadian Confederation in 1867. He led a Conservative Party government. He was also the Minister of Education and Provincial Secretary. Also during this period, he was the federal Member of Parliament for the riding of Quebec County (1867–73)
In 1873, he resigned as premier following his appointment as Speaker of the Canadian Senate. He served in that capacity until 8 January 1874. In 1878, he became professor of Roman law at Université Laval. He died April 4 in Quebec City in 1890. He had seven children, one of which, Alexandre Chauveau, became a provincial politician in his own right.