: φύκος (phykos)
meaning "alga", and from Latin
meaning "bile") are chromophores
(light-capturing molecules) found in cyanobacteria
and in the chloroplasts
of red algae
and some cryptomonads
(though not in green algae
and higher plants
). They are unique among the photosynthetic pigments in that they are bonded to certain water-soluble proteins
, known as phycobiliproteins
. Phycobiliproteins then pass the light energy to chlorophylls
The phycobilins are especially efficient at absorbing red, orange, yellow and green light, wavelengths which are not well absorbed by chlorophyll a. Organisms growing in shallow waters tend to contain phycobilins that can capture yellow/red light, while those at greater depth often contain more of the phycobilins that can capture green light, which is relatively more abundant there.
The phycobilins fluoresce at a particular wavelength, and are therefore often used in research as chemical tags, e.g. by binding phycobiliproteins to antibodies in a technique known as immunofluorescence.
There are four types of phycobilins:
- Phycoerythrobilin, which is red
- Phycourobilin, which is orange
- Phycoviolobilin (also known as phycobiliviolin) found in phycoerythrocyanin
- Phycocyanobilin (also known as phycobiliverdin), which is blue.
They can be found in different combinations attached to phycobiliproteins to confer specific spectroscopic properties.
Structural relation to other molecules
Chemically, phycobilins consist of an open chain of four pyrrole
) and are structurally similar to the bile
, which explains the name. (Bilirubin's conformation is also affected by light, a fact used for the phototherapy
Phycobilins are also closely related to the chromophores of the light-detecting plant pigment phytochrome
which also consist of an open chain of four pyrroles.
are composed of four pyrroles as well, but there the pyrroles are arranged in a ring and contain a metal atom in the center.
- O'Carra P, Murphy RF, Killilea SD. "The native forms of the phycobilin chromophores of algal biliproteins. A clarification." Biochem J. 1980 May 1;187(2):303-9. PMID 7396851