A periosteal reaction
is the formation of new bone
in response to injury
or other stimuli of the periosteum
surrounding the bone
. It is most often identified on X-ray
films of the bones.
A periosteal reaction can result from a large number of causes, including injury and chronic irritation due to a medical condition such as hypertrophic osteopathy
, bone healing
in response to fracture
, chronic stress injuries
, subperiosteal hematomas
, and cancer
of the bone. It may occur as part of thyroid acropachy
, a severe sign of the autoimmune thyroid disorder Grave's disease
The morphological appearance can be helpful in determining the cause of a periosteal reaction (for example, if other features of periostitis
are present), but is usually not enough to be definitive. Diagnosis can be helped by establishing if bone formation is localized to a specific point or generalized to a broad area. The appearance of the adjacent bone will give clues as to which of these is the most likely cause
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