List of alternate history fiction
This is a list of alternate history
fiction, sorted by type.
- 1972. The Iron Dream by Norman Spinrad, Adolf Hitler emigrates from Germany to America and used his modest artistical skills to become first a pulp-SF illustrator and later a science fiction writer.
- 1972. Tunnel Through the Deeps by Harry Harrison, Moors won the battle of Navas de Tolosa on July 16, 1212 on the Iberian peninsula, John Cabot discovered America, and George Washington was shot as a traitor.
- 1973. For Want of a Nail by Robert N. Sobel, the American Revolution failed and the British colonies become the Confederation of North America (CNA), while the defeated rebels go into exile in Spanish Tejas, eventually founding the United States of Mexico (USM).
- 1973. The Ultimate Solution by Eric Norden, a world resulting from a total Nazi and Imperial Japanese victory in World War II and partition of the world between them.
- 1974. Das Königsprojekt by Carl Amery, the Roman Catholic church attempts to restore the House of Stuart to the English throne by altering history through the use of a time machine invented by Leonardo da Vinci.
- 1976. The Alteration by Kingsley Amis, Martin Luther, rather than beginning the Protestant Reformation, became pope.
- 1978. And Having Writ… by Donald R. Bensen, four aliens arrive on Earth in 1908 and try to advance human technology so they could return home.
- 1978. Gloriana by Michael Moorcock, Queen Gloriana rules over "Albion", an alternative British Empire that rules over America and Asia.
- 1978. SS-GB by Len Deighton, is a detective novel set in 1941 Britain in which the Germans have successfully occupied the country.
- 1983. The Dragon Waiting: A Masque of History by John M. Ford, fantasy alternate history combining vampires, the Medicis, and the convoluted English politics surrounding Edward IV and Richard III.
- 1983. A Rebel in Time by Harry Harrison, a racist colonel wants to change history by helping the CSA win the American Civil War.
- 1983. Trinity's Child by William Prochnau, depicts a nuclear war waged between the United States of America and the Soviet Union.
- 1984. The Bush Soldiers by John Hooker, the Japanese have successfully conquered and occupied most of the coastal fringe of Australia.
- 1984. West of Eden by Harry Harrison, the asteroid that struck Earth 65 million years ago causing the mass extinction level event which wiped-out most of the reptiloids never happened.
- 1987. Agent of Byzantium by Harry Turtledove Imperial Byzantine special agent Basil Argyros is sent on various missions in an alternate universe where Muhammad became a Christian saint.
- 1988. Alternities by Michael P. Kube-McDowell's
- 1988. A Different Flesh by Harry Turtledove, the ancestors of the Native Americans never crossed into the New World, only Homo erectus.
- 1988. Fire on the Mountain by Terry Bisson, John Brown succeeded in his raid on Harper's Ferry and touched off a slave rebellion in 1859
- 1988. Gray Victory by Robert Skimin, taking place in an alternate 1866 where the Confederacy won its independence and has placed Jeb Stuart on trial for losing the Battle of Gettysburg.
- 1988. The New Dinosaurs: An Alternative Evolution by Dougal Dixon, a book chronicling the world had the dinosaurs not died out 65 million years ago but instead had kept the mammals in small rodent-like forms.
- 1990. The Difference Engine by William Gibson and Bruce Sterling, Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine takes on the roles of modern computers a century early.
- 1990. The World Next Door by Brad Ferguson, people from a world that experienced nuclear war in 1962 interacts with people from a world that did not.
- 1990. A World of Difference by Harry Turtledove, the 4th planet of our solar system is larger and named Minerva instead of Mars and contains intelligent alien life.
- 1992. Fatherland by Robert Harris, set in the 1960s in a Germany which won World War II.
- 1992. The Guns of the South by Harry Turtledove, the Confederate Army is supplied with AK-47s by early-21st century white supremacist South African time-travelers.
- 1993. Anti-Ice by Stephen Baxter, explosive scientific discovery made in the 1850s advances technology.
- 1993. Aztec Century by Christopher Evans, Cortez changed sides at the onset of the Conquistador era in the early sixteenth century, leading to the repulsion of Spanish invasion and occupation of Central America.
- 1993. Down in the Bottomlands by Harry Turtledove, at the end of the Miocene period, the Mediterranean Sea stays dry to the present day.
- 1993. Elvissey by Jack Womack, a dystopian 2033 where a Machiavellian multinational corporation has plans for world domination.
- 1995. 1901 (novel) by Robert Conroy, depicts a hypothetical war between Germany and the United States at the start of William McKinley's second term as President.
- 1995. 1945 by Newt Gingrich and William R. Forstchen, Germans perfected long-range jet aircraft by the end of World War II and conducted successful raids in North America against the US nuclear program.
- 1995. The Two Georges by Harry Turtledove and Richard Dreyfuss, King George III of Great Britain and George Washington reached a settlement where the 13 Colonies remained within the British Empire with increased autonomy and virtually all of their grievances redressed.
- 1996. Attentatet i Pålsjö skog by Hans Alfredson, Swedish communists blow up a German train passing through Sweden, killing Eva Braun who was on board.
- 1996. Celestial Matters by Richard Garfinkle, the physics of this world and its surrounding cosmos are based on the physics of Aristotle and ancient Chinese Taoist alchemy.
- 1996. Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus by Orson Scott Card, in which scientists from the future travel back to the 15th century to prevent the European colonization of the Americas.
- 1996. Voyage by Stephen Baxter, John F. Kennedy survived the assassination attempt on him in 1963.
- 1997. Back in the USSA by Eugene Byrne and Kim Newman, the United States experienced a communist revolution in 1917 and became a communist superpower, where Russia did not.
- 1997. K is for Killing by Daniel Easterman, Charles Lindbergh is elected president rather than Franklin Delano Roosevelt and a fascist organization calling itself the Amero-Aryan Alliance is brought to power and turns the country into a police state, complete with slavery, concentration camps, and ghettos.
- 1997. Making History by Stephen Fry, set in a parallel world in which Adolf Hitler was never conceived, let alone born.
- 1999. Battle Royale by Koushun Takami, Japan is a police state that terrorizes the populace by forcing children to kill each other in something called "The Program."
- 2000. Fox on the Rhine by Douglas Niles and Michael Dobson, Heinrich Himmler takes over as leader after Hitler is assasinated in 1944 and arranges a cease-fire with the Soviet Union to free German forces. He then appoints Erwin Rommel to command over the German forces in Europe.
- 2001. After Dachau by Daniel Quinn, Germany wins World War II and eventually all non-whites are killed off.
- 2001. The Children's War by J.N. Stroyar, in World War II Germany does not attack the Soviet Union and develops a nuclear weapons program.
- 2001. The Haunting of Alaizabel Cray by Chris Wooding, Victorian London is overrun by the wych-kin, demonic creatures that have rendered the city uninhabitable south of the river, and which stalk the streets after dark.
- 2002. Ice by Shane Johnson, the Apollo 19 mission suffers a major system failure, forcing its crew to strike out on their own.
- 2002. The Peshawar Lancers by S. M. Stirling, in 1878 a meteor shower devastates Europe and North America forcing the European empires to relocate their population to their colonies.
- 2002. Ruled Britannia by Harry Turtledove, the Spanish Armada conquers England and forces Shakespeare to write a play about Philip II. At the same time he is secretly writing a play for the English underground resistance.
- 2002. The Years of Rice and Salt by Kim Stanley Robinson, the Black Death of the 14th century kills 99% of the people in Europe and over the next seven centuries, India, China and the Islamic world come to dominate the planet.
- 2003. Collaborator by Murray Davies, set in a Nazi occupied Great Britain centering around a former POW and life in occupied Britain.
- 2003. Conquistador by S.M. Stirling, an inter-dimensional gateway is discovered in California, which gives access to an alternate Earth in which the empire of Alexander the Great flourishes, and where Europeans never discovered America.
- 2003. In the Presence of Mine Enemies by Harry Turtledove, a family of secret Jews hide in Berlin two or three generations after a Nazi victory in World War II.
- 2003. Roma Eterna by Robert Silverberg, the Red Sea did not part before Moses and as a result, the Roman Empire grew and prospered without the influence of Christianity.
- 2004. Airborn by Kenneth Oppel, the airplane is never invented and instead airships are used for travel.
- 2004. The Plot Against America by Philip Roth, Charles Lindbergh is elected President of the United States in 1940 and collaborates with Nazi Germany.
- 2006. 1862 (novel) by Robert Conroy, depicts what might have happened if England had entered the American Civil War on the side of the Confederacy due to the RMS Trent incident.
- 2006. Half Life by Shelley Jackson, the atomic bomb resulted in a genetic preponderance of conjoined twins, who eventually become a minority subculture.
- 2007. 1945 (Conroy novel) by Robert Conroy, depicts what could have happened if the United States had to invade Japan in World War II.
- 2007. Ice by Jacek Dukaj, the First World War never occurred and Poland is still under Russian rule.
- 2007. Mainspring by Jay Lake, a young clockmaker's apprentice, who is visited by the Archangel Gabriel is told that he must take the Key Perilous and rewind the Mainspring of the Earth.
- 2007. Russian Amerika by Stoney Compton, Alaska is still owned by Russia.
- 2007. The Yiddish Policemen's Union by Michael Chabon, during World War II, a temporary Yiddish-speaking settlement for Jewish refugees was established in Alaska in 1941.
- 2008. The Execution Channel by Ken MacLeod, Al Gore is elected president in 2000 and the 9/11 attacks involved different targets.
- 2008. The Man With the Iron Heart by Harry Turtledove, a German insurgency at the end of World War II.
- 1632 series by Eric Flint, an entire modern West Virginia town is transported in time and space to Germany during the Thirty Years' War.
- The Age of Unreason by Gregory Keyes, alchemy really works thanks to Isaac Newton.
- Anno Dracula series by Kim Newman, the heroes of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula fail to stop Count Dracula's conquest of Great Britain, resulting in a world where vampires are common and increasingly dominant in society.
- Arabesk trilogy by Jon Courtenay Grimwood, Woodrow Wilson brokered an earlier peace to World War I so that it never expanded outside of the Balkans.
- Axis of Time series by John Birmingham, an American-led UN Multinational Force arrives uptime from 2021 via a wormhole that was accidentally generated as a byproduct of a scientific experiment to the year 1942.
- The Belisarius series by David Drake and Eric Flint, opposing factions from the future influence early times through intermediaries for their own purposes: the 'good' side operating through the Byzantine general Belisarius and the 'evil' side operating through the Indian state of Malwa.
- Insh'Allah series by Steven Barnes, shows an alternate world in which Carthage destroyed Rome, with Europe remaining tribal and an Islamic-dominated Africa colonizing the New World.
- Civil War Series by Newt Gingrich and William R. Forstchen, Robert E. Lee wins the Battle of Gettysburg.
- Crosstime Traffic Series by Harry Turtledove, travel between parallel universes is possible.
- Gunpowder Empire (2003) - A world where the Roman Empire never fell and has technology equal to that of the age of Napolean.
- Curious Notions (2004) - The Central Powers of WW1 won prior to American entry into the conflict and conquered the isolationist USA in the 1950's.
- In High Places (2006) - The Black Death was far more virulent across Europe, leading to a world dominated by Musiums.
- The Disunited States of America (2006) - The USA was unable to agree to a full constitution following victory in the War of Independence, leading to every state becoming a different country.
- The Gladiator (2007) - The Soviet Union was able to win the Cold War and remake the entire world in their image.
- The Valley-Westside War (2008) - Nuclear War in 1967 lead to the collapse of society.
- The Domination series by S.M. Stirling, the early entry of the Netherlands on the American side of the American Revolution, causes them to lose the Cape Colony to Britain, which renames it the Crown Colony of Drakia after Sir Francis Drake and settles Loyalists and British mercenaries there who absorb the Boers to set up a slavery-based empire called the Domination of the Draka.
- The Emberverse series by S. M. Stirling, an event called "The Change" in 1998 causeselectricity, guns, explosives, internal combustion engines and steam power to stop working.
- The Farthing series by Jo Walton, the United Kingdom made peace with Nazi Germany (against Winston Churchill's wishes).
- Fireball Trilogy by John Christopher, two cousins are transported into an alternate history Earth through a mysterious fireball where the Roman Empire never fell.
- Germanicus trilogy by Kirk Mitchell, Rome never fell, after Pontius Pilate pardons Joshua bar-Joseph (Christ), and the Romans win a decisive victory at Teutoberg Forest and Latinize Greater Germania.
- The Hammer and the Cross series by Harry Harrison, Vikings rebel against the harsh rule of the Catholic Church.
- Hannibal series by John Maddox Roberts, the Carthaginians won the Second Punic War against the Romans.
- Heirs of Alexandria series by Mercedes Lackey, Eric Flint and Dave Freer, set in a renaissance Europe where the Library of Alexandria was not destroyed by a Christian mob and the now sainted Hypatia of Alexandria and John Chrysostom shaped religious thought, significantly altering how the Church developed.
- Lord Darcy series bby Randall Garrett, a number of short stories and one novel (Too Many Magicians) based on the premise that King Richard I of England returned safely from France and that Roger Bacon had systematized the laws of magic.
- The Lords of Creation by S. M. Stirling, an ancient alien civilization makes Mars and Venus habitable and seeds them with Earth life.
- Nantucket series by S. M. Stirling, the island of Nantucket gets sent back in time to the Bronze Age circa 1250 BC.
- A Nomad of the Time Streams trilogy by Michael Moorcock, a series of novels featuring a grown-up version of E. Nesbit's Oswald Bastable (from The Treasure Seekers and other books) who experiences a variety of alternate realities that have diverged from his own time-line.
- North American Confederacy series by L. Neil Smith, One single word in the Declaration of Independence differs and the US becomes the North American Confederation, a libertarian society.
- Operation Otherworld by Poul Anderson, the existence of God has been scientifically proven and magic has been harnessed for the practical needs of the adept by the degaussing of cold iron, while the United States is part of an alternate Second World War against the Islamic Khalifate, which has invaded the United States.
- Pacific War Series by Newt Gingrich and William R. Forstchen, alternate Pacific War.
- Romanitas Trilogy by Sophia McDougall, the Roman Empire survived to contemporary times.
- The Sky Crawlers series by Hiroshi Mori, follows the journeys and tribulations of a group of young fighter pilots involved in dogfight warfare, and is set during an alternate historical period.
- None But Air (2004)
- Down to Heaven (2005)
- Flutter into Life (2006)
- Cradle the Sky (2007)
- The Sky Crawlers (2001)
- Sky Eclipse (TBA)
- The Southern Victory or Timeline-191 Series by Harry Turtledove, the South won the American Civil War in 1862 due to not losing the copy of Order 191, resulting in the USA and CSA continue to exist and battle through this timeline's versions of the Franco-Prussian War, the First World War and the Second World War.
- Stars and Stripes trilogy by Harry Harrison, Prince Albert dies prematurely and Britain becomes involved in the American Civil War.
- The Tales of Alvin Maker by Orson Scott Card, a North America where people wield magic, or knacks, and the revolution was only partly successful.
- Temeraire series by Naomi Novik, the Napoleonic Wars are fought with an air force of dragons.
- Trail of Glory series by Eric Flint, Sam Houston was not injured at the beginning of the War of 1812, and substantially revises the history of the Trail of Tears.
- Worldwar & Colonization Series by Harry Turtledove, aliens with a fuedal caste system and 1990's style technology calling themselves the "Race" invade Earth in the middle of World War II, focing the Allied and Axis Forces to put aside their differences and battle this new threat.
Short stories and novellas
- 1934. Sidewise in Time by Murray Leinster, sections of the Earth's surface begin changing places with their counterparts in alternate timelines.
- 1952. Sail On! Sail On! by Philip José Farmer, the Earth is flat and Aristotle's axiom that objects of different weights drop with different velocities is true.
- 1960. Delenda Est by Poul Anderson, renegade time travelers meddle in the outcome of the Second Punic War, bringing about the premature deaths of Publius Cornelius Scipio and Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Ticinus in 218 BC, and thus creating a new timeline in which Hannibal destroys Rome in 210 BC.
- 1987. The Forest of Time by Michael Flynn, the Thirteen Colonies, after getting independent of Britain, did not succeed in creating the United States but developed into separate and mutually hostile nation-states which often fight bitter wars with each other.
- 1987. Thor Meets Captain America by David Brin, the Nazis are championed by the Norse Pantheon.
- 1987. Why I Left Harry's All-Night Hamburgers by Lawrence Watt-Evans, a young man tells his story about growing up working at a greasy spoon diner to travelers from alternate versions of Earth.
- 1988. The Last Article by Harry Turtledove, a Nazi invasion of India and the brutal reaction of the Germans to the nonviolent resistance and pacifism of Gandhi and his followers.
- 1991. Red Reign by Kim Newman, the original short story that Anno Dracula is based off of.
- 1997. The Undiscovered by William Sanders, William Shakespeare lives among the Cherokee and tries to produce a version of Hamlet for them.
- 1998. The Twelfth Album by Stephen Baxter, The Beatles don't split up and produce twelfth album called God.
- 2000. A Colder War by Charles Stross, the follow-up expedition in Lovecraft's At the Mountains of Madness has occurred, and inexorably fuses the Cold War and Cthulhu Mythos.
- 2000. Watching Trees Grow by Peter F. Hamilton, the Roman Empire never fell.
- 2002. The Daimon by Harry Turtledove, Greek philosopher Socrates aids the Athenian general Alkibiades in defeating the Spartans.
- 2002. Shikari in Galveston by S. M. Stirling, set in the same background as The Peshawar Lancers, but occurs several years earlier.
- 2003. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Second Holocaust by Robert L. O'Connell, the 1962 Cuban missile crisis developed into war.
- 2008. A Murder in Eddsford by S. M. Stirling, a murder mystery set in Post-Change Britain in The Emberverse series.
- 2008. Something for Yew by S. M. Stirling, another Rutherston and Bramble mystery.
- 2008. Beatle Rhett by Walter Rimler, The Beatles on another timeline
- 1986. ''Captain Confederacy by Will Shetterly and Vince Stone, a superhero is created for propaganda purposes in a world in which the Confederate States of America won their independence.
- 1986. Watchmen by Alan Moore, the United States has costumed adventurers and the country is edging closer to a nuclear war with the Soviet Union
- 2001. Ministry of Space by Warren Ellis, soldiers and operatives of the United Kingdom reached the German rocket installations at Peenemünde ahead of the U.S. Army and the Soviets, and brought all the key personnel and technology to England.
- 2002. Y: The Last Man by Brian K. Vaughan, something (speculated to be a plague) simultaneously kills every mammal possessing a Y chromosome - including embryos, fertilized eggs, and even sperm.
- 2003. Arrowsmith by Kurt Busiek, the United States is actually the United States of Columbia, magic is real, and the First World War is fought with and by dragons, spells, vampires and all other kinds of magical weapons and beings.
- 2003. The Life Eaters by David Brin, comic based on Brin's novella Thor Meets Captain America.
- 2006. Roswell, Texas by L. Neil Smith and Rex F. May, Davy Crockett survived the Alamo and Santa Anna didn't, and in which an expanded Texas eventually became the "Federated States of Texas" rather than one of the United States.
- 2008. Aetheric Mechanics by Warren Ellis, set in 1907, during a war in the air between Britain and Ruritania.
- 1966. It Happened Here, Nazi Germany successfully invades and occupies the United Kingdom during World War II.
- 1989. Back to the Future Part II, time travelling teenager arrives in an altered present.
- 1994. Fatherland, a movie based off the 1992 novel.
- 1995. White Man's Burden, in an alternate America where African Americans and Caucasian Americans have reversed cultural roles.
- 1998. Six-String Samurai, Russia launched several nuclear warheads at the U.S. in 1957, reducing most of the United States to an inhospitable desert.
- 1998. World War III, Soviet troops opened fire on demonstrators in Berlin in the fall of 1989 and precipitated a World War III.
- 2001. The One, a superhuman criminal, once a member of the organization policing interdimensional travel, travels across alternate universes to kill his counterparts.
- 2002. 2009 Lost Memories, the Korean peninsula is still a part of the Japanese empire.
- 2002. Nothing So Strange, covers the assassination of Microsoft chairman Bill Gates on December 2, 1999.
- 2004. C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America, a British documentary being broadcast on Confederate States of America network television.
- 2004. The Last Dragon, dragons are real.
- 2009. Watchmen, film adoption of the comic book of the same name.
- 1966-2005. Star Trek, has used the theme several times. Examples include: TOS- "City on the Edge of Forever" (alternate World War II outcome); Animated Series- "Yesteryear"; NG- "Yesterday's Enterprise". Enterprise- "Storm Front" where Nazis seized East Coast of America. Also, the universe of "Mirror, Mirror", while in the original episode was just inplied to be a parallel universe, was in later episodes shown to be an alternate history.
- 1985. Otherworld, a family is transported to an alternate Earth while exploring the Great Pyramid of Giza.
- 1995-2000. Sliders, gang of scientists, musician, and others as travellers who "slide" between parallel worlds by use of a wormhole referred to as an "Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky bridge". First episode was Soviet-ruled America after Soviets seized Americas. Other episodes were many alternate Earths as British America, Ancient Egyptian-ruled America, Spanish America, Druids-controling America, Atomic Bomb never exist, and others.
- 1995. Spellbinder, in an alternate world static electricity is used as a power source.
- 1997. Spellbinder 2: Land of the Dragon Lord, sequel to original TV show.
- 1997. Red Dwarf, the episode Tikka to Ride deals with a time line in which John F Kennedy was never assasinated.
- 2004-2005. Zipang, a Japanese warship is sent back in time to World War II.
- 2006. The Best Christmas Story Never (American Dad!), Martin Scorsese gives up drugs in 1970 leading to the Soviet Union conquering America.
- 2006. Return of the King (The Boondocks), Martin Luther King, Jr. survives his assasination.
- 2006-2008. Heroes, The character, Peter Patrelli travels through time to attempt to alter future and past events and outcomes. Starting with the attempted assassination of his brother Nathan Patrelli because of his belief that Nathan will cause unwanted future results by his disclosure of his knowledge of super human powers and abilities.
- 1996. Command & Conquer: Red Alert series, a series of computer real time strategy video games set in an alternate timeline, created when Albert Einstein travels back to the past and eliminates Adolf Hitler in an attempt to prevent World War II from taking place. This plan indirectly backfires and results in an unchecked Soviet invasion of Europe by Joseph Stalin in the 1950s.
- 1999. Crimson Skies, PC game based off the original board game.
- 2002. Iron Storm, World War I lasts to 1943.
- 2003. Crimson Skies: High Road to Revenge, video game sequel to PC game.
- 2003. Enigma: Rising Tide, the British passenger ship Lusitania was not sunk by a German U-boat in the First World War.
- 2006. Hearts of Iron II: Doomsday, contains a scenario involving Soviet forces attacking Allied forces in 1945, starting World War III.
- 2006. Resistance: Fall of Man, set in 1951 Britain as human resistance forces attempt to drive out a species of unconfirmed origin called the Chimera.
- 2007 War Front: Turning Point, set in a alternate version of World War 2 in which Adolf Hitler died during the early days of the war, and a more effective leadership arose to command Germany during the conflict.
- 2008. The Crossing, a parallel universe that has the Knights Templar seizing the French throne.
- 2008 Turning Point: Fall of Liberty, it depicts the invasion of the United States by the Nazi Germany during the 50's.