The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east and north of the Philippines occupying an estimated surface area of 90, 000 mi² (1, 000, 000 km²) on the western part of the North Pacific Ocean. It is bordered by the Philippine Islands (Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao) on the southwest; Palau, Yap, and Ulithi (of the Carolines) on the southeast; the Marianas, including Guam, Saipan, and Tinian, on the east; the Bonin and Iwo Jima on the northeast; the Japanese islands of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu on the north; the Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama) on the northwest; and Taiwan in the extreme west.
The sea has a complex and diverse undersea relief. The floor is formed into a structural basin by a series of geologic faults and fracture zones. Island arcs, which are actually extended ridges protruding above the ocean surface due to plate tectonic activity in the area, enclose the Philippine Sea to the north, east and south. The Philippine archipelago, Ryuku Islands, and the Marianas are examples. Another prominent feature of the Philippine Sea is the presence of deep sea trench, among them the Philippine Deep and the Marianas Trench, the deepest point in the planet.
The Philippine Sea is bordered by the Philippines
to the west, Japan
to the north, the Marianas
to the east and Palau
to the south. Adjacent seas include Celebes Sea
which is separated by Mindanao
and smaller islands to the south, South China Sea
which is separated by Philippines
, and East China Sea
which is separated by Ryukyu Islands
The Philippine Plate
forms the floor of this sea
and it subducts under the Eurasian Plate
which formed the Philippine archipelago. Between the two plates is the Philippine Trench
.The Philippine Islands are tropical.
The Philippine Sea hosts an exotic marine ecosystem. About five hundred species of hard and soft corals occur in the coastal
waters and 20 per cent of the worldwide known shellfish
species are found in Philippine waters. Sea turtles
, moray eels
and sea snakes
along with numerous species of fish
such as tuna
can commonly be observed. Additionally, the Philippine Sea serves as spawning ground for Japanese eel
, tuna and different whale
In June 1944 the Battle of the Philippine Sea
, a very large and decisive World War II
naval battle between Japan
and the United States
, took place in the eastern Philippine Sea, near the Mariana Islands.