is a genus
of "sand fly
" in the Dipteran
. In the past, they have sometimes been considered to belong in a separate family, Phlebotomidae
, but this alternative classification has not gained wide acceptance
In the Old World
sand flies are primarily responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis
, an important parasitic disease, while transmission in the New World
, is generally via sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia
. The protozoan parasite
itself is a species of the genus Leishmania
. Leishmaniasis normally finds a mammalian reservoir in rodents
and other small animals such as canids
) and hyraxes
. The female sand fly carries the Leishmania
protozoa from infected animals after feeding, thus transmitting the disease, while the male feeds on plant nectar.
Phlebotomus species are also vectors for phlebotomus fever, an arbovirus caused by Toscana virus, a member of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae).,
In Egypt there are two species of medical importance Phlebotomus papatasii and phlebotomus langerni. These flies are short lived. Females are blood suckers at night, males feed on plant juices. Adults are poor fliers, they usually hop for short distances.
Adults are small sized about 1.5-3 mm, yellowish in colour with conspicuous black eyes, hairy body, wings and legs. The oval lanceolate wings are carried erect on the humped thorax.
Males possess long prominent genital terminalia known as claspers.
Females have a pair of anal recti.
Females lay eggs in batches in cracks and cevices which are dark and rich in organic matter. They are small, elliptical and brownish in colour. Hatching occurs into the larval stage. Larvae are small whitish in colour with a black head capsule. From the posteriior end arise a pair of long, dark caudal bristles which are characteristic for this species.