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Paul I

Paul I

Paul I, 1754-1801, czar of Russia (1796-1801), son and successor of Catherine II. His mother disliked him intensely and sought on several occasions to change the succession to his disadvantage. During Catherine's lifetime Paul opposed her domestic policy, which strengthened the nobility, and her expansionist foreign policy. Upon his accession he introduced a law of succession based on primogeniture to strengthen the autocracy against the nobility. Paul rescinded many of the nobles' rights, limited the power of the imperial guards, and attempted to place limits on the nobility's exploitation of their serfs. He encouraged trade and industry and attempted to modernize the armed forces. His erratic conduct and whimsical application of petty regulations, however, caused great discontent. He prohibited foreign travel, certain types of dress, and the importation of Western books and music. In foreign policy, Paul joined (1798) the second coalition against France, but withdrew from the coalition the next year. He formed an armed neutrality league of Russia, Denmark, Sweden, and Prussia to counter English interference in neutral shipping, and he ordered an abortive invasion of India. Dissatisfaction with his rule, particularly among the nobles and military officers, led to a conspiracy against Paul, and he was murdered. His son and successor, Alexander I, knew of the conspiracy but did not participate in the murder.
orig. Jenó Pál Wigner

(born Nov. 17, 1902, Budapest, Hung.—died Jan. 1, 1995, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) Hungarian-born U.S. physicist. After studies at the University of Berlin, he immigrated to the U.S. in 1930 and joined the faculty of Princeton University. He was instrumental in getting the Manhattan Project started and was present when Enrico Fermi initiated the first chain reaction. He determined that the nuclear force is short-range and does not involve an electric charge, using group theory to investigate atomic structure. His name was given to several formulations, including the Breit-Wigner formula, which describes resonant nuclear reactions. He won a 1963 Nobel Prize (shared with Maria Mayer and Hans Jensen [1907–73], who won for unrelated work) for his insights into quantum mechanics, especially principles governing interaction of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and his formulation of the law of conservation of parity (see conservation law). In addition to his many scientific awards, he received numerous awards for his work for peace.

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(born March 28, 1890, Denver, Colo., U.S.—died Dec. 29, 1967, Doylestown, Pa.) U.S. musician and bandleader. Whiteman made his first records in 1920. His instrumental concept, known as “symphonic jazz,” featured lush harmonies and simplified jazz rhythms but little improvisation; he nevertheless became known as “The King of Jazz.” Whiteman commissioned George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue and conducted its premiere in 1924. The Whiteman band featured, among others, Bing Crosby, Bix Beiderbecke, and Jack Teagarden. His popularity waned in the late 1940s, but he was a television-series host in the 1950s and occasionally led bands up to the time of his death.

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(born June 2, 1863, Zara, Dalmatia, Austrian Empire—died May 7, 1942, Winterthur, Switz.) Austrian conductor and composer. After studies in Leipzig, he came to the attention of Franz Liszt, who arranged the premiere of Weingartner's first opera at Weimar (1884). He held conducting posts at Danzig, Hamburg, and Mannheim, and he became conductor of the Berlin Opera in 1891. He succeeded Gustav Mahler as conductor of the Vienna Opera (1908–11) and stayed on with the Vienna Philharmonic until 1927. He also directed the Basel Conservatory (1927–33) and was a distinguished writer on music.

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(born Sept. 5, 1927, Cape May, N.J., U.S.) U.S. economist. He worked as an economist for the Chase Manhattan Bank (1957–61; 1965–68). As an undersecretary at the U.S. Treasury Department (1969–74), Volcker was the chief architect of the U.S.'s abandonment of the gold-exchange standard and the devaluations of the U.S. dollar (1971, 1973). After serving as president of the Federal Reserve Bank (1975–79), he was appointed head of the Federal Reserve System in 1979 by Pres. Jimmy Carter and served until 1987. To end a period of very high inflation, he slowed the growth of the money supply and allowed interest rates to rise, causing a recession (1982–83) but dramatically reducing inflation.

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(born April 24, 1581, Pouy, France—died Sept. 27, 1660, Paris; canonized 1737; feast day September 27) French religious leader. Educated by the Franciscans at Dax, he was ordained in 1600 and graduated from the University of Toulouse in 1604. It is said that he was captured at sea by Barbary pirates but escaped. In 1625 he founded the Congregation of the Mission (also called Lazarists or Vincentians) in Paris as a preaching and teaching order. He also established the Confraternities of Charity, associations of laywomen who nursed the sick. With St. Louise de Marillac he cofounded the Daughters of Charity (Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul).

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(born March 30, 1844, Metz, France—died Jan. 8, 1896, Paris) French lyric poet. After entering the civil service, he was first associated with the Parnassian poets, contributing to the first volume of the anthology Le Parnasse contemporain (1866). His early collections, Poèmes saturniens (1866), Fêtes galantes (1869), La Bonne chanson (1870), and Romances sans paroles (1874), show the intense lyricism and musicality that would mark all his verse. His marriage was shattered by his infatuation with Arthur Rimbaud, and the two scandalized Paris with their behaviour in 1872–73. While in prison in Belgium (1873–75) for shooting Rimbaud when the latter threatened to leave him, he converted to Catholicism and probably composed the famous “Art poétique,” adopted in 1882 by the poets of the Symbolist movement. Sagesse (1880) expresses his religious faith and his emotional odyssey. He later taught French and English; he spent his late years in poverty, but just before his death he was sponsored for a major international lecture tour. His Les Poètes maudits (1884; “The Accursed Poets”) consists of short biographical studies of six poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Rimbaud. He is regarded as the third great member (with Charles Baudelaire and Mallarmé) of the so-called Decadents.

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(born , Aug. 20, 1886, Starzeddel, Brandenburg, Ger.—died Oct. 22, 1965, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) German-born U.S. Protestant theologian. He studied at Berlin, Tübingen, and Halle and was a chaplain with the German army during World War I. He taught successively at Marburg, Dresden, and Frankfurt am Main. In 1933 the Nazi takeover prompted him to immigrate to the U.S. With the aid of Reinhold Niebuhr, he joined the faculty of New York's Union Theological Seminary. He became respected for his lucid preaching and his Systematic Theology, 3 vol. (1951–63). He moved to Harvard University in 1955 and to the University of Chicago in 1962. His theological system was an unusual combination of biblical, existentialist, and metaphysical elements, and he attempted to convey an understanding of God that depended neither on revelation nor on science. His other works include The Courage to Be (1952) and Dynamics of Faith (1957).

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White Fence, photograph by Paul Strand, 1916.

(born Oct. 16, 1890, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 31, 1976, Oregeval, France) U.S. photographer. He studied photography with Lewis Hine. At Hine's urging, he frequented Alfred Stieglitz's “291” gallery; the avant-garde paintings by Pablo Picasso, Paul Cézanne, and Georges Braque that he saw there led him to emphasize abstract form and pattern in his photographs, such as Wall Street (1915). He rejected soft-focus Pictorialism in favour of the minute detail and rich tonal range afforded by the use of large-format cameras. Much of his later work was devoted to North American and European scenes and landscapes. He collaborated on documentary films with Charles Sheeler and Pare Lorentz.

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(born April 20, 1920, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. jurist. He studied law at Northwestern University and clerked at the Supreme Court of the United States before joining a Chicago law firm, where he specialized in antitrust law while also teaching and serving on various public commissions. He was appointed to the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (1970) by Pres. Richard Nixon and to the Supreme Court by Pres. Gerald Ford (1975). Though initially perceived as a conservative, he proved to be a moderate liberal; indeed, as the court became more conservative in the 1980s and early '90s, after appointments by Pres. Ronald Reagan and Pres. George Bush, Stevens became perhaps the court's most liberal member.

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(born Feb. 24, 1955, San Francisco, Cal., U.S.) U.S. businessman. Adopted in infancy, he grew up in Los Altos. He dropped out of Reed College and went to work for Atari Corp. designing video games. In 1976 he cofounded (with Stephen Wozniak) Apple Computer (incorporated in 1977; now Apple Inc.). The first Apple computer, created when Jobs was only 21, changed the public's idea of a computer from a huge machine for scientific use to a home appliance that could be used by anyone. Apple's Macintosh computer, which appeared in 1984, introduced a graphical user interface and mouse technology that became the standard for all applications interfaces. In 1980 Apple became a public corporation, and Jobs became the company's chairman. Management conflicts led him to leave Apple in 1985 to form NeXT Computer Inc., but he returned to Apple in 1996 and became CEO in 1997. The striking new iMac computer (1998) revived the company's flagging fortunes.

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(born March 21, 1925, London, Eng.) British director and producer. After directing plays in Stratford-upon-Avon, he became director of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden (1947–50). He directed several innovative Shakespearean productions that aroused controversy. Appointed codirector of the Royal Shakespeare Co. in 1962, he directed critically acclaimed productions of King Lear (1962) and A Midsummer Night's Dream (1970). He won international fame with his avant-garde direction of Peter Weiss's play Marat/Sade (1964). His films include Lord of the Flies (1962), King Lear (1969), and the six-hour Mahabharata (1989). In 1970 he cofounded, with Jean-Louis Barrault, the International Centre for Theatre Research.

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(born Oct. 13, 1941, Newark, N.J., U.S.) U.S. pop singer and songwriter. Simon began performing with Art Garfunkel (b. 1941) in the 1950s, using the name Tom and Jerry. After a break, the two reunited in 1964 as Simon and Garfunkel. Their first hit single was “Sounds of Silence” (1966); others over the next six years included “Mrs. Robinson” (for the film The Graduate) and “Bridge over Troubled Water.” After the two parted company, Simon released several hit albums, including Still Crazy After All These Years (1975). His Graceland (1986) album, recorded with African musicians, became the most successful and influential of the new genre of world music. Both African music and Brazilian music informed his album The Rhythm of the Saints (1990). With the West Indian poet Derek Walcott he wrote the Broadway musical The Capeman (1998).

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(born Nov. 11, 1863, Paris, Fr.—died Aug. 15, 1935, Paris) French painter. At 18 he gave up architecture to pursue painting in the Impressionist manner. In 1884 he became a founder of the Salon des Indépendants. With Georges Seurat he developed an exact mathematical system of applying dots of colour, which they called Pointillism (see Neo-Impressionism). He traveled extensively along the European coast painting landscapes and seascapes; in his later years he painted street scenes of Paris and other cities. He was a master of watercolour, in which he achieved great brilliance of colour and a free, spontaneous style. His work had a great influence on Henri Matisse.

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(born Jan. 21, 1922, Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, Eng.—died March 19, 2008, near Sussex) British actor. After entertaining the troops in World War II, he joined the theatre company at Stratford-upon-Avon (later the Royal Shakespeare Company) in 1946, winning acclaim as Henry V and Hamlet. He had his greatest success in A Man for All Seasons in London (1960) and New York City (1961–62) and reprised the role on film (1966, Academy Award). He continued to excel in stage productions, notably Uncle Vanya (1970) and Amadeus (1979). He appeared in the film versions of King Lear (1971), A Delicate Balance (1973), and Henry V (1989), and he later acted in the films Quiz Show (1994) and The Crucible (1996).

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(baptized July 4, 1610, Paris, France—died Oct. 7, 1660, Paris) French writer. With his first works, Scarron helped make the burlesque a characteristic literary form of his time. Virgile travesty, 7 vol. (1648–53) was a very successful parody of Virgil's Aeneid. Scarron's plays, often based on Spanish originals, were important in the theatrical life of Paris. He is now remembered for a single novel, Le Roman comique, 3 vol. (1651–57; “The Comic Novel”), which recounts the comical adventures of a company of strolling players; its realism makes it an invaluable source of information about conditions in the French provinces in the 17th century. His widow, Madame de Maintenon, was later married to Louis XIV.

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Jean-Paul Sartre, photograph by Gisèle Freund, 1968.

(born June 21, 1905, Paris, France—died April 15, 1980, Paris) French philosopher, novelist, and playwright, the foremost exponent of existentialism. He studied at the Sorbonne, where he met Simone de Beauvoir, who became his lifelong companion and intellectual collaborator. His first novel, Nausea (1938), narrates the feeling of revulsion that a young man experiences when confronted with the contingency of existence. Sartre used the phenomenological method of Edmund Husserl (see phenomenology) with great skill in three successive publications: Imagination: A Psychological Critique (1936), Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions (1939), and The Psychology of Imagination (1940). In Being and Nothingness (1943), he places human consciousness, or nothingness (néant), in opposition to being, or thingness (être); consciousness is nonmatter and thus escapes all determinism. In his postwar treatise Existentialism and Humanism (1946) he depicts this radical freedom as carrying with it a responsibility for the welfare of others. In the 1940s and '50s he wrote many critically acclaimed plays—including The Flies (1943), No Exit (1946), and The Condemned of Altona (1959)—the study Saint Genet, Actor and Martyr (1952), and numerous articles for Les Temps Modernes, the monthly review that he and de Beauvoir founded and edited. A central figure of the French left after the war, he was an outspoken admirer of the Soviet Union—though not a member of the French Communist Party—until the crushing of the Hungarian uprising by Soviet tanks in 1956, which he condemned. His Critique of Dialectical Reason (1960) faults Marxism for failing to adapt itself to the concrete circumstances of particular societies and for not respecting individual freedom. His final works include an autobiography, The Words (1963), and Flaubert (4 vol., 1971–72), a lengthy study of the author. He declined the 1964 Nobel Prize for Literature.

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(born April 24, 1581, Pouy, France—died Sept. 27, 1660, Paris; canonized 1737; feast day September 27) French religious leader. Educated by the Franciscans at Dax, he was ordained in 1600 and graduated from the University of Toulouse in 1604. It is said that he was captured at sea by Barbary pirates but escaped. In 1625 he founded the Congregation of the Mission (also called Lazarists or Vincentians) in Paris as a preaching and teaching order. He also established the Confraternities of Charity, associations of laywomen who nursed the sick. With St. Louise de Marillac he cofounded the Daughters of Charity (Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul).

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City (pop., 2000: 287,151), capital of Minnesota, U.S. It is in the eastern part of the state, on the Mississippi River just east of Minneapolis, with which it forms the Twin Cities. In 1805 Zebulon Pike made an unofficial treaty there with the Dakota (Sioux) for possession of the region. First settled in 1838, it was known as Pig's Eye until 1841, when a log chapel dedicated to St. Paul was built there. It became the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849 and of the state in 1858. It was important in the development of the upper Midwest because of its location on the Mississippi and its rail links, which promoted its livestock market. It is a major transportation, commercial, and industrial centre with diversified manufactures, including automobiles, electronic equipment, and food products. Educational institutions include Macalester and Concordia colleges.

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(born June 28, 1577, Siegen, Westphalia—died May 30, 1640, Antwerp, Spanish Neth.) Flemish painter and diplomat. After apprenticeships in Antwerp, he was admitted to its painters' guild in 1598. He went to Italy in 1600 and until 1608 worked for the duke of Mantua, who in 1603 sent him to Spain to present paintings and other gifts to Philip III, the first of many diplomatic missions he would perform for various courts over three decades. The enormous fame he would achieve made him welcome at royal courts, and sovereigns often discussed affairs of state while they sat for portraits. Returning to the Spanish Netherlands (now Belgium) in 1608, he was appointed court painter to the Spanish Habsburg regents, and over the next decade produced numerous altarpieces. A devout Catholic, he became the Counter-Reformation's chief artistic proponent in northern Europe. In 1620 he contracted to design 39 ceiling paintings for the Jesuit church, to be completed by assistants, including the young Anthony Van Dyck. In France he did 21 large canvases for Marie de Médicis and a tapestry cycle for Louis XIII; for Britain his Allegory of Peace and War (1629–30) commemorated the success of his own diplomatic efforts to end hostilities between Britain and Spain, and he decorated the royal Banqueting House for Charles I; in Spain he did more than 60 oil sketches for Philip IV's hunting lodge. Both Charles and Philip knighted him. His output was prodigious. He was the greatest exponent of Baroque painting's dynamism, vitality, and sensual exuberance. His profound stylistic influence extended over three centuries.

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(born April 9, 1898, Princeton, N.J., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1976, Philadelphia, Pa.) U.S. singer, actor, and activist. Born to a former slave turned preacher and a Quaker mother, Robeson attended Rutgers University, where he was an All-America football player. Graduating at the head of his class, he went on to earn a law degree at Columbia University. Because of a lack of opportunity for African Americans in law, he turned to theatre, joining a group that included Eugene O'Neill and appearing in his All God's Chillun Got Wings (1924) and The Emperor Jones (1924), a huge success in New York City and London. He also starred in the film version of The Emperor Jones (1933). Robeson's superb bass-baritone brought him worldwide renown with his performance of “Ol' Man River” in Show Boat (1928). His lead role in Othello won high praise in London (1930) and on Broadway (1943). He visited the Soviet Union in 1934 and became identified with leftist politics. In 1950 his passport was withdrawn because he refused to disclaim membership in the Communist Party. Viciously harassed and ostracized, Robeson left the U.S. to live in Europe and travel in Soviet-bloc countries, but he returned in 1963 because of ill health.

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(born Oct. 15, 1878, Barcelonnette, France—died Sept. 21, 1966, Paris) French politician and premier (1940). After serving in World War I, he served in the Chamber of Deputies (1919–24, 1928–40) and in cabinet positions (1930–32). As minister of finance (1938–40) and premier (1940), he called on France to resist Nazi Germany. After the German invasion, Reynaud resigned rather than conclude an armistice; he was arrested and kept in captivity (1940–45). He returned to the Chamber of Deputies (1946–62) and helped draft the constitution of the Fifth Republic.

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(born , Jan. 1, 1735, Boston, Mass.—died May 10, 1818, Boston) American patriot and silversmith. He entered his father's trade as a silversmith and engraver. An ardent supporter of the colonists' cause, he took part in the Boston Tea Party. As the principal rider for Boston's Committee of Safety, he arranged to signal the British approach by having lanterns placed in Boston's Old North Church steeple: “One if by land and two if by sea.” On April 18, 1775, he set off to ride to Lexington to alert colonists that British troops were on the march and to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock to flee. Though he was stopped by a British patrol, he was able to alert the patriot leaders; because of his warning, the minutemen were prepared for the Battle of Lexington and the start of the American Revolution. His ride was celebrated in a famous poem by Henry W. Longfellow (1863). During the war, Revere constructed a powder mill to supply colonial arms. After the war he discovered a process for rolling sheet copper and opened a rolling mill that produced sheathing for ships such as the USS Constitution. He continued to design handsome silver bowls, flatware, and utensils that are museum pieces today.

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Jackson Pollock painting in his studio on Long Island, New York, 1950.

(born Jan. 28, 1912, Cody, Wyo., U.S.—died Aug. 11, 1956, East Hampton, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He grew up in California and Arizona. In the early 1930s he studied in New York City under Thomas Hart Benton, and later he was employed on the WPA Federal Art Project. In 1945 he married the artist Lee Krasner. Two years later, after several years of semiabstract work stimulated by psychotherapy, Pollock began to lay his canvas on the floor and pour or drip paint onto it in stages. This process permitted him to record the force and scope of his gestures in trajectories of enamel or aluminum paint that “veiled” the figurative elements found in his earlier work. The results were huge areas covered with complex and dynamic linear patterns that fuse image and form and engulf the vision of the spectator in their scale and intricacy. Pollock believed that art derived from the unconscious and judged his work and that of others on its inherent authenticity of personal expression. He became known as a leading practitioner of Abstract Expressionism, particularly the form known as action painting. Championed by critic Clement Greenberg and others, he became a celebrity. When he died in a car crash at 44, he was one of the few American painters to be recognized during his lifetime and afterward as the peer of 20th-century European masters of modern art.

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(born April 20, 1879, Paris, Fr.—died April 30, 1944, Paris) French fashion designer. After working in the Parisian fashion house of Charles Frederick Worth, he opened his own shop in 1902. In 1908 he revived the Empire style, popular in France during the reign of Napoleon I. Seeking to restore naturalness to female garb, he was principally responsible for the decline of the corset. He is best known for the hobble skirt, to which he later added draped and belted knee-length tunics. Fringed and tasseled capes, multicoloured feathers, and fox stoles imparted a theatrical look to his designs. His flowing Greek costumes were extremely popular in the prewar era, but his popularity faded in the 1920s and he died in poverty.

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(born June 28, 1577, Siegen, Westphalia—died May 30, 1640, Antwerp, Spanish Neth.) Flemish painter and diplomat. After apprenticeships in Antwerp, he was admitted to its painters' guild in 1598. He went to Italy in 1600 and until 1608 worked for the duke of Mantua, who in 1603 sent him to Spain to present paintings and other gifts to Philip III, the first of many diplomatic missions he would perform for various courts over three decades. The enormous fame he would achieve made him welcome at royal courts, and sovereigns often discussed affairs of state while they sat for portraits. Returning to the Spanish Netherlands (now Belgium) in 1608, he was appointed court painter to the Spanish Habsburg regents, and over the next decade produced numerous altarpieces. A devout Catholic, he became the Counter-Reformation's chief artistic proponent in northern Europe. In 1620 he contracted to design 39 ceiling paintings for the Jesuit church, to be completed by assistants, including the young Anthony Van Dyck. In France he did 21 large canvases for Marie de Médicis and a tapestry cycle for Louis XIII; for Britain his Allegory of Peace and War (1629–30) commemorated the success of his own diplomatic efforts to end hostilities between Britain and Spain, and he decorated the royal Banqueting House for Charles I; in Spain he did more than 60 oil sketches for Philip IV's hunting lodge. Both Charles and Philip knighted him. His output was prodigious. He was the greatest exponent of Baroque painting's dynamism, vitality, and sensual exuberance. His profound stylistic influence extended over three centuries.

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orig. Saul

(born AD 10?, Tarsus in Cilicia—died 67?, Rome) Early Christian missionary and theologian, known as the Apostle to the Gentiles. Born a Jew in Tarsus, Asia Minor, he was trained as a rabbi but earned his living as a tentmaker. A zealous Pharisee, he persecuted the first Christians until a vision of Jesus, experienced while on the road to Damascus, converted him to Christianity. Three years later he met St. Peter and Jesus' brother James and was henceforth recognized as the 13th Apostle. From his base in Antioch, he traveled widely, preaching to the Gentiles. By asserting that non-Jewish disciples of Christ did not have to observe Jewish law, he helped to establish Christianity as a separate religion rather than a Jewish sect. On a journey to Jerusalem, he aroused such hostility among the Jews that a mob gathered, and he was arrested and imprisoned for two years. The circumstances of his death are unknown. Paul's ministry and religious views are known largely from his letters, or epistles, collected in the New Testament, which are the first Christian theological writing and the source of much Christian doctrine. It was due to Paul more than anyone else that Christianity became a world religion.

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orig. Lester Polfus

(born June 9, 1915, Waukesha, Wis., U.S.) U.S. guitarist and inventor. He played many styles of popular music, initially country but later jazz, and in the 1940s he was a sideman for Nat King Cole and Bing Crosby. He invented the first solid-body electric guitar and was instrumental in developing modern multitrack recording. His overdubbed, sped-up recordings from the late 1940s and early 1950s—including “Brazil” (1948), “Nola” (1950), and “How High the Moon” (1951), often with his wife, Mary Ford (1924–77) singing multiple harmony parts—demonstrated the potential of tape. He continued to perform occasionally into his 80s.

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in full Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg

Hindenburg

(born Oct. 2, 1847, Posen, Prussia—died Aug. 2, 1934, Neudeck, Ger.) German field marshal and second president (1925–34) of the Weimar Republic. Born to an aristocratic family, he retired from the Prussian army as a general in 1911. Recalled to duty in World War I, he commanded German forces in East Prussia and became a national hero after the Battle of Tannenberg (1914). With Erich Ludendorff as his chief aide, he nominally commanded all German forces until the end of the war, then retired again in 1919. Supported by conservative groups, he was elected president of Germany in 1925. When the Great Depression led to a political crisis, he was pressured to make the government more independent of parliamentary controls. In 1930 he allowed Chancellor Heinrich Brüning to dissolve the Reichstag, and in the new elections the Nazi Party emerged as the second largest party. In 1932 Hindenburg was reelected president by opponents of the Nazis; however, his advisers considered the Nazis useful, and in 1933 he was persuaded to appoint Adolf Hitler chancellor.

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(born March 28, 1890, Denver, Colo., U.S.—died Dec. 29, 1967, Doylestown, Pa.) U.S. musician and bandleader. Whiteman made his first records in 1920. His instrumental concept, known as “symphonic jazz,” featured lush harmonies and simplified jazz rhythms but little improvisation; he nevertheless became known as “The King of Jazz.” Whiteman commissioned George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue and conducted its premiere in 1924. The Whiteman band featured, among others, Bing Crosby, Bix Beiderbecke, and Jack Teagarden. His popularity waned in the late 1940s, but he was a television-series host in the 1950s and occasionally led bands up to the time of his death.

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orig. Giovanni Battista Montini

(born Sept. 26, 1897, Concesio, near Brescia, Italy—died Aug. 6, 1978, Castel Gandolfo) Pope (1963–78). Educated at Brescia and ordained in 1920, he continued his studies in Rome, earning degrees in civil and canon law. He was a church diplomat for much of his career, until he was named archbishop of Milan in 1954. He became a cardinal in 1958, and in 1963 he was elected pope. Paul VI presided over the final sessions of the Second Vatican Council and appointed commissions to carry out its reforms, including revisions in the mass. He also relaxed rules on fasting, removed a number of questionable saints from the church's calendar, and enforced conservative positions on birth control and clerical celibacy. He promoted ecumenism and was the first pope to travel widely, visiting Israel, India, Asia, and Latin America.

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White Fence, photograph by Paul Strand, 1916.

(born Oct. 16, 1890, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 31, 1976, Oregeval, France) U.S. photographer. He studied photography with Lewis Hine. At Hine's urging, he frequented Alfred Stieglitz's “291” gallery; the avant-garde paintings by Pablo Picasso, Paul Cézanne, and Georges Braque that he saw there led him to emphasize abstract form and pattern in his photographs, such as Wall Street (1915). He rejected soft-focus Pictorialism in favour of the minute detail and rich tonal range afforded by the use of large-format cameras. Much of his later work was devoted to North American and European scenes and landscapes. He collaborated on documentary films with Charles Sheeler and Pare Lorentz.

Learn more about Strand, Paul with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 11, 1863, Paris, Fr.—died Aug. 15, 1935, Paris) French painter. At 18 he gave up architecture to pursue painting in the Impressionist manner. In 1884 he became a founder of the Salon des Indépendants. With Georges Seurat he developed an exact mathematical system of applying dots of colour, which they called Pointillism (see Neo-Impressionism). He traveled extensively along the European coast painting landscapes and seascapes; in his later years he painted street scenes of Paris and other cities. He was a master of watercolour, in which he achieved great brilliance of colour and a free, spontaneous style. His work had a great influence on Henri Matisse.

Learn more about Signac, Paul with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(baptized July 4, 1610, Paris, France—died Oct. 7, 1660, Paris) French writer. With his first works, Scarron helped make the burlesque a characteristic literary form of his time. Virgile travesty, 7 vol. (1648–53) was a very successful parody of Virgil's Aeneid. Scarron's plays, often based on Spanish originals, were important in the theatrical life of Paris. He is now remembered for a single novel, Le Roman comique, 3 vol. (1651–57; “The Comic Novel”), which recounts the comical adventures of a company of strolling players; its realism makes it an invaluable source of information about conditions in the French provinces in the 17th century. His widow, Madame de Maintenon, was later married to Louis XIV.

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(born Oct. 15, 1878, Barcelonnette, France—died Sept. 21, 1966, Paris) French politician and premier (1940). After serving in World War I, he served in the Chamber of Deputies (1919–24, 1928–40) and in cabinet positions (1930–32). As minister of finance (1938–40) and premier (1940), he called on France to resist Nazi Germany. After the German invasion, Reynaud resigned rather than conclude an armistice; he was arrested and kept in captivity (1940–45). He returned to the Chamber of Deputies (1946–62) and helped draft the constitution of the Fifth Republic.

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(born , Jan. 1, 1735, Boston, Mass.—died May 10, 1818, Boston) American patriot and silversmith. He entered his father's trade as a silversmith and engraver. An ardent supporter of the colonists' cause, he took part in the Boston Tea Party. As the principal rider for Boston's Committee of Safety, he arranged to signal the British approach by having lanterns placed in Boston's Old North Church steeple: “One if by land and two if by sea.” On April 18, 1775, he set off to ride to Lexington to alert colonists that British troops were on the march and to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock to flee. Though he was stopped by a British patrol, he was able to alert the patriot leaders; because of his warning, the minutemen were prepared for the Battle of Lexington and the start of the American Revolution. His ride was celebrated in a famous poem by Henry W. Longfellow (1863). During the war, Revere constructed a powder mill to supply colonial arms. After the war he discovered a process for rolling sheet copper and opened a rolling mill that produced sheathing for ships such as the USS Constitution. He continued to design handsome silver bowls, flatware, and utensils that are museum pieces today.

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(born April 20, 1879, Paris, Fr.—died April 30, 1944, Paris) French fashion designer. After working in the Parisian fashion house of Charles Frederick Worth, he opened his own shop in 1902. In 1908 he revived the Empire style, popular in France during the reign of Napoleon I. Seeking to restore naturalness to female garb, he was principally responsible for the decline of the corset. He is best known for the hobble skirt, to which he later added draped and belted knee-length tunics. Fringed and tasseled capes, multicoloured feathers, and fox stoles imparted a theatrical look to his designs. His flowing Greek costumes were extremely popular in the prewar era, but his popularity faded in the 1920s and he died in poverty.

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(born Jan. 26, 1925, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. film actor. He studied drama at Yale University and the Actors Studio and first appeared on Broadway in Picnic (1953). In 1954 he made his screen debut in the disastrous biblical epic The Silver Chalice. He won favourable notice in Somebody up There Likes Me (1956) and The Long Hot Summer (1958). In many of his best-remembered roles, he captured the darker, less heroic aspects of a character's nature, as in such successful films as The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), The Color of Money (1986; Academy Award), and Nobody's Fool (1994). He directed and produced films such as Rachel, Rachel (1968) and The Glass Menagerie (1987), both of which starred his wife, Joanne Woodward. In 1982 he launched the successful “Newman's Own” line of food products, with its profits going to a number of charitable causes.

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Paul Laurence Dunbar, 1906.

(born June 27, 1872, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 9, 1906, Dayton) U.S. author. The son of former slaves, Dunbar became the first African American writer to try to live by his writings and one of the first to attain national prominence. He wrote for a largely white readership, using black dialect and depicting the pre-Civil War South in pastoral, idyllic tones. His verse collections include Oak and Ivy (1893), Majors and Minors (1895), and Lyrics of Lowly Life (1896). His poems reached a wide readership, and he gave readings in the U.S. and England. He also published four short-story collections and four novels, including The Sport of the Gods (1902).

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orig. Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger

(born Oct. 10, 1825, Cradock district, Cape Colony—died July 14, 1904, Clarens, Switz.) South African soldier and statesman, noted as the builder of the Afrikaner nation. As a boy of 10, Kruger took part in the Great Trek and was impressed by the ability of the Boers to defend themselves against hostile African peoples and to establish an orderly government. When the British annexed the Transvaal in 1877, Kruger became the recognized champion of his people in the struggle to regain independence. After leading a series of armed attacks, he succeeded in obtaining limited independence and was elected president of the restored republic (1883–1902). In 1895 he fended off an attempt by Cecil Rhodes and Leander Starr Jameson to end Boer control of the republic. His age prevented his participation in the South African War and he retreated to the Netherlands; he died in Switzerland and was buried (December 1904) in Pretoria, S.Af.

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Klee, 1939

(born Dec. 18, 1879, Münchenbuchsee, Switz.—died June 29, 1940, Muralto) Swiss painter. After studies in Germany and Italy, he settled in Munich, where he became associated with Der Blaue Reiter (1911). He taught at the Bauhaus (1920–31), then at the Düsseldorf Academy. He lost his post when the Nazis came to power in 1933 and returned to Switzerland. One of the foremost artists of the 20th century, he belonged to no movement, yet he assimilated and even anticipated some of the major artistic tendencies of his time. Using both representational and abstract approaches, he produced some 9,000 paintings, drawings, and watercolours in a great variety of styles. His works, which tend to be small in scale, are remarkable for their delicate nuances of line, colour, and tonality. In Klee's highly sophisticated art, irony and a sense of the absurd are joined to an intense evocation of the mystery and beauty of nature. Music figures prominently in his work—in his many images of opera and musicians, and to some extent as a model for his compositions. But literature had the greater pull on him; his art is steeped in poetic and mythic allusion, and the h1s he gave to his pictures tend to charge them with additional meanings. His late paintings, anticipating his approaching death, are among his most memorable.

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(born October 1957, Rwanda) President of Rwanda from 2000. An ethnic Tutsi, Kagame grew up in exile in Uganda, where in 1986 he helped overthrow Milton Obote in favour of Yoweri Museveni. In 1990 he helped direct an unsuccessful coup in Rwanda, and following the 1994 genocide that left almost one million Rwandans dead (most of them Tutsi), he assumed control of the joint Tutsi-Hutu opposition forces that soon controlled all of Rwanda. In July 1994 he was named vice president and minister of defense under Hutu president Pasteur Bizimungu. After Bizimungu resigned in 2000, Kagame was named president. In 1997 he was instrumental in the overthrow of Mobutu Sese Seko in neighbouring Zaire (Congo) and the installation of Laurent Kabila as president.

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(born , Aug. 20, 1886, Starzeddel, Brandenburg, Ger.—died Oct. 22, 1965, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) German-born U.S. Protestant theologian. He studied at Berlin, Tübingen, and Halle and was a chaplain with the German army during World War I. He taught successively at Marburg, Dresden, and Frankfurt am Main. In 1933 the Nazi takeover prompted him to immigrate to the U.S. With the aid of Reinhold Niebuhr, he joined the faculty of New York's Union Theological Seminary. He became respected for his lucid preaching and his Systematic Theology, 3 vol. (1951–63). He moved to Harvard University in 1955 and to the University of Chicago in 1962. His theological system was an unusual combination of biblical, existentialist, and metaphysical elements, and he attempted to convey an understanding of God that depended neither on revelation nor on science. His other works include The Courage to Be (1952) and Dynamics of Faith (1957).

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orig. Alessandro Farnese

(born Feb. 29, 1468, Canino, Papal States—died Nov. 10, 1549, Rome) Pope (1534–49). The son of a noble Tuscan family, he was made a cardinal-deacon in 1493 and served as bishop in Parma and Ostia before being named dean of the College of Cardinals by Pope Leo X. Ordained a priest in 1519, he was unanimously elected pope in 1534. Though loose in morals in earlier years (he had three sons and a daughter), he became an efficient promoter of reform, convening the Council of Trent in 1545 and initiating the Counter-Reformation. He also supported the newly founded Jesuits and was a patron of the arts, the last in the tradition of the Renaissance popes.

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(born Nov. 16, 1895, Hanau, near Frankfurt am Main, German Empire—died Dec. 28, 1963, Frankfurt am Main, W.Ger.) German composer. His talent was noticed early, and he received thorough training on viola, violin, clarinet, and piano. He became concertmaster of the Frankfurt Opera at age 20, and his compositions began drawing attention at new-music festivals. Because his wife was Jewish and his music was considered “degenerate” by the Nazis, he left Germany in 1938, settling in the U.S. in 1940. Advocating Gebrauchsmusik (“useful music”), he wrote solo sonatas and concertos for many of the standard orchestral instruments. Mathis der Maler (1935) is the best known of his six operas; the symphony based on it, and the Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Weber (1943), are widely performed.

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(born Oct. 13, 1941, Newark, N.J., U.S.) U.S. pop singer and songwriter. Simon began performing with Art Garfunkel (b. 1941) in the 1950s, using the name Tom and Jerry. After a break, the two reunited in 1964 as Simon and Garfunkel. Their first hit single was “Sounds of Silence” (1966); others over the next six years included “Mrs. Robinson” (for the film The Graduate) and “Bridge over Troubled Water.” After the two parted company, Simon released several hit albums, including Still Crazy After All These Years (1975). His Graceland (1986) album, recorded with African musicians, became the most successful and influential of the new genre of world music. Both African music and Brazilian music informed his album The Rhythm of the Saints (1990). With the West Indian poet Derek Walcott he wrote the Broadway musical The Capeman (1998).

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(born Dec. 30, 1910, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1999, Tangier, Mor.) U.S.-Moroccan composer, writer, and translator. Bowles studied musical composition with Aaron Copland and wrote music for more than 30 plays and films. He moved to Morocco in the 1940s. He set his best-known novel, The Sheltering Sky (1948; film, 1990), in Tangier. His protagonists, in that novel and other works, are often Westerners maimed by their contact with traditional cultures that bewilder them, and violent events and psychological collapse are recounted in a detached and elegant style. His wife, Jane Bowles (1917–73), is known for the novel Two Serious Ladies (1943) and the play In the Summer House (1953).

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(born March 14, 1854, Strehlen, Silesia, Prussia—died Aug. 20, 1915, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Ger.) German medical scientist. After early work on distribution of foreign substances in the body and on cell nutrition, he found uses for staining agents in diagnosis (including that of tuberculosis) and treatment. He also researched typhoid, fever medications, and eye diseases. In one paper, he showed that different tissues' oxygen consumption reflected the intensity of their cell processes. Ehrlich developed a method of stimulating production of antitoxins by injecting increasing amounts of toxin into animals; his work was crucial to the creation of a diphtheria antitoxin. He and Élie Metchnikoff received the 1908 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. With Sahachiro Hata, he developed Salvarsan, the first effective syphilis treatment, in 1910.

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orig. Giuseppe Guttoveggio

(born Oct. 10, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 24, 1985, San Diego, Calif.) U.S. composer. Born to a poor immigrant family, he was largely self-taught in music. His numerous works, many of which achieved wide performance, are highly rhythmical and tonally accessible. They include six symphonies, a Requiem and three masses, and several concertos. He is noted for the rhythmic vitality and full harmonies of his music, which is marked by modern dissonances and polyrhythms.

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orig. Paul Antschel

(born Nov. 23, 1920, Cernāutsubcommai, Rom.—died May 1, 1970, Paris, France) Romanian poet who wrote in German. When Romania came under Nazi control during World War II, Celan, a Jew, was sent to a forced-labour camp; his parents were murdered. He moved to Vienna in 1947 and published his first volume of poetry, The Sand from the Urns, in 1948. His second volume, Poppy and Memory (1952), established his reputation in West Germany. He produced seven more volumes before taking his own life by drowning in the Seine. Celan's dense and complex verse is marked by his experience of World War II; his early poem “Todesfuge” is one of the most famous poetic expressions of the Holocaust.

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(born April 9, 1898, Princeton, N.J., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1976, Philadelphia, Pa.) U.S. singer, actor, and activist. Born to a former slave turned preacher and a Quaker mother, Robeson attended Rutgers University, where he was an All-America football player. Graduating at the head of his class, he went on to earn a law degree at Columbia University. Because of a lack of opportunity for African Americans in law, he turned to theatre, joining a group that included Eugene O'Neill and appearing in his All God's Chillun Got Wings (1924) and The Emperor Jones (1924), a huge success in New York City and London. He also starred in the film version of The Emperor Jones (1933). Robeson's superb bass-baritone brought him worldwide renown with his performance of “Ol' Man River” in Show Boat (1928). His lead role in Othello won high praise in London (1930) and on Broadway (1943). He visited the Soviet Union in 1934 and became identified with leftist politics. In 1950 his passport was withdrawn because he refused to disclaim membership in the Communist Party. Viciously harassed and ostracized, Robeson left the U.S. to live in Europe and travel in Soviet-bloc countries, but he returned in 1963 because of ill health.

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Legendary giant lumberjack of the U.S. frontier. A symbol of strength and vitality, he is accompanied by a giant blue ox, Babe. He was credited with creating Puget Sound, digging the Grand Canyon, and building the Black Hills, and was known for his prodigious appetite, eating hotcakes off a griddle so large it was greased by men using sides of bacon as skates. Tales of his exploits probably originated in lumber camps, and were first published by James MacGillivray in “The Round River Drive” (1910), which soon led to a national myth.

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(born June 28, 1824, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Fr.—died July 9, 1880, Paris) French surgeon. His study of brain lesions contributed significantly to understanding of the origins of aphasia. Much of Broca's research concerned the comparative study of the skulls of the races of humankind, work that aided the development of modern physical anthropology. He originated methods to study the brain's form, structure, and surface features and sections of prehistoric skulls. His discovery (1861) of the brain's speech centre (convolution of Broca) was the first anatomical proof of localization of brain function.

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(born June 30, 1926, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. biochemist. He received his Ph.D. from Western Reserve University. While studying the actions of isolated genes, he devised methods for splitting DNA molecules at selected sites and attaching the resulting segments to the DNA of a virus or plasmid, which could then enter bacterial or animal cells. The foreign DNA was incorporated into the host and caused the synthesis of proteins not ordinarily found there. One of the earliest practical results of this research was the development of a strain of bacteria that contained the gene for producing insulin. In 1980 Berg shared a Nobel Prize with Walter Gilbert (b. 1932) and Frederick Sanger.

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(born Aug. 8, 1902, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Oct. 20, 1984, Tallahassee, Fla., U.S.) English mathematician and theoretical physicist. His first major contribution (1925–26) was a general and logically simple form of quantum mechanics. About the same time, he developed ideas of Enrico Fermi, which led to the Fermi-Dirac statistics. He then applied Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity to the quantum mechanics of the electron and showed that the electron must have spin of 12. Dirac's theory also revealed new states later identified with the positron. He shared the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics with Erwin Schrödinger. In 1932 Dirac was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, a chair once occupied by Isaac Newton. Dirac retired from Cambridge in 1969 and held a professorship at Florida State University from 1971 until his death.

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(born Sept. 5, 1927, Cape May, N.J., U.S.) U.S. economist. He worked as an economist for the Chase Manhattan Bank (1957–61; 1965–68). As an undersecretary at the U.S. Treasury Department (1969–74), Volcker was the chief architect of the U.S.'s abandonment of the gold-exchange standard and the devaluations of the U.S. dollar (1971, 1973). After serving as president of the Federal Reserve Bank (1975–79), he was appointed head of the Federal Reserve System in 1979 by Pres. Jimmy Carter and served until 1987. To end a period of very high inflation, he slowed the growth of the money supply and allowed interest rates to rise, causing a recession (1982–83) but dramatically reducing inflation.

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(born March 30, 1844, Metz, France—died Jan. 8, 1896, Paris) French lyric poet. After entering the civil service, he was first associated with the Parnassian poets, contributing to the first volume of the anthology Le Parnasse contemporain (1866). His early collections, Poèmes saturniens (1866), Fêtes galantes (1869), La Bonne chanson (1870), and Romances sans paroles (1874), show the intense lyricism and musicality that would mark all his verse. His marriage was shattered by his infatuation with Arthur Rimbaud, and the two scandalized Paris with their behaviour in 1872–73. While in prison in Belgium (1873–75) for shooting Rimbaud when the latter threatened to leave him, he converted to Catholicism and probably composed the famous “Art poétique,” adopted in 1882 by the poets of the Symbolist movement. Sagesse (1880) expresses his religious faith and his emotional odyssey. He later taught French and English; he spent his late years in poverty, but just before his death he was sponsored for a major international lecture tour. His Les Poètes maudits (1884; “The Accursed Poets”) consists of short biographical studies of six poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Rimbaud. He is regarded as the third great member (with Charles Baudelaire and Mallarmé) of the so-called Decadents.

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(born Aug. 6, 1868, Villeneuve-sur-Fère, France—died Feb. 23, 1955, Paris) French poet, playwright, and diplomat. He converted to Catholicism at age 18. His brilliant diplomatic career began in 1892, and he eventually served as ambassador to Japan (1921–27) and the U.S. (1927–33). At the same time he pursued a literary career, expressing in poetry and drama his conception of the grand design of creation. He reached his largest audience through plays such as Break of Noon (1906), The Hostage (1911), Tidings Brought to Mary (1912), and his masterpiece, The Satin Slipper (1929); recurring themes in these works are human and divine love and the search for salvation. He wrote the librettos for Darius Milhaud's opera Christopher Columbus (1930) and Arthur Honegger's oratorio Joan of Arc (1938). His best-known poetic work is the confessional Five Great Odes (1910).

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Russian Pavel Petrovich

(born Oct. 1, 1754, St. Petersburg, Russia—died March 23, 1801, St. Petersburg) Tsar of Russia (1796–1801). He was the son of Peter III and Catherine II, whom he succeeded as emperor in 1796. He reversed many of Catherine's policies, strengthened the autocracy, and established the law of succession within the male line of the Romanov dynasty. He provoked the hostility of the nobles and the army with his tyrannical rule and capricious foreign policy, which drew Russia into war with France. In a plot by the nobles to depose him and place his son Alexander (later Alexander I) on the throne, Paul was assassinated.

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(born Jan. 26, 1925, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. film actor. He studied drama at Yale University and the Actors Studio and first appeared on Broadway in Picnic (1953). In 1954 he made his screen debut in the disastrous biblical epic The Silver Chalice. He won favourable notice in Somebody up There Likes Me (1956) and The Long Hot Summer (1958). In many of his best-remembered roles, he captured the darker, less heroic aspects of a character's nature, as in such successful films as The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), The Color of Money (1986; Academy Award), and Nobody's Fool (1994). He directed and produced films such as Rachel, Rachel (1968) and The Glass Menagerie (1987), both of which starred his wife, Joanne Woodward. In 1982 he launched the successful “Newman's Own” line of food products, with its profits going to a number of charitable causes.

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(born Oct. 15, 1926, Poitiers, France—died June 25, 1984, Paris) French structuralist philosopher and historian. A professor at the Collège de France from 1970, he examined the codes and concepts by which societies operate, especially the “principles of exclusion” (such as the distinctions between the sane and the insane) by which a society defines itself. He theorized that, by surveying social attitudes in relation to institutions such as asylums, hospitals, and prisons, one can examine the development and omnipresence of power. His books—including Madness and Civilization (1961), The Order of Things (1966), The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969), Discipline and Punish (1975), and History of Sexuality, 3 vol. (1976–84)—made him one of the most influential intellectuals of his time. He was an outspoken homosexual, and he died of AIDS. Seealso structuralism.

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orig. Lester Polfus

(born June 9, 1915, Waukesha, Wis., U.S.) U.S. guitarist and inventor. He played many styles of popular music, initially country but later jazz, and in the 1940s he was a sideman for Nat King Cole and Bing Crosby. He invented the first solid-body electric guitar and was instrumental in developing modern multitrack recording. His overdubbed, sped-up recordings from the late 1940s and early 1950s—including “Brazil” (1948), “Nola” (1950), and “How High the Moon” (1951), often with his wife, Mary Ford (1924–77) singing multiple harmony parts—demonstrated the potential of tape. He continued to perform occasionally into his 80s.

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orig. Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger

(born Oct. 10, 1825, Cradock district, Cape Colony—died July 14, 1904, Clarens, Switz.) South African soldier and statesman, noted as the builder of the Afrikaner nation. As a boy of 10, Kruger took part in the Great Trek and was impressed by the ability of the Boers to defend themselves against hostile African peoples and to establish an orderly government. When the British annexed the Transvaal in 1877, Kruger became the recognized champion of his people in the struggle to regain independence. After leading a series of armed attacks, he succeeded in obtaining limited independence and was elected president of the restored republic (1883–1902). In 1895 he fended off an attempt by Cecil Rhodes and Leander Starr Jameson to end Boer control of the republic. His age prevented his participation in the South African War and he retreated to the Netherlands; he died in Switzerland and was buried (December 1904) in Pretoria, S.Af.

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Klee, 1939

(born Dec. 18, 1879, Münchenbuchsee, Switz.—died June 29, 1940, Muralto) Swiss painter. After studies in Germany and Italy, he settled in Munich, where he became associated with Der Blaue Reiter (1911). He taught at the Bauhaus (1920–31), then at the Düsseldorf Academy. He lost his post when the Nazis came to power in 1933 and returned to Switzerland. One of the foremost artists of the 20th century, he belonged to no movement, yet he assimilated and even anticipated some of the major artistic tendencies of his time. Using both representational and abstract approaches, he produced some 9,000 paintings, drawings, and watercolours in a great variety of styles. His works, which tend to be small in scale, are remarkable for their delicate nuances of line, colour, and tonality. In Klee's highly sophisticated art, irony and a sense of the absurd are joined to an intense evocation of the mystery and beauty of nature. Music figures prominently in his work—in his many images of opera and musicians, and to some extent as a model for his compositions. But literature had the greater pull on him; his art is steeped in poetic and mythic allusion, and the h1s he gave to his pictures tend to charge them with additional meanings. His late paintings, anticipating his approaching death, are among his most memorable.

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(born October 1957, Rwanda) President of Rwanda from 2000. An ethnic Tutsi, Kagame grew up in exile in Uganda, where in 1986 he helped overthrow Milton Obote in favour of Yoweri Museveni. In 1990 he helped direct an unsuccessful coup in Rwanda, and following the 1994 genocide that left almost one million Rwandans dead (most of them Tutsi), he assumed control of the joint Tutsi-Hutu opposition forces that soon controlled all of Rwanda. In July 1994 he was named vice president and minister of defense under Hutu president Pasteur Bizimungu. After Bizimungu resigned in 2000, Kagame was named president. In 1997 he was instrumental in the overthrow of Mobutu Sese Seko in neighbouring Zaire (Congo) and the installation of Laurent Kabila as president.

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orig. John Paul

John Paul Jones, portrait by Charles Willson Peale, 1781.

(born July 6, 1747, Kirkbean, Kirkcudbright, Scot.—died July 18, 1792, Paris, France) American naval hero. He went to sea at age 12 and became a ship's master at age 21. He joined his brother in Virginia in 1775. When the American Revolution began, he joined the new Continental Navy under Esek Hopkins. In 1776 he sailed the Providence along the Atlantic coast, capturing eight British ships and sinking eight more. Appointed by Congress to the newly built Ranger, he made a spectacular cruise through St. George's Channel and the Irish Sea (1777–78), where he took a number of prizes. In 1779 he commanded the Bonhomme Richard and intercepted a merchant fleet. Though outgunned by an escort ship, the Serapis, he forced its surrender after a fierce battle, answering its challenge to surrender with “I have not yet begun to fight!” His ship sank soon after, and he sailed two British prizes to the Netherlands. In 1790 he retired, in ill health, to France.

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(born April 20, 1920, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. jurist. He studied law at Northwestern University and clerked at the Supreme Court of the United States before joining a Chicago law firm, where he specialized in antitrust law while also teaching and serving on various public commissions. He was appointed to the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (1970) by Pres. Richard Nixon and to the Supreme Court by Pres. Gerald Ford (1975). Though initially perceived as a conservative, he proved to be a moderate liberal; indeed, as the court became more conservative in the 1980s and early '90s, after appointments by Pres. Ronald Reagan and Pres. George Bush, Stevens became perhaps the court's most liberal member.

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orig. John Paul

John Paul Jones, portrait by Charles Willson Peale, 1781.

(born July 6, 1747, Kirkbean, Kirkcudbright, Scot.—died July 18, 1792, Paris, France) American naval hero. He went to sea at age 12 and became a ship's master at age 21. He joined his brother in Virginia in 1775. When the American Revolution began, he joined the new Continental Navy under Esek Hopkins. In 1776 he sailed the Providence along the Atlantic coast, capturing eight British ships and sinking eight more. Appointed by Congress to the newly built Ranger, he made a spectacular cruise through St. George's Channel and the Irish Sea (1777–78), where he took a number of prizes. In 1779 he commanded the Bonhomme Richard and intercepted a merchant fleet. Though outgunned by an escort ship, the Serapis, he forced its surrender after a fierce battle, answering its challenge to surrender with “I have not yet begun to fight!” His ship sank soon after, and he sailed two British prizes to the Netherlands. In 1790 he retired, in ill health, to France.

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orig. Karol Wojtyła

John Paul II, 1979.

(born May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Pol.—died April 2, 2005, Vatican City) Pope (1978–2005), the bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic church, the first non-Italian pope in 455 years and the first ever from a Slavic country. He studied for the priesthood at an underground seminary in Kraków during World War II and was ordained in 1946. He earned a doctorate in philosophy in Rome (1948) and returned home to serve in a parish, earning a second doctorate (also 1948), in sacred theology, from the Jagiellonian University. He became archbishop of Kraków in 1964 and cardinal in 1967. Elected pope after the 33-day pontificate of John Paul I (b. 1912—d. 1978), he became known for his energy, charisma, and intellect as well as for his conservative theological views and fervent anticommunism. In 1981 John Paul was shot in St. Peter's Square by a Turkish gunman, but he recovered, resumed his work, and forgave his would-be assassin. His trips abroad attracted some of the largest crowds ever assembled. His nonviolent activism spurred movements that contributed to the peaceful dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. He championed economic and political justice in developing nations. In naming 44 cardinals from five continents (February 2001), John Paul reached out to cultures around the world. He also canonized more saints, from more parts of the world, than had any other pope. His ecumenical efforts, including meetings with Jewish, Muslim, and Eastern Orthodox religious leaders, were widely praised, but he often drew criticism for his traditionalist views on issues of gender and sexuality. Although afflicted with Parkinson disease since the early 1990s, John Paul remained active and made a historic trip to Jerusalem in March 2000, during which he sought to improve relations between the Roman Catholic church and Jews.

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(born Feb. 24, 1955, San Francisco, Cal., U.S.) U.S. businessman. Adopted in infancy, he grew up in Los Altos. He dropped out of Reed College and went to work for Atari Corp. designing video games. In 1976 he cofounded (with Stephen Wozniak) Apple Computer (incorporated in 1977; now Apple Inc.). The first Apple computer, created when Jobs was only 21, changed the public's idea of a computer from a huge machine for scientific use to a home appliance that could be used by anyone. Apple's Macintosh computer, which appeared in 1984, introduced a graphical user interface and mouse technology that became the standard for all applications interfaces. In 1980 Apple became a public corporation, and Jobs became the company's chairman. Management conflicts led him to leave Apple in 1985 to form NeXT Computer Inc., but he returned to Apple in 1996 and became CEO in 1997. The striking new iMac computer (1998) revived the company's flagging fortunes.

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Jean-Paul Sartre, photograph by Gisèle Freund, 1968.

(born June 21, 1905, Paris, France—died April 15, 1980, Paris) French philosopher, novelist, and playwright, the foremost exponent of existentialism. He studied at the Sorbonne, where he met Simone de Beauvoir, who became his lifelong companion and intellectual collaborator. His first novel, Nausea (1938), narrates the feeling of revulsion that a young man experiences when confronted with the contingency of existence. Sartre used the phenomenological method of Edmund Husserl (see phenomenology) with great skill in three successive publications: Imagination: A Psychological Critique (1936), Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions (1939), and The Psychology of Imagination (1940). In Being and Nothingness (1943), he places human consciousness, or nothingness (néant), in opposition to being, or thingness (être); consciousness is nonmatter and thus escapes all determinism. In his postwar treatise Existentialism and Humanism (1946) he depicts this radical freedom as carrying with it a responsibility for the welfare of others. In the 1940s and '50s he wrote many critically acclaimed plays—including The Flies (1943), No Exit (1946), and The Condemned of Altona (1959)—the study Saint Genet, Actor and Martyr (1952), and numerous articles for Les Temps Modernes, the monthly review that he and de Beauvoir founded and edited. A central figure of the French left after the war, he was an outspoken admirer of the Soviet Union—though not a member of the French Communist Party—until the crushing of the Hungarian uprising by Soviet tanks in 1956, which he condemned. His Critique of Dialectical Reason (1960) faults Marxism for failing to adapt itself to the concrete circumstances of particular societies and for not respecting individual freedom. His final works include an autobiography, The Words (1963), and Flaubert (4 vol., 1971–72), a lengthy study of the author. He declined the 1964 Nobel Prize for Literature.

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(born April 9, 1933, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France) French film actor. After studying in Paris and performing with provincial stage companies, he appeared in minor film roles before achieving international fame in Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (1960). Though not conventionally handsome, he became the leading antihero of New Wave cinema, acting in 25 films by 1963, then went on to appear in such acclaimed films as Pierrot le Fou (1965), Mississippi Mermaid (1969), and Les Misérables (1995).

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(born Dec. 15, 1892, Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.—died June 6, 1976, Sutton Place, Surrey, Eng.) U.S. oil billionaire, reputed to be the richest man in the world at his death. The son of an oil millionaire, he began buying and selling oil leases in Oklahoma in 1913. He acquired Pacific Western Oil Corp. in 1932 and soon gained control of several independent oil companies. He renamed his oil concern Getty Oil Co. in 1956. His most lucrative venture was a 60-year oil concession in Saudi Arabia. His financial empire eventually encompassed some 200 enterprises. A zealous art collector, he founded the J. Paul Getty Museum near Malibu, Calif., in 1953.

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(born March 27, 1851, Paris, France—died Dec. 1, 1931, Paris) French composer and teacher. Trained in organ and composition, he rejected the prevailing French style as frivolous by comparison with the German musical tradition. He wrote several important stage works, including Fervaal (1895) and The Legend of Saint Christopher (1915), but orchestral works such as Symphony on a French Mountain Air (1886), Summer Day in the Mountains (1905), and Istar (1896) remain better known. In 1894 he cofounded the music academy called the Schola Cantorum in Paris, where many of France's foremost composers and musicians would be trained.

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in full Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg

Hindenburg

(born Oct. 2, 1847, Posen, Prussia—died Aug. 2, 1934, Neudeck, Ger.) German field marshal and second president (1925–34) of the Weimar Republic. Born to an aristocratic family, he retired from the Prussian army as a general in 1911. Recalled to duty in World War I, he commanded German forces in East Prussia and became a national hero after the Battle of Tannenberg (1914). With Erich Ludendorff as his chief aide, he nominally commanded all German forces until the end of the war, then retired again in 1919. Supported by conservative groups, he was elected president of Germany in 1925. When the Great Depression led to a political crisis, he was pressured to make the government more independent of parliamentary controls. In 1930 he allowed Chancellor Heinrich Brüning to dissolve the Reichstag, and in the new elections the Nazi Party emerged as the second largest party. In 1932 Hindenburg was reelected president by opponents of the Nazis; however, his advisers considered the Nazis useful, and in 1933 he was persuaded to appoint Adolf Hitler chancellor.

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(born Nov. 16, 1895, Hanau, near Frankfurt am Main, German Empire—died Dec. 28, 1963, Frankfurt am Main, W.Ger.) German composer. His talent was noticed early, and he received thorough training on viola, violin, clarinet, and piano. He became concertmaster of the Frankfurt Opera at age 20, and his compositions began drawing attention at new-music festivals. Because his wife was Jewish and his music was considered “degenerate” by the Nazis, he left Germany in 1938, settling in the U.S. in 1940. Advocating Gebrauchsmusik (“useful music”), he wrote solo sonatas and concertos for many of the standard orchestral instruments. Mathis der Maler (1935) is the best known of his six operas; the symphony based on it, and the Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Weber (1943), are widely performed.

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Joseph Goebbels, circa 1935.

(born Oct. 29, 1897, Rheydt, Ger.—died May 1, 1945, Berlin) German Nazi leader. After earning a doctorate from Heidelberg University, he joined the Nazi Party and was appointed district leader in Berlin by Adolf Hitler in 1926. A gifted speaker, Goebbels also edited the party's journal and began to create the Führer myth around Hitler, instituting the party demonstrations that helped convert the masses to Nazism. After Hitler seized power in 1933, Goebbels took control of the national propaganda machinery. During World War II he carried on a personal propaganda blitz to raise hopes on the home front. Named chancellor in Hitler's will, he remained with Hitler to the end. One day after Hitler's suicide, Goebbels and his wife killed themselves and their six children.

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(born Dec. 15, 1892, Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.—died June 6, 1976, Sutton Place, Surrey, Eng.) U.S. oil billionaire, reputed to be the richest man in the world at his death. The son of an oil millionaire, he began buying and selling oil leases in Oklahoma in 1913. He acquired Pacific Western Oil Corp. in 1932 and soon gained control of several independent oil companies. He renamed his oil concern Getty Oil Co. in 1956. His most lucrative venture was a 60-year oil concession in Saudi Arabia. His financial empire eventually encompassed some 200 enterprises. A zealous art collector, he founded the J. Paul Getty Museum near Malibu, Calif., in 1953.

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(born June 7, 1848, Paris, France—died May 8, 1903, Atuona, Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia) French painter, sculptor, and printmaker. He spent his childhood in Lima (his mother was a Peruvian Creole). From circa 1872 to 1883 he was a successful stockbroker in Paris. He met Camille Pissarro about 1875, and he exhibited several times with the Impressionists. Disillusioned with bourgeois materialism, in 1886 he moved to Pont-Aven, Brittany, where he became the central figure of a group of artists known as the Pont-Aven school. Gauguin coined the term “Synthetism” to describe his style during this period, referring to the synthesis of his paintings' formal elements with the idea or emotion they conveyed. Late in October 1888 Gauguin traveled to Arles, in the south of France, to stay with Vincent van Gogh. The style of the two men's work from this period has been classified as Post-Impressionist because it shows an individual, personal development of Impressionism's use of colour, brushstroke, and nontraditional subject matter. Increasingly focused on rejecting the materialism of contemporary culture in favour of a more spiritual, unfettered lifestyle, in 1891 he moved to Tahiti. His works became open protests against materialism. He was an influential innovator; Fauvism owed much to his use of colour, and he inspired Pablo Picasso and the development of Cubism.

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(born Oct. 15, 1926, Poitiers, France—died June 25, 1984, Paris) French structuralist philosopher and historian. A professor at the Collège de France from 1970, he examined the codes and concepts by which societies operate, especially the “principles of exclusion” (such as the distinctions between the sane and the insane) by which a society defines itself. He theorized that, by surveying social attitudes in relation to institutions such as asylums, hospitals, and prisons, one can examine the development and omnipresence of power. His books—including Madness and Civilization (1961), The Order of Things (1966), The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969), Discipline and Punish (1975), and History of Sexuality, 3 vol. (1976–84)—made him one of the most influential intellectuals of his time. He was an outspoken homosexual, and he died of AIDS. Seealso structuralism.

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orig. Jenó Pál Wigner

(born Nov. 17, 1902, Budapest, Hung.—died Jan. 1, 1995, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) Hungarian-born U.S. physicist. After studies at the University of Berlin, he immigrated to the U.S. in 1930 and joined the faculty of Princeton University. He was instrumental in getting the Manhattan Project started and was present when Enrico Fermi initiated the first chain reaction. He determined that the nuclear force is short-range and does not involve an electric charge, using group theory to investigate atomic structure. His name was given to several formulations, including the Breit-Wigner formula, which describes resonant nuclear reactions. He won a 1963 Nobel Prize (shared with Maria Mayer and Hans Jensen [1907–73], who won for unrelated work) for his insights into quantum mechanics, especially principles governing interaction of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and his formulation of the law of conservation of parity (see conservation law). In addition to his many scientific awards, he received numerous awards for his work for peace.

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(born March 14, 1854, Strehlen, Silesia, Prussia—died Aug. 20, 1915, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Ger.) German medical scientist. After early work on distribution of foreign substances in the body and on cell nutrition, he found uses for staining agents in diagnosis (including that of tuberculosis) and treatment. He also researched typhoid, fever medications, and eye diseases. In one paper, he showed that different tissues' oxygen consumption reflected the intensity of their cell processes. Ehrlich developed a method of stimulating production of antitoxins by injecting increasing amounts of toxin into animals; his work was crucial to the creation of a diphtheria antitoxin. He and Élie Metchnikoff received the 1908 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. With Sahachiro Hata, he developed Salvarsan, the first effective syphilis treatment, in 1910.

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Paul Laurence Dunbar, 1906.

(born June 27, 1872, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 9, 1906, Dayton) U.S. author. The son of former slaves, Dunbar became the first African American writer to try to live by his writings and one of the first to attain national prominence. He wrote for a largely white readership, using black dialect and depicting the pre-Civil War South in pastoral, idyllic tones. His verse collections include Oak and Ivy (1893), Majors and Minors (1895), and Lyrics of Lowly Life (1896). His poems reached a wide readership, and he gave readings in the U.S. and England. He also published four short-story collections and four novels, including The Sport of the Gods (1902).

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orig. Giuseppe Guttoveggio

(born Oct. 10, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 24, 1985, San Diego, Calif.) U.S. composer. Born to a poor immigrant family, he was largely self-taught in music. His numerous works, many of which achieved wide performance, are highly rhythmical and tonally accessible. They include six symphonies, a Requiem and three masses, and several concertos. He is noted for the rhythmic vitality and full harmonies of his music, which is marked by modern dissonances and polyrhythms.

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(born Aug. 6, 1868, Villeneuve-sur-Fère, France—died Feb. 23, 1955, Paris) French poet, playwright, and diplomat. He converted to Catholicism at age 18. His brilliant diplomatic career began in 1892, and he eventually served as ambassador to Japan (1921–27) and the U.S. (1927–33). At the same time he pursued a literary career, expressing in poetry and drama his conception of the grand design of creation. He reached his largest audience through plays such as Break of Noon (1906), The Hostage (1911), Tidings Brought to Mary (1912), and his masterpiece, The Satin Slipper (1929); recurring themes in these works are human and divine love and the search for salvation. He wrote the librettos for Darius Milhaud's opera Christopher Columbus (1930) and Arthur Honegger's oratorio Joan of Arc (1938). His best-known poetic work is the confessional Five Great Odes (1910).

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orig. Paul Antschel

(born Nov. 23, 1920, Cernāutsubcommai, Rom.—died May 1, 1970, Paris, France) Romanian poet who wrote in German. When Romania came under Nazi control during World War II, Celan, a Jew, was sent to a forced-labour camp; his parents were murdered. He moved to Vienna in 1947 and published his first volume of poetry, The Sand from the Urns, in 1948. His second volume, Poppy and Memory (1952), established his reputation in West Germany. He produced seven more volumes before taking his own life by drowning in the Seine. Celan's dense and complex verse is marked by his experience of World War II; his early poem “Todesfuge” is one of the most famous poetic expressions of the Holocaust.

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Legendary giant lumberjack of the U.S. frontier. A symbol of strength and vitality, he is accompanied by a giant blue ox, Babe. He was credited with creating Puget Sound, digging the Grand Canyon, and building the Black Hills, and was known for his prodigious appetite, eating hotcakes off a griddle so large it was greased by men using sides of bacon as skates. Tales of his exploits probably originated in lumber camps, and were first published by James MacGillivray in “The Round River Drive” (1910), which soon led to a national myth.

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(born March 21, 1925, London, Eng.) British director and producer. After directing plays in Stratford-upon-Avon, he became director of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden (1947–50). He directed several innovative Shakespearean productions that aroused controversy. Appointed codirector of the Royal Shakespeare Co. in 1962, he directed critically acclaimed productions of King Lear (1962) and A Midsummer Night's Dream (1970). He won international fame with his avant-garde direction of Peter Weiss's play Marat/Sade (1964). His films include Lord of the Flies (1962), King Lear (1969), and the six-hour Mahabharata (1989). In 1970 he cofounded, with Jean-Louis Barrault, the International Centre for Theatre Research.

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(born June 28, 1824, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Fr.—died July 9, 1880, Paris) French surgeon. His study of brain lesions contributed significantly to understanding of the origins of aphasia. Much of Broca's research concerned the comparative study of the skulls of the races of humankind, work that aided the development of modern physical anthropology. He originated methods to study the brain's form, structure, and surface features and sections of prehistoric skulls. His discovery (1861) of the brain's speech centre (convolution of Broca) was the first anatomical proof of localization of brain function.

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(born Aug. 24, 1902, Luméville, France—died Nov. 28, 1985, Haute-Savoie) French historian and educator. While a prisoner of the Germans during World War II, Braudel wrote from memory his thesis on the history of the Mediterranean region in the 16th century, later published as The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Phillip II (1949). With Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre, he became an influential leader of the Annales school, which emphasized the effects of factors such as climate, geography, and demographics on history. His second major work was Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century (1967, 1979).

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(born Dec. 30, 1910, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1999, Tangier, Mor.) U.S.-Moroccan composer, writer, and translator. Bowles studied musical composition with Aaron Copland and wrote music for more than 30 plays and films. He moved to Morocco in the 1940s. He set his best-known novel, The Sheltering Sky (1948; film, 1990), in Tangier. His protagonists, in that novel and other works, are often Westerners maimed by their contact with traditional cultures that bewilder them, and violent events and psychological collapse are recounted in a detached and elegant style. His wife, Jane Bowles (1917–73), is known for the novel Two Serious Ladies (1943) and the play In the Summer House (1953).

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(born June 30, 1926, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. biochemist. He received his Ph.D. from Western Reserve University. While studying the actions of isolated genes, he devised methods for splitting DNA molecules at selected sites and attaching the resulting segments to the DNA of a virus or plasmid, which could then enter bacterial or animal cells. The foreign DNA was incorporated into the host and caused the synthesis of proteins not ordinarily found there. One of the earliest practical results of this research was the development of a strain of bacteria that contained the gene for producing insulin. In 1980 Berg shared a Nobel Prize with Walter Gilbert (b. 1932) and Frederick Sanger.

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(born April 9, 1933, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France) French film actor. After studying in Paris and performing with provincial stage companies, he appeared in minor film roles before achieving international fame in Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (1960). Though not conventionally handsome, he became the leading antihero of New Wave cinema, acting in 25 films by 1963, then went on to appear in such acclaimed films as Pierrot le Fou (1965), Mississippi Mermaid (1969), and Les Misérables (1995).

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Pope John Paul I (Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP. I, Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17 1912September 28 1978), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from 26 August 1978 until his death 33 days later. His reign is among the shortest in papal history, resulting in the most recent Year of Three Popes.

Biography

Early years

Albino Luciani was born on October 17 1912 in Forno di Canale (now Canale d'Agordo) in Belluno, a province of the Veneto region in northern Italy. He was the son of Giovanni Luciani (1872? - 1952), a bricklayer, and Bortola Tancon (1879? - 1948). Albino was followed by two brothers, Federico (1915 - 1916) and Edoardo (1917 - 2008), and a sister, Antonia (b. 1920).

Vocation

Luciani entered the minor seminary of Feltre in 1923, where his teachers found him "too lively", and later went on to the major seminary of Belluno. During his stay at Belluno, he attempted to join the Jesuits but was denied by the seminary's rector, Bishop Giosuè Cattarossi. Ordained a priest on 7 July 1935, Luciani then served as a curate in his native Forno de Canale before becoming a professor and the vice-rector of the Belluno seminary in 1937. Among the different subjects, he taught dogmatic and moral theology, canon law, and sacred art.

In 1941 Luciani began to seek a doctorate in theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University, which required at least one year's attendance in Rome. However, the seminary's superiors wanted him to continue teaching during his doctoral studies; the situation was resolved by a special dispensation of Pope Pius XII himself, on 27 March 1941. His thesis (The origin of the human soul according to Antonio Rosmini) largely attacked Rosmini's theology, and earned him his doctorate magna cum laude.

In 1947, he was named vicar general to Bishop Girolamo Bortignon, OFM Cap, of Belluno. Two years later, in 1949, he was placed in charge of diocesan catechetics. On 15 December 1958, Luciani was appointed Bishop of Vittorio Veneto by Pope John XXIII. He received his episcopal consecration on the following 27 December from Pope John himself, with Bishops Bortignon and Gioacchino Muccin serving as co-consecrators. As a bishop, he participated in all the sessions of the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). On 15 December 1969, he was appointed Patriarch of Venice by Pope Paul VI and took possession of the archdiocese on 3 February 1970. Pope Paul created Luciani Cardinal-Priest of S. Marco in the consistory of 5 March 1973. Catholics were struck by his humility, a prime example being his embarrassment when Paul VI once removed his papal stole and put it on Patriarch Luciani. He recalls the occasion in his first Angelus thus:

Pope Paul VI made me blush to the roots of my hair in the presence of 20,000 people, because he removed his stole and placed it on my shoulders. Never have I blushed so much!

Papacy

Luciani was elected on the fourth ballot of the August 1978 papal conclave. He chose the regnal name of John Paul, the first double name in the history of the papacy, explaining in his famous Angelus that he took it as a thankful honour to his two immediate predecessors: John XXIII, who had named him a bishop, and Paul VI, who had named him Patriarch of Venice and a cardinal. He was also the first (and so far only) pope to use "the first" in his regnal name. In Italy he is remembered with the affectionate appellatives of "Il Papa del Sorriso" (The Smiling Pope) and "Il Sorriso di Dio" (God's Smile).

Observers have suggested that his selection was linked to the rumored divisions between rival camps within the College of Cardinals:

Outside the Italians, now themselves a lessening influence within the increasingly internationalist College of Cardinals, were figures like Cardinal Karol Wojtyła. Over the days following the conclave, cardinals effectively declared that with general great joy they had elected "God's candidate". Argentine Eduardo Cardinal Pironio stated that, "We were witnesses of a moral miracle." And later, Mother Teresa commented: "He has been the greatest gift of God, a sunray of God's love shining in the darkness of the world."

Long conclave predicted

Many, including the cardinals, expected a long conclave, deadlocked between the camps. Luciani was an easy compromise. He was a pastor more in the spirit of Vatican II than an austere intellectual, a man with few autocratic pretensions and so less unwelcome to some than Giovanni Cardinal Benelli. And for Italian cardinals, determined not to "lose" the papacy to a non-Italian for the first time in centuries and faced with other controversial Italian candidates, Luciani was an Italian with no baggage. He had no enemies created through a high profile career in the Curia, made no controversial or radical statements or sermons and was just a smiling gentleman, a pastor.

Even before the conclave began, journalists covering it for Vatican Radio noted increasing mention of his name, often from cardinals who barely knew him but wanted to find out more; not least, "What is the state of the man's health?" Had they known just how precarious his health was (his feet were so swollen he could not wear the shoes bought for him by his family for the conclave) they might have looked elsewhere for Paul VI's successor. Hence, to his own horror and disbelief, he was elected to the papacy. The surprise of his election is captured in his official portrait, his hair is clumsily brushed back, because unlike papabili cardinals who expect their election, he had not had his hair cut for the conclave. When he was asked if he accepted his election, he stated "May God forgive you for what you have done in my regard. Moments later, hesitating, he said: "I accept".

Vincent Browne's claim

The belief that Luciani's election was a decision not made until during the conclave was challenged by senior Irish journalist Vincent Browne, who in 2005 revealed that he had been told by a senior Vatican source, whom he declined to name, that a number of cardinals had already decided informally amongst themselves to elect Luciani pope (though Luciani himself was unaware of it) during the sede vacante period between Pope Paul VI's death and the conclave. The source told him to expect a quick election. Browne recounted discussing this with sociologist and priest Father Andrew Greeley, who dismissed the claim, the idea of a short conclave and Luciani's chances of election. Their discussion was cut short by the crowd reacting to the traditional white smoke issuing from the Sistine Chapel's chimney, the conclusion of what indeed had turned out to be an abnormally short conclave. To Greeley's visible astonishment Luciani was announced as the new pope.

The smiling pope

After his election, John Paul quickly made several decisions that would "humanise" the office of pope, admitting publicly he had turned scarlet when Paul VI had named him the patriarch of Venice. He was the first modern pope to speak in the singular form, using 'I' instead of the royal we, though the official records of his speeches were often rewritten in more formal style by traditionalist aides, who reinstated the royal we in press releases and in L'Osservatore Romano. He was the first to refuse the sedia gestatoria until Vatican pressure convinced him of its need, in order to allow the faithful to see him.

John Paul was the first pope to admit that the prospect of the papacy had daunted him to the point that other cardinals had to encourage him to accept it. He strongly suggested to his aides and staff that he believed he was unfit to be pope. Though Pope Paul VI's Apostolic Constitution Romano Pontifici Eligendo explicitly required that John Paul be crowned, he controversially refused to have the millennium-old traditional Papal Coronation and wear the Papal Tiara. He instead chose to have a simplified Papal Inauguration Mass. John Paul I used as his motto Humilitas. In his notable Angelus of August 27, delivered on the first day of his papacy, he impressed the world with his natural friendliness

New Pope, new rules

As a theologian, he was expected to be an interim pastor who would make few if any major changes. However, he did meet with representatives of the United Nations to discuss the issue of overpopulation in the Third World, a controversial issue in light of the Church's anti-contraceptive stance.

John Paul I intended to prepare an encyclical in order to confirm the lines of the Second Vatican Council ("an extraordinary long-range historical event and of growth for the Church", he said) and to enforce the Church's discipline in the life of priests and the faithful. In discipline, he was a reformist, instead, and was the author of initiatives such as the devolution of one per cent of each church's entries for the poor churches in the Third World. The visit of Jorge Rafael Videla, president of the Argentine junta, to the Vatican caused considerable controversy, especially when the Pope reminded Videla about human rights violations taking place in Argentina during the so-called Dirty War.

John Paul impressed people by his personal warmth. There are reports that within the Vatican he was seen as an intellectual lightweight not up to the responsibilities of the papacy, although David Yallop ("In God's Name") says that this is the result of a whispering campaign by people in the Vatican who were opposed to Luciani's policies. In the words of John Cornwell, "they treated him with condescension"; one senior cleric discussing Luciani said "they have elected Peter Sellers". Critics contrasted his sermons mentioning Pinocchio to the learned intellectual discourses of Pius XII or Paul VI. Visitors spoke of his isolation and loneliness, and the fact that he was the first pope in decades not to have had either a diplomatic (such as Pius XI and John XXIII) or Curial role in the Church (such as Pius XII and Paul VI).

David Yallop ("In God's Name", p. 267-269) says repeatedly that Luciani was a highly capable person, fluent in six different languages, who was respected for his intelligence; if he chose simple words (such as the sermon that mentioned Pinocchio), he did this to communicate well to a wide audience. Yallop says that many in the Vatican were opposed to Luciani, and depicted him in their comments as being too simple. By contrast, he recounts two specific incidents from this short papacy:

"Foreign Minister Casaroli came to the Pope with seven questions concerning the Church's relationship with various Eastern European countries, Luciani promptly gave him answers on five of them and asked for a little time to consider the other two. ... Casaroli returned to his office and told a colleague what had occurred. The priest enquired: "Were they the correct solutions?" "In my view, totally. It would have taken me a year to get those responses from [Pope Paul VI]."

Yallop also talks about Cardinal Gabriel-Marie Garrone's discussion with Luciani about a document (Sapienta Christiana) that the curia had been preparing and revising for 16 years:

"[Luciani] told Garrone that he had spent most of the previous day studying the document. Then without referring to a copy of it he began to discuss it at length and in great detail. Garrone sat astonished at the Pope's grasp and understanding of such a highly complex document. ... Returning to his office [Garrone] remarked 'I have just met a great Pope.'"

Death

John Paul I was found dead sitting up in his bed shortly before dawn on September 29, 1978, just 33 days into his papacy. The Vatican reported that the 65-year old Pope most likely died the previous night of a myocardial infarction. However, a degree of uncertainty accompanies this diagnosis since an autopsy was not performed. This uncertainty, coupled with inconsistent statements made following the Pope's death, has led to a number of conspiracy theories concerning his death. These statements concern who found the Pope's body, at what time he was found, and what papers the Pope had in his hand.

Immediately following the Pope's death, rumours began. One rumour claimed that a visiting prelate, Nikodim, had recently died from drinking "poisoned coffee" prepared for the pope. A visiting prelate actually had died some days earlier, but there was no evidence of any poison. Another unsubstantiated rumour described the Pope's plans to dismiss senior Vatican officials over allegations of corruption. The suddenness of his embalming raised suspicions that it had been done to prevent an autopsy. The Vatican insisted that a papal autopsy was prohibited under Vatican law. However, one source (the diary of Agostino Chigi) reports that an autopsy was carried out on the remains of Pope Pius VIII in 1830. Nevertheless, suspicions persist to this day, particularly given the sweeping changes to Vatican personnel this Pope had already penned, along with the Mafia-riddled Italy of the time, and the number of subsequent murders of officials investigating the Vatican Bank along with its associates.

On November 11, 2006, the first part of his beatification process concluded at the Belluno cathedral.

Legacy of Pope John Paul I

Pope John Paul I was not in office long enough to make any major practical changes within the Vatican or the Roman Catholic Church (except for his abandonment of the Papal Coronation). His impact was twofold: his image as a warm, gentle, kind man captivated the world. This image was immediately formed when he was presented to the crowd in St. Peter's Square following his election. The warmth of his presence made him a much-loved figure before he even spoke a word. The media in particular fell under his spell. He was a skilled orator. Whereas Pope Paul VI spoke as if delivering a doctoral thesis, John Paul I produced warmth, laughter, a 'feel good factor', and plenty of media-friendly sound bites. Secondly, the manner of his death raised many questions about the conduct of senior Vatican figures. Even among those who dismiss conspiracy theories, there are some that admit that the Vatican mishandled the circumstances of his death. For others, the suspicion remains that the 'smiling pope', who charmed the world, died in a manner that has yet to be explained adequately.

He was regarded as a skilled communicator and writer, and has left behind some writings. His book Illustrissimi, written while he was a Cardinal, is a series of letters to a wide collection of historical and fictional persons. Among those still available are his letters to Jesus Christ, the Biblical King David, Figaro the Barber, Marie Theresa of Austria and Pinocchio Others 'written to' included Mark Twain, Charles Dickens and Christopher Marlowe. He is also remembered for being the first to refuse the traditional papal coronation. Instead, he chose an "investiture" to commence his brief papacy. One of his remarks, reported in the press, was that we should see God not only as Father, but also as Mother. This remark reinforced the image of a pastoral pope.

A number of campaigns have been started to canonize Pope John Paul I. Miracles have been attributed to him. On June 10, 2003 the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saints gave its permission for the opening of the beatification process of Pope John Paul I, Servant of God. The "diocesan phase" of this process began in Belluno on November 23, 2003; a miracle has already been alleged, of an Italian man cured of cancer.

John Paul II on his predecessor

Karol Józef Cardinal Wojtyła was elected to succeed John Paul I as Supreme Pontiff on Monday, October 16, 1978. According to at least one news report, his choice of the name John Paul was no surprise, although his election was. The next day he celebrated Mass together with the College of Cardinals in the Sistine Chapel. After the Mass, he delivered his first Urbi et Orbi (a traditional blessing) message, broadcast worldwide via radio. In it he pledged fidelity to the Second Vatican Council and paid tribute to his predecessor:

"What can we say of John Paul I? It seems to us that only yesterday he emerged from this assembly of ours to put on the papal robes—not a light weight. But what warmth of charity, nay, what 'an abundant outpouring of love'—which came forth from him in the few days of his ministry and which in his last Sunday address before the Angelus he desired should come upon the world. This is also confirmed by his wise instructions to the faithful who were present at his public audiences on faith, hope and love." (source: L'Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English, 26 October 1978, p.3)

Media

  • In 2006, the Italian Public Broadcasting Service, RAI, produced a television miniseries about the life of John Paul I, called Papa Luciani: Il sorriso di Dio (literally, "Pope Luciani: The Smile of God"). It stars Italian comedian Neri Marcorè in the titular role.
  • The Fall's 'Hey! Luciani' is about Pope John Paul I.
  • Patti Smith's recitative song "Wave" is about Luciani, and her Wave album is dedicated to him.
  • The 1990 film The Godfather Part III included the assassination theory of Pope John Paul I.

References

External links

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