[pawl for 1–3, 5; poul for 4]
Gauguin, Paul, 1848-1903, French painter and woodcut artist, b. Paris; son of a journalist and a French-Peruvian mother.

Early Life

Gauguin was first a sailor, then a successful stockbroker in Paris. In 1874 he began to paint on weekends. By the age of 35, with the encouragement of Camille Pissarro, he devoted himself completely to his art, having given up his position and separated (1885) from his wife and five children. Allying himself with the Impressionists, he exhibited with them from 1879 to 1886. The next year he sailed for Panama and Martinique. In protest against the "disease" of civilization, he determined to live primitively, but illness forced him to return to France. The next years were spent in Paris and Brittany, with a brief but tragic stay with Van Gogh at Arles.

Later Life and Art

In 1888, Gauguin and Émile Bernard proposed a synthetist theory of art, emphasizing the use of flat planes and bright, nonnaturalistic color in conjunction with symbolic or primitive subjects. The Yellow Christ (Albright-Knox Art Gall., Buffalo) is characteristic of this period. In 1891, Gauguin sold 30 canvases and with the proceeds went to Tahiti. There he spent two years living poorly, painting some of his finest pictures, and writing Noa Noa (tr. 1947), an autobiographical novel set in Tahiti. In 1893 he returned to France, collected a legacy, and exhibited his work, rousing some interest but making very little money. Disheartened and sick from syphilis, which had afflicted him for many years, he again set out for the South Seas in 1895. There his last years were spent in poverty, despair, and physical suffering. In 1897 he attempted suicide and failed, living to paint for five more years. He died on Hiva Oa in the Marquesas Islands.

Gauguin's Style and Impact on Modern Art

Today Gauguin is recognized as a highly influential founding father of modern art. He rejected the tradition of western naturalism, using nature as a starting point from which to abstract figures and symbols. He stressed linear patterns and remarkable color harmonies, imbuing his paintings with a profound sense of mystery. He revived the art of woodcutting with his free and daring knife work and his expressive, irregular shapes and strong contrasts. He produced some fine lithographs and a number of pottery pieces.

There are major examples of Gauguin's work in the United States, including The Day of the God (Art Inst., Chicago), Ia Orana Maria (1891; Metropolitan Mus.), By the Sea (1892; National Gall. of Art, Washington, D.C.), and his masterpiece Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going? (1897; Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston). W. Somerset Maugham's Moon and Sixpence (1919), based loosely on the life of Gauguin, did much to promote the Gauguin legend that arose shortly after his death.

See his letters ed. by M. Malingue (tr. 1949); his intimate journals tr. by V. W. Brooks (1958); P. Gauguin, My Father, Paul Gauguin (tr. 1937); D. Sweetman, Paul Gauguin: A Complete Life (1995); M. M. Mathews, Paul Gauguin: An Erotic Life (2001); studies by R. J. Goldwater (1957), B. Danielsson (tr. 1965), and W. Andersen (1971).

Broca, Paul, 1824-80, French pathologist, anthropologist, and pioneer in neurosurgery. A professor in Paris at the Faculty of Medicine and at the Anthropological Institute, he was a founder of the Anthropological Society of Paris (1859) and of the Revue d'anthropologie (1872). An authority on aphasia, he localized the brain center for articulate speech in the convolution of Broca, or Broca's area (the third convolution of the left frontal lobe). He originated methods of classifying hair and skin color and of establishing brain and skull ratios.
Creston, Paul, 1906-85, American composer, b. New York City as Guiseppe Guttoveggio. Creston was largely self-taught in composition. His music is generally tonal and conservative. Among Creston's many works are six symphonies (1940-81), Two Choric Dances (1938) for orchestra, two violin concertos (1956, 1960), a concerto for marimba (1940), and a concerto for alto saxophone (1941). Creston wrote Principles of Rhythm (1964) and Rational Metric Notation (1979).
Taylor, Paul, 1930-, American modern-dance choreographer, b. Pittsburgh. Taylor trained as an artist before he received scholarships to study dance. In 1953 he made his debut with the Merce Cunningham company and performed his first dance composition. From 1955 to 1961 he won acclaim both as a leading soloist with the Martha Graham company and as the creator of witty and innovative avant-garde dances for his own company, which he had formed in 1954. He has choreographed more than 100 works, including Jack and the Beanstalk (1954), Aureole (1962), Esplanade (1975), Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rehearsal) (1980), Company B (1991), The Word (1998), Arabesque (2000), Promethean Fire (2002), Beloved Renegade (2008), and Brief Encounters (2009). His later works generally have been less radical than his earlier ones.

See his autobiography, Private Domain (1987); The Paul Taylor Dance Company (video, 1978).

Scarron, Paul, 1610-60, French writer. His picaresque novel Le Romant comique (1651) vividly portrays the lives of a company of strolling players. He also wrote short stories, collected as Les Nouvelles tragi-comiques (1655), satires, and burlesque poems and plays. Scarron married (1652) Françoise d'Aubigné, known later as Mme de Maintenon. He was long bedridden with paralysis.
Bourget, Paul, 1852-1935, French novelist. His early novels were naturalistic, but Le Disciple (1889, tr. 1901), a tale of the destruction of a pupil who applies his master's naturalistic literary theories to life, marked a change. Bourget thereafter wrote in a Catholic and strongly moralistic tone that won critical admiration, but little popularity. Representative of his more than 60 novels are Cruelle Énigme (1885, tr. Love's Cruel Enigma, 1891), Cosmopolis (1893, tr. 1893), Le Démon de midi (1914), and Le Sens de la mort (1915, tr. The Night Cometh, 1916). He is best remembered for his literary criticism, especially Essais de psychologie contemporaine (1883).
Bowles, Paul, 1910-99, American writer and composer, b. New York City. He studied in Paris with Virgil Thomson and Aaron Copland and composed (1930s-40s) a number of modernist operas, ballets, song cycles, and orchestral and chamber pieces. From 1947 on he lived in Tangier, Morocco. Strongly individualistic and written with an austere lack of sentimentality, his fiction is frequently set in the Arab world and often traces the corruption of innocence and the psychic disintegration of "civilized man" in a savagely primitive environment. His works include the short-story collections The Delicate Prey (1950), The Time of Friendship (1967), Collected Stories, 1939-1976 (1979), and Unwelcome Words (1988); and the novels The Sheltering Sky (1949), Up above the World (1966), and In the Red Room (1981). His 62 short stories were brought together in a 2001 collection. Bowles was also an accomplished travel writer, poet, and photographer.

See his autobiography, Without Stopping (1972); biographies by C. Sawyer-Laucanno (1989) and M. Dillon (1998); film biography, Let it Come Down (1999), by J. Baichwal; In Touch: The Letters of Paul Bowles (1994), ed. by J. Miller; Conversations with Paul Bowles (1993), ed. by G. D. Caponi; study by R. F. Patterson (1986); bibliography by J. Miller (1986).

His wife was Jane Auer Bowles, 1917-73, American writer, b. New York City. Original and idiosyncratic, her works often treat the conflict between the weak and the strong. They include the novel Two Serious Ladies (1943) and a play, In the Summer House (1954).

See her Collected Works (1978); biography by M. Dillon (1981); Out in the World: The Collected Letters of Jane Bowles (1985), ed. by M. Dillon.

Ehrenfest, Paul, 1880-1933, Austrian physicist. In 1904, Ehrenfest received his doctorate in theoretical physics in Vienna and married the Russian mathematician Tatyana Alexeyevna Afanassyewa. Together they wrote what has become a classical exposition of statistical mechanics. He was one of the first to take German physicist Max Planck's quantum theory seriously and to try to define its relation to the older physics. In 1912 he succeeded Dutch physicist H. A. Lorentz in the chair of theoretical physics at the Univ. of Leiden. He proved an energetic, lucid, and inspiring teacher. His acute criticisms and his formulation of the adiabatic principle—which Niels Bohr placed among the foundations of quantum theory—were important contributions to advancing modern physics.

See M. J. Klein, Paul Ehrenfest: The Making of a Theoretical Physicist (Vol. 1, 2d ed. 1985).

Ehrlich, Paul, 1854-1915, German bacteriologist. He directed (1896) an institute for serum research at Steglitz, near Berlin, that was transferred (1899) to Frankfurt-am-Main as the Institute for Experimental Therapy. For his work in immunology he shared with Élie Metchnikoff the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He made valuable contributions also in hematology, in cellular pathology, in the use of dyes in microscopy and in the treatment of disease, in the study of cancer, and in his discovery of salvarsan (or "606," so called from its numerical order in his experimental series) and of neosalvarsan (less toxic than salvarsan) for the treatment of syphilis.
Heyse, Paul, 1830-1914, German realistic writer. Besides the 120 novellas on which his reputation rests, he wrote some 50 plays, 6 novels, and many fine translations, especially of Italian poets. He was the first German to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature (1910). His most famous story is L'Arrabbiata (1855, tr. The Fury, 1855). Heyse's writings are elegant, polished, and psychologically probing.
Hindemith, Paul, 1895-1963, German-American composer and violist, b. Hanau, Germany. Hindemith combined experimental and traditional techniques into a distinctively modern style. After studying at the Frankfurt Conservatory, he began his career as a viola player. He taught (1927-37) composition at the Berlin Hochschule, but during the Nazi regime his compositions were banned because of their dissonance and modernity. In 1935 he was commissioned by the Turkish government to reorganize that country's musical education. Later he taught at Yale Univ. (1940-53), becoming a U.S. citizen in 1946; but in 1951 he returned to Europe to teach at the Univ. of Zürich. Hindemith's early compositions are highly contrapuntal and often atonal. Later works display a return to tonality that has often been termed neoclassical. His best-known work is the symphony (1934) drawn from his opera Mathis der Maler [Mathis the painter] (1938), which is based on the life of the painter Mathias Grünewald. Other operas include Cardillac (1926) and Neues vom Tage [news of the day] (1929). Many of Hindemith's works might be classed as Gebrauchsmusik [utility music], written for specific performance by amateur school groups or chamber music organizations. His aim was to establish closer contact between composer and public. Included in this group are the children's opera Wir bauen eine Stadt [we are building a city] (1931) and numerous sonatas and chamber works. Other important works are the Ludus Tonalis (1943) for piano; the song cycle Das Marienleben (1923, 1948) set to poems by Rilke; the viola concerto Der Schwanendreher (1935), based on medieval German folk songs; the ballet Nobilissima Visione (1938); and the setting for chorus and orchestra of Walt Whitman's When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd (1946). His writings include Traditional Harmony (2 vol., 1943, 1948), The Craft of Musical Composition (1937, tr. 1942) and A Composer's World (1952).

See studies by I. Kemp (1970) and G. Skelton (1975).

Éluard, Paul, 1895-1952, French poet. He was a leading exponent of surrealism. Among his volumes of verse are Mourir de ne pas mourir [to die of not dying] (1924) and L'Immaculée Conception (with André Breton, 1930). A member of the French resistance in World War II, Éluard is revealed as poet and man of action in the verse of Poésie et vérité (1942) and Au rendez-vous allemand (1945).
Celan, Paul, pseud. of Paul Antschel, 1920-70, Romanian-French poet. Although he spent his early years in Romania and his later years in France, Celan wrote in German and is widely considered the greatest postwar poet in Europe. A Jew, who lost both parents in a Nazi camp, he composed works that focus on the moral horror of the Holocaust and the destruction of the world as he knew it, as in his most famous poem, "Deathfugue." Celan was strongly influenced by Friedrich Hölderlin, Rainer Maria Rilke, Georg Trakl, and Osip Mandelstam. Frequently dissonant and freighted with pain, his poems are richly allusive and complicated. Celan was also a masterful translator of such authors as Shakespeare, Valéry, and Dickinson. He lived in Paris from 1948 until his suicide by drowning.

See the collection of his critical essays, ed. by A. Fioretos (1993); translations of his work by J. Neugroschel (1971), M. Hamburger (1988), N. Popov and H. McHugh (2000), J. Felstiner (2001), and P. Joris (2001); biography by I. Chalfen (1979; tr. 1991); J. Feltsiner, Paul Celan: Poet, Survivor, Jew (1995).

Cézanne, Paul, 1839-1906, French painter, b. Aix-en-Provence. Cézanne was the leading figure in the revolution toward abstraction in modern painting.

Early Life and Work

From early childhood Cézanne was a close friend of Émile Zola, who for a time encouraged the painter in his work. Cézanne went to Paris in 1861; there he met Pissarro, who strongly influenced his development. He divided his time between Provence and the environs of Paris until his retirement to Aix in 1899. Cézanne's early work is marked by a heavy use of the palette knife, from which he created thickly textured and violently deformed shapes and scenes of a fantastic, dreamlike quality. Although these impulsive paintings exhibit few of the features of his later style, they anticipate the expressionist idiom of the 20th cent.

Through Pissarro, Cézanne came to know Manet and the impressionist painters (see impressionism). He was concerned, after 1870, with the use of color to create perspective, but the steady, diffused light in his works is utterly unrelated to the impressionist preoccupation with transitory light effects. House of the Hanged Man (1873-74; Louvre) is characteristic of his impressionist period. He exhibited at the group's show of 1874 but later diverged from the impressionist style and developed a firmer structure in his paintings.

Mature Work

Cézanne sought to "recreate nature" by simplifying forms to their basic geometric equivalents, utilizing color and considerable distortion to express the essence of landscape (e.g., Mont Sainte-Victoire, 1885-87, Phillips Coll., Washington, D.C.), still lifes (e.g., The Kitchen Table, 1888-90, Louvre), and figural groupings (e.g., The Card Players, 1890-92; one version, S.C. Clark Coll., New York City). His portraits are vital studies of character, e.g., Madame Cézanne (c.1885; S. S. and V. White Coll., Ardmore, Pa.) and Ambroise Vollard (Musée du Petit Palais, Paris).

Cézanne developed a new type of spatial pattern. Instead of adhering to the traditional focalized system of perspective, he portrayed objects from shifting viewpoints. He created vibrating surface effects from the play of flat planes against one another and from the subtle transitions of tone and color. In all his work he revealed a reverence for the integrity and dignity of simple forms by rendering them with an almost classical structural stability. His Bathers (1898-1905; Philadelphia Mus. of Art) is the monumental embodiment of a number of Cézanne's visual systems.

The artist's later works are largely still lifes (among them his famous apples), male figures, and recurring landscape subjects. While retaining a solid substructure, they seem freer and more spontaneous and employ more transparent painterly effects than earlier works. Cézanne worked in oil, watercolor, and drawing media, often making several versions of his works.

Influence and Collections

Cézanne's influence on the course of modern art, particularly on the development of cubism, is enormous and profound. His theories spawned a whole new school of aesthetic criticism, especially in England, that has ranked him among the foremost French masters. There are fine collections of his paintings in the Louvre; the Metropolitan Museum and the Museum of Modern Art, New York City; and the Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pa.


See his letters, ed. by J. Rewald (tr. 1941); his drawings, ed. by A. Chappuis (1973); his watercolors, ed. by T. Reff (1963); catalogues raisonnés by A. Chappuis (2 vol., tr. 1973) and J. Rewald (2 vol., 1997); biographies by J. Lindsay (1969) and J. Rewald (new ed. 1986); studies by M. Schapiro (2d ed. 1962), W. Andersen (1970), S. Geist (1988), R. Fry (new ed. 1989), and F. Cachin, I. Cahn, H. Layrette, and J. J. Rishel (1996).

Dessau, Paul, 1894-1979, German conductor and composer. As a conductor he worked (1919-23) in Cologne before moving to Berlin from 1925 until 1933. A fervent socialist, he left Germany for the United States where he collaborated with Bertolt Brecht on such works as Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder [Mother Courage and her children] (1941) and Der gute Mensch von Seuzuan (tr. The Good Woman of Setzuan, 1943), writing the music for each. After World War II, Dessau moved back to East Germany where he continued to work with Brecht. His later work includes the opera Einstein (1971).
Poiret, Paul, 1879-1944, French couturier, b. Paris. He served an apprenticeship with Jacques Doucet in the 1890s, moved to the Maison Worth in 1900, and in 1903 opened his own small studio. Dominating Paris couture from 1909 to 1914, Poiret revolutionized fashion with his designs for the "new woman," ending wasp waists and constricting corsets, reviving a simple, Empire-waisted silhouette, and introducing pantaloons. Around 1910 he introduced the appropriately named hobble skirt, with volume around the hips narrowing to an ankle-hugging bottom. He created ensembles of walking coats and dresses, and short hoop "lampshade" tunics over long sheaths. Inspired by interests in art nouveau, East Asia, and the Ballets Russes, he designed jewel-colored evening gowns and such exotic costumes as coulottes, harem pants and skirts, fringed capes, and turbans. He was the first designer to produce (1911) a line of fragrances and cosmetics, and also created items for the home. World War I brought an end to Poiret's flights of fancy, and though he was active in the 1920s his designs were no longer fashionable.

See studies by P. White (1973), Y. Deslandres (1987), A. MacKrell (1990), F. Baudot (1997), and H. Koda and A. Bolton (2007).

Valéry, Paul, 1871-1945, French poet and critic. A follower of the symbolists, Valéry was one of the greatest French poets of the 20th cent. He was encouraged by Pierry Loüys and by Mallarmé to publish a few poems in several small reviews, but he soon turned from poetry to prose with La Soirée avec M. Teste (1896; tr. An Evening with Mr. Teste, 1925). In 1912, Gide and other admirers urged him to publish a collection of his early poems. A brief valedictory to poetry, which he had planned to add to the collection, grew into his masterpiece, La Jeune Parque (1917). It is a long and somewhat obscure poem, which, together with Le Cimetière marin (1920; tr. The Graveyard by the Sea, 1932), offers the best example of Valéry's poetics. In 1920 appeared Odes and Album de vers anciens, followed in 1922 by Charmes. His prose works include five collections of essays, all called Variété (1924-44; partial tr. Variety, 1927, 1938), and four dialogues on subjects ranging from the arts to mathematics and the sciences. He succeeded Anatole France in the French Academy in 1925. Between the world wars Valéry was a member of the Committee of Letters and Arts of the League of Nations, serving as its president in the 1930s. Valéry held the chair of poetry at the Collège de France. A recipient of many honors, he was accorded a state funeral at his death. Publication (in English) of a projected 15-volume edition of The Collected Works of Paul Valéry, edited by Jackson Mathews, was begun in 1956.

See studies by H. A. Grubbs (1968), W. N. Ince (2d ed. 1970), and C. M. Crow (1972); bibliography by A. J. Arnold (1970).

Van Zeeland, Paul, 1893-1973, Belgian political leader. He was a professor of law and later director of the institute of economic science at the Univ. of Louvain and vice governor of the national bank of Belgium. In 1935 he was made premier of a government of national unity. Given decree powers, he weathered the Belgian economic crisis by stringent measures that included devaluation of the currency. In 1936, he instituted reform and social legislation and suppressed the turbulent Rexists (the Belgian fascists) after proclaiming martial law. In his administration Belgium denounced (1936) its military alliance with France, reverting to its policy of neutrality, and received (1937) a German guarantee of its inviolability. In 1937, accused by the Rexists of political corruption, Van Zeeland was completely exonerated. Nevertheless, he resigned his post. He remained an unofficial adviser and in 1938 vainly urged a conference of the great powers to restore international economic cooperation. In 1939 he became president of the committee on refugees, established at London, and throughout World War II he continued to work for international economic cooperation. Van Zeeland was made (1944) high commissioner for the repatriation of displaced Belgians. A leader of the Catholic party, he later served as foreign minister in several cabinets and also as a financial adviser to the Belgian government and to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's council of ministers.
Green, Paul, 1894-1981, American dramatist, b. Lillington, N.C., grad. Univ. of North Carolina, 1921. He is known for his realistic plays depicting the lives of blacks and white tenant farmers. His first full-length play, In Abraham's Bosom (1926; Pulitzer Prize) was followed by such works as The Field God (1927), The House of Connelly (1931), Johnny Johnson (with music by Kurt Weill, 1936), and Native Son (with Richard Wright, 1941). Green also wrote short stories and novels. His essays on the theater were collected in The Hawthorn Tree (1943), Dramatic Heritage (1953), and Drama and the Weather (1958).

See his Five Plays of the South (1963); study by B. H. Clark (1974).

Greengard, Paul, 1925-, American neuroscientist, b. New York, N.Y., Ph.D. The Johns Hopkins 1953. Greengard was on the staff at Geigy Research Laboratories (1959-67) and a professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1961-70) and Yale (1968-83). In 1983 he became a professor at Rockefeller Univ. Greengard shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arvid Carlsson and Eric Kandel for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. Greengard's contribution to the work was his discovery of the mechanism by which dopamine and several other neurotransmitters carry messages between nerve cells. His findings contributed to an improved understanding of how several drugs work in the body.
Sandby, Paul, 1725-1809, English watercolorist and draftsman. He was employed to survey the Highlands of Scotland after the 1745 rebellion. During his years in Scotland (1746-51) he learned to interpret landscape with delicacy and precision of detail. Most of his paintings of landscapes are done in watercolor or gouache; many of his most important drawings he reproduced in aquatint, a process that he introduced in England. Windsor Castle is the subject of a number of his drawings, which have sometimes been confused with those of his brother, Thomas (1721-99), also a fine draftsman. Much of Paul's work is in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

See A. P. Oppé, The Drawings of Paul and Thomas Sandby … at Windsor Castle (1947).

Morin, Paul, 1889-1963, French Canadian poet, b. Montreal. After taking degrees in the arts, science, and law at Laval Univ., he studied in Paris. His two books of poems, Le Paon d'émail [the enamel peacock] (1911) and Poèmes de cendre et d'or [poems in ashes and gold] (1922), are noted for technical brilliance and exotic language.
Lafargue, Paul, 1842-1911, French socialist, b. Cuba; son-in-law of Karl Marx. With Jules Guesde he helped found a Marxist socialist party in France. His many writings, which were influential in other countries, include The Religion of Capital (1887, tr. 1894) and The Evolution of Property from Savagery to Civilization (1891, tr. 1894).
Langevin, Paul, 1872-1946, French physicist and chemist. He was professor of experimental physics at the Collège de France from 1909 and at the École municipale de Physique et de Chimie, Paris, from 1904 (director from 1929); dismissed by the Vichy government in 1940, he resumed his posts in 1944. He is noted for his work on the electron theory of magnetism and for his research on sound devices for submarine detection.
Nash, Paul, 1889-1946, English painter and wood engraver. He studied at the Slade School of Art, London. Nash worked at the front as official artist in both World Wars. He helped to form Unit One, an English avant-garde group of artists and architects. Nash's paintings of the English landscape were imbued with a visionary and mystical atmosphere. His writings were published in one volume in 1949.
Radin, Paul, 1883-1959, American anthropologist, b. Poland, grad., College of the City of New York, 1902, Ph.D. Columbia, 1911. He was a student of Franz Boas and studied the Winnebago tribe for much of his life, writing classic accounts of this group: The Winnebago Tribe (1923) and The Culture of the Winnebago (1949). Radin also wrote on the religion, philosophy, and psychology of the individual in pre-literate society: Primitive Man as a Philosopher (1927, rev. ed. 1958) and The World of Primitive Man (1953).
Paul, Saint, d. A.D. 64? or 67?, the apostle to the Gentiles, b. Tarsus, Asia Minor. He was a Jew. His father was a Roman citizen, probably of some means, and Paul was a tentmaker by trade. His Jewish name was Saul. He was educated in Jerusalem, where he studied under Gamaliel and became a zealous nationalist; he was probably a Pharisee. The chronology of St. Paul's life is difficult, but there is general agreement (within a few years) on almost all details. The hypothetical dates given here are according to one chronological system.

The sources for St. Paul's life are the Acts of the Apostles, in which he is the dominant figure, and the Pauline Epistles. The value of the latter depends on the extent to which they are accepted as genuinely written by the apostle. Romans, First and Second Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, First Thessalonians, and Philemon are undoubted; Ephesians and Second Thessalonians are rejected by most critics; First and Second Timothy and Titus are generally considered to be in their present form later and non-Pauline; finally, Hebrews was not written by St. Paul himself.

Paul's first known contact with Christianity is his presence at the martyrdom of St. Stephen. Soon after this he got a commission from the chief priest to go to Damascus to help suppress Christianity there (A.D. 33). As he approached Damascus he suddenly saw a blinding light and heard Jesus ask, "Why persecutest thou me?" Paul was temporarily blinded and was led into Damascus, where he was found (on the Lord's direction) by the disciple Ananias. On regaining his sight, Paul was baptized and immediately began preaching. (Acts 8.1-3; 9.1-30; 22.3-21; 26.9-23; Gal. 1.12-15.)

Paul spent the next 13 years learning the faith, part of the time living in seclusion in the Arabian desert. He visited Jerusalem probably twice (A.D. 37, 44) and dwelt at Tarsus and Antioch for some time. (Acts 11.) From Antioch, Paul set out on his first missionary journey (Acts 13-14.27; A.D. 47-49), on which he was accompanied by St. Barnabas and for a time by St. Mark. In general the method was to go from city to city preaching in synagogues and in marketplaces. Among the stops on this first mission were Cyprus, Antioch, and Derbe. Churches were set up, and as soon as the little Christian groups seemed strong enough the apostle and his companions would move on. Among their stops were Cyprus, Pamphylia, and Derbe. About A.D. 50 there was a council of the apostles at Jerusalem to discuss whether Gentile Christians should be circumcised, i.e., whether Christianity was to be a Jewish sect. St. Paul opposed the Judaistic group vigorously, and the council decided against them. (Acts 15; Gal. 2.)

On his second mission (Acts 15.36-18.22; A.D. 50-53) Paul, having quarreled with Barnabas, was accompanied by Silas. During visits to Philippi and Salonica they founded two churches that were to become great. They later sailed to Athens where Paul delivered his famous address on the "unknown god" in the market. (Acts 17.16-34.) From Athens, Paul went to Corinth. In the course of a long stay there he wrote First and Second Thessalonians (A.D. 52). Possibly about this time he also wrote his letter to the Galatians, although some scholars think this was the earliest of the epistles (written from Antioch), while others believe it was written later from Ephesus. At length Paul sailed to Caesarea in Palestine and visited Jerusalem again. He spent some time in Antioch.

The third missionary journey of St. Paul (Acts 18.23-21.26; A.D. 53-57) took him to Galatia, then Phrygia, and over to Ephesus. His two-and-a-half-year stay in Ephesus was one of the most fruitful periods of his life; in this time he wrote his two letters to the Corinthians (c.A.D. 56). He went to Corinth to help the Christians there, and he probably wrote the Epistle to the Romans there. Thence he returned to Ephesus and finally to Jerusalem. This was his last visit there (A.D. 57-59), for soon after he arrived he was arrested for provoking a riot.

After being held prisoner for two years and after hearings before the council of priests, before the Roman procurator Felix and his successor Festus, before Herod Agrippa II, and again before Festus, he appealed to Rome on his citizen's right. So he was sent to Rome under guard. (Acts 21.27-28.31.) On the way they were shipwrecked on Malta but finally landed at Puteoli (Puzzuoli). Paul was imprisoned (A.D. 60) in Rome but was allowed to conduct his ministry among the Roman Christians and Jews who visited him. Of his final fate tradition says that he was beheaded south of the city, near the Ostian Way, probably during the persecution of Nero. A lesser tradition claims that Paul was released after his first imprisonment and that he went East again, and perhaps also to Spain, before his martyrdom. Some scholars believe that Paul was executed after his initial imprisonment, probably A.D. 62. St. Paul's tomb and shrine are at the Roman basilica of St. Paul's Outside the Walls.

St. Paul's figure dominates the apostolic age, and his epistles have left a tremendous impress on Christianity. The first Christian theological writing is found in them, where it is characterized rather by spiritual fervor than by systematic analysis. St. Paul became a fountainhead of Christian doctrine, and countless interpretations have been given of his teachings. Thus, Roman Catholic theology leans upon him at all times, and Martin Luther derived from the Epistle to the Romans his principle of justification by faith alone. There can be no doubt that Paul's interpretation of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, his doctrine of the church as the mystical body of Christ, his teaching on law and grace, and his view of justification have been decisive in the formation of the Christian faith. The feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, June 29, is one of the principal days of the church calendar; the conversion of St. Paul is commemorated Jan. 25.

See D. R. McDonald, The Legend and the Apostle (1983); J. A. Ziesler, Pauline Christianity (1990); E. P. Sanders, Paul (1991); B. Chilton, Rabbi Paul: An Intellectual Biography (2004); J. Murphy-O'Connor, Paul: His Story (2004); G. Wills, What Paul Meant (2006).

Paul, 1901-64, king of the Hellenes (1947-64), brother and successor of George II. He married (1938) Princess Frederika of Brunswick. During Paul's reign Greece followed a pro-Western policy, and the Cyprus question was temporarily resolved. Paul was succeeded by his son, Constantine II.
Paul, Alice, 1885-1977, American feminist, b. Moorestown, N.J. She helped found the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (1913), which became the National Woman's party (1917). After the passage of the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution, she worked for passage of an equal rights amendment. See also woman suffrage.
Paul, Les, 1915-2009, American guitarist and inventor, b. Waukesha, Wis., as Lester William Polsfuss (later Polfuss). He began playing country music at 14, later switched to jazz, and started his own trio in 1936. Considered one of the finest jazz guitarists, he remains famous for his amazing versatility. Dissatisfied with the sound of available instruments, Paul invented (1941) a solid-body electric guitar which, marketed (1952) by Gibson, was extremely important in the development of rock music and was played by many of its greatest stars. Several versions of his guitars are still manufactured. Paul also created techniques in his home studio that allowed him to overdub numerous tracks, producing the distinctive sound of Les Paul and Mary Ford (his wife) in such 1950s hits as "Vaya Con Dios" and "How High the Moon." The multitrack recording originated by Paul has since been widely used to make popular recordings. He also invented the eight-track tape recorder, which initiated the modern recording era, and made important innovations in reverb and other areas of studio methodology. Paul was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988.

See M. Cochran, Les Paul: In His Own Words (2008); R. Lawrence, The Early Years of the Les Paul Legacy: 1915-1963 and The Modern Years of the Les Paul Legacy: 1968-2008 (both: 2008).

Paul, Wolfgang, 1913-93, German physicist, Ph.D. Technical Univ., Berlin, 1939. A professor at the Univ. of Bonn since 1952, Paul worked with Hans Dehmelt to develop an ion trap technique (known as the Paul trap), which made possible the detailed study of subatomic particles. For this invention, Dehmelt and Paul shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physics with Norman F. Ramsey.
Berg, Paul, 1926-, American biologist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Western Reserve Univ., 1952. A professor at Washington Univ. at St. Louis and Stanford Univ., he shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics (with Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger) for his work with recombinant DNA. Berg developed techniques for attaching selected parts of DNA molecules to bacterial DNA, enabling the synthesis of such proteins as insulin and interferon.
Signac, Paul, 1863-1935, French neoimpressionist painter. First influenced by Monet, he was later associated with Seurat in developing the divisionist technique. Interested in the science of color, he painted with a greater intensity and with broader strokes than Seurat. In such vigorous, colorful works as Port of St. Tropez (1916; Brooklyn Mus., New York City) Signac broke through the confines of neoimpressionist theory. He wrote a treatise, D'Eugène Delacroix au néo-impressionisme (1889), long considered the foremost work on the school.

See study by his granddaughter, Françoise Cachin (tr. 1973).

Simon, Paul, 1941-, American singer, songwriter, and guitarist, b. Newark, N.J. A polished and intelligent folk-rock lyricist and performer, he first gained fame as half of Simon and Garfunkel. Not long after their highly successful album Bridge over Troubled Water (1970), Simon split with Garfunkel and pursued a solo career, releasing the album Paul Simon in 1972. In his solo work, Simon has used a startling variety of national and international styles, mingling them with an idiosyncratic and highly personal content. His folk-inflected and often introspective songs of the 1970s are typified by the album Still Crazy after All These Years (1975). Simon broadened his themes in Graceland (1986), one of the most popular albums of the decade, which featured several African musicians, including the South African choral group Ladysmith Black Mambazo. His next album, The Rhythm of the Saints (1990), explored Afro-Brazilian music. After the failure of his Latin-themed Broadway musical The Capeman (1997, written with Derek Walcott), Simon toured (1999) with Bob Dylan. Later albums include You're the One (2000) and Surprise (2006).

See biography, P. Humphries, Paul Simon: Still Crazy after All These Years (1989); M. S. Cohen, Simon and Garfunkel (1977); J. Morella and P. Barey, Simon and Garfunkel (1991); S. Luftig, ed. Paul Simon Companion: Four Decades of Commentary (1997); S. Steinberg, dir., American Masters, Paul Simon (video documentary, 1993).

Sabatier, Paul, 1854-1941, French organic chemist, D.Sc. Collège de France, 1880. He joined the faculty at the Univ. of Toulouse in 1882 and taught there until he retired in 1930. Sabatier was a corecipient of the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Victor Grignard for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals, particularly nickel. His work in catalysis laid the groundwork for a number of laboratory syntheses and also led to the development of margarine, hydrogenated oils, and synthetic methanol.
Sabatier, Paul, 1858-1928, French Protestant clergyman and historian; brother of Auguste Sabatier. Ill health required his withdrawal from the active ministry, and he went to Assisi, Italy; there he studied the life of St. Francis. His subsequent Life of St. Francis of Assisi (1893) was widely translated and has passed through a number of editions. In 1919, Sabatier became professor of Protestant theology at Strasbourg.
Gerhardt, Paul, 1607-76, German hymn writer and clergyman. Some of his famous texts, such as O Sacred Head Sore Wounded, are much used in English translations.
Scofield, Paul, 1922-2008, English actor, b. Hurstpierpoint, Sussex. Scofield joined the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in 1945, and had his first major success in King John. At the Stratford Memorial Theatre he won wide acclaim for his Hamlet and King Lear. His portrayal of Sir Thomas More in the stage (1960-62) and film (1966) versions of A Man for All Seasons gained him international renown along with a Tony and an Academy Award. He also appeared in such other stage productions as Uncle Vanya (1970), Volpone (1977), Amadeus (1979, 1982), Othello (1980), Heartbreak House (1992), and John Gabriel Borkman (1996). Noted for his strong, sculptured face and unusual rumbling voice, Scofield made several films, including The Train (1964), King Lear (1971), A Delicate Balance (1973), Henry V (1989), Quiz Show (1994), and The Crucible (1996).

See biography by G. O'Connor (2002).

Claudel, Paul, 1868-1955, French dramatist, poet, and diplomat. He was ambassador to Tokyo (1921-27), Washington, D.C. (1927-33), and Brussels (1933-35). Claudel's writings deal largely with man's inner spirit, and reveal the influence of his profound and mystical Catholicism. His early plays were inspired by the French symbolists, notably by Rimbaud. Perhaps his finest play is L'Annonce faite à Marie (1912, tr. Tidings Brought to Mary, 1916). Among his other dramas is the lengthy Le Soulier de satin (1929, tr. The Satin Slipper, 1931). In his theatrical works Claudel combined extensive use of symbols—primarily religious—and exotic backgrounds with the techniques of pantomime, ballet, music, and the cinema. The rich lyric verse of Cinq Grandes Odes (1910) marks his highest poetic achievement. His prose works include Art poétique (1906) and writings on the Bible.

See B. L. Knapp, Paul Claudel (1982); A. Caranfa, Claudel: Beauty and Grace (1989).

Painlevé, Paul, 1863-1933, French statesman and mathematician. A mathematical prodigy when a child, he entered on a career devoted to science. He was a professor at the Sorbonne and the École Polytechnique when the Dreyfus Affair aroused his interest in politics. He entered on his political career as a leftist deputy (1910). In World War I he held several cabinet posts and was briefly premier in 1917. He was premier once more in 1925, succeeding Herriot, and was minister of war (1925-29) and minister of aviation (1930-31, 1932-33). In mathematics, Painlevé ranked among the best minds of his time; his contribution was particularly important in the field of differential equations. He published numerous writings on mathematics, astronomy, mechanics, philosophy, and politics.
Auster, Paul, 1947-, American writer, b. Newark, N.J. After publishing four volumes of poetry, he wrote his first novel, Squeeze Play (1982). A compelling storyteller, Auster became well known for the short novels of The New York TrilogyCity of Glass (1985), Ghosts (1986), and The Locked Room (1986)—tautly surreal variations on the urban detective story. Written with great clarity and touched by symbolism, metaphysical and epistemological concerns, and a sharply contemporary sensibility, his later novels include Moon Palace (1989); The Music of Chance (1991); Leviathan (1992); Timbuktu (1999), a tale of dog and master told from the dog's point of view; The Book of Illusions (2002); Oracle Night (2003); The Brooklyn Follies (2005); Travels in the Scriptorium (2007); Man in the Dark (2008); and Invisible (2009), in which the central character learns about love from several people in varying situations, including an incestuous affair with his sister. Auster is also an essayist, translator, screenwriter, and memoirist.

See C. Springer, A Paul Auster Sourcebook (2001); studies by D. Barone, ed. (1995), A. Varvogli (2001), I. Shiloh (2002),and H. Bloom, ed. (2004).

Mellon, Paul, 1907-99, American philanthropist and art collector, b. Pittsburgh. The son of Andrew W. Mellon, he attended Yale (B.A., 1929) and Clare College, Cambridge (A.B., 1931). He worked briefly at Mellon Bank but left (1936) business to devote himself to American cultural interests. Over six decades he donated roughly $1 billion to national institutions and projects. He oversaw the construction of the National Gallery of Art, conceived by his late father as a gift to the American people, and in 1941 presented it to the nation together with his father's art collection. Serving on its board for more than 40 years, he was its president (1938-39, 1963-79) and chairman (1979-85). Mellon commissioned I. M. Pei to design its East Building (1978) and over the years gave the museum more than 900 works. He also created the Yale Center for Studies in British Art (1972) and its sister museum (1977) and chose Louis Kahn as its architect. Mellon, who established the Old Dominion (1941) and Bollingen (1942) foundations, also supported various universities, libraries, environmental causes, and arts, education, and public health organizations.

See his Reflections in a Silver Spoon: A Memoir (1992).

Potter, Paul or Paulus, 1625-54, Dutch animal and landscape painter and etcher. In The Hague he enjoyed the patronage of the prince of Nassau, for whom he painted the celebrated life-sized Young Bull (1647; Mauritshuis, The Hague). He moved to Amsterdam in 1652. In his brief life Potter painted over 175 pictures, considered the finest animal paintings of the Dutch school. He was also able to render landscape with a sensitive feeling for atmosphere. His works are to be seen in many important European collections. Well-known examples are Bear Hunt and Shepherds with Their Flocks (Rijks Mus.), Landscape with Cattle (National Gall., London), and Meadow with Oxen (Louvre). His etchings of animals are characterized by the same simplicity and naturalism as his paintings.
Verlaine, Paul, 1844-96, French poet. He gained some notice with the Parnassian poetry of Poèmes saturniens (1866) and Fětes galantes (1869) and became a figure in the bohemian literary world of Paris. Verlaine's turbulent marriage broke up as a result of his liaison with his young protégé, Arthur Rimbaud. The two poets traveled in Belgium and England; their relationship ended in tragedy when Verlaine shot and wounded Rimbaud and was imprisoned in Belgium for two years. In prison he was brought back to the Catholic faith of his childhood and wrote some noble religious poetry that appeared in Sagesse (1881). From that time also dates his Romances sans paroles (1874), which shows Verlaine as one of the first of the symbolists. The sensitive appreciation of the common incidents and sights of life and the haunting and simple music of his verse, combined with the melancholy and unreal disillusion of the decadents, distinguish his poetry. More striking, however, is the candor of Verlaine himself. Through the degrading incidents of his later life, which was marked by drunkenness, poverty, and debauchery, he preserved his honesty and inverted naïveté. Jadis et Naguère (1884) and Parallèlement (1889) were perhaps the best of his later volumes of poetry. Of his prose works the only one of importance is Les Poètes maudits (1884), sketches of his fellow symbolists, particularly Mallarmé and Rimbaud.
Vidal de la Blache, Paul, French geographer, 1845-1918, the father of French human geography. He was educated at the École Normale Supérieure, Paris, and had an avid interest in history and geography. He taught geography in Nancy and Paris and was a member (1898-1905) of the Faculté des Lettres, Paris, holding the geography chair. Vidal believed that there was an interrelationship between the natural environment and man's activities. He was the founder (1891) and editor of Annales de géographie. Among his works are États et nations de l'Europe (1889), Tableau de la géographie de la France (1903), and the posthumous Principes de géographie humaine (1923; tr. Principles of Human Geography, 1926) and Géographie universelle (15 vol., 1927-48, completed by Lucien Gallois).
Hazard, Paul, 1878-1944, French scholar. He began his teaching at the Univ. of Lyons in 1910. After World War I he taught at the Sorbonne and in 1925 was appointed to the chair of comparative literature in the Collège de France. In alternate years between 1932 and 1940 he was a visiting lecturer at Columbia Univ. Recognized as an authority on comparative literature, Hazard was elected to the French Academy in 1939. Among his important writings are Histoire illustrée de la littérature française (comp. with Joseph Bédier, 2 vol., 1923-24); Books, Children and Men (1932, tr. 1944); The European Mind, the Critical Years, 1680-1715 (3 vol., 1935, tr. 1953); and European Thought in the Eighteenth Century (3 vol., 1946, tr. 1954).
Revere, Paul, 1735-1818, American silversmith and political leader in the American Revolution, b. Boston. In his father's smithy he learned to work gold and silver, and he became a leading silversmith of New England. He also turned to various other skills—designing, engraving, printing, bell founding, and dentistry. In the French and Indian War he was a soldier, and in the period of growing colonial discontent with British measures after the Stamp Act (1765), he was a fervent anti-British propagandist. He early joined the Sons of Liberty, took part in the Boston Tea Party, and was a courier (1774) for the Massachusetts committee of correspondence. Revere became a figure of popular history and legend, however, because of his ride on the night of Apr. 18, 1775, to warn the people of the Massachusetts countryside that British soldiers were being sent out in the expedition that, as it turned out, started the American Revolution (see Lexington and Concord, battles of). William Dawes and Samuel Prescott also rode forth with the news. Revere did not reach his destination at Concord but was captured by the British; nevertheless, it is Revere who is remembered as the midnight rider, chiefly because of the poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He designed the first seal for the united colonies, designed and printed the first Continental bond issue, and established (1776) a powder mill at Canton, Mass. His military career was not distinguished. On the ill-fated expedition against Penobscot he was arrested for disobeying orders (though a court-martial later acquitted him of the charges), and in 1780 he returned to silversmithing. His shrewdness in other enterprises, particularly the establishment of a copper-rolling and brass-casting foundry at Canton, helped to make his later years very prosperous.

See biographies by E. G. Taylor (1930) and E. Forbes (1942, repr. 1962); D. H. Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (1994).

Reynaud, Paul, 1878-1966, French statesman and lawyer. He held several cabinet posts, and after Nov., 1938, as minister of finance in the cabinet of Édouard Daladier, he pursued an extremely deflationary policy. During World War II he succeeded Daladier as premier in Mar., 1940. On May 18, as France faced military disaster, he called in Marshal Pétain as vice premier to boost French morale. On June 16 he gave way to Pétain and others who wished to surrender to Germany, and resigned. Imprisoned later in 1940, he was among the defendants at the abortive Riom war-guilt trial. After the war Reynaud served as finance minister (1948) and vice premier (1953).
Horgan, Paul (Paul George Vincent O'Shaughnessy Horgan), 1903-95, American writer, b. Buffalo, N.Y. His diverse works reflect his fascination with the effects of history and landscape on people. Among his books are the novels Main Line West (1936), Things As They Are (1964), Whitewater (1970), and The Thin Mountain Air (1977); his nonfiction includes Great River: The Rio Grande in North American History (1954; Pulitzer), Encounters With Stravinsky (1972), Approaches to Writing (1975), and Lamy of Santa Fe (1975; Pulitzer).
de Kruif, Paul, 1890-1971, American author, b. Zeeland, Mich., grad. Univ. of Michigan (B.S., 1912). He was bacteriologist at the university from 1912 to 1917. Among his books are Microbe Hunters (1926), The Fight for Life (1938), and Hunger Fighters (1939).
Delvaux, Paul, 1897-1994, Belgian painter. Delvaux, influenced by Magritte and Chirico, created meticulous surreal compositions based on Renaissance ideas of perspective and peopled with self-absorbed somnambulists. Often containing an ironic eroticism, Delvaux's visionary paintings allude to the double standards of Victorian sexual morality. His Venus Asleep (1944) is in the Tate Gallery, London.
Troubetzkoy, Paul, Prince, 1866-1938, Russian sculptor, b. Italy. The son of a Russian nobleman and an American woman, Troubetzkoy worked in Russia, France, Italy, and the United States. His sculpture was influenced by the impressionism of Rodin. Troubetzkoy's finest portraits and animal sculptures date from the early 1900s. Among his illustrious sitters were Tolstoy, Rodin, Anatole France, and George Bernard Shaw. An equestrian portrait is in the Detroit Institute of Arts, and other works are in many major collections.
Klee, Paul, 1879-1940, Swiss painter, graphic artist, and art theorist, b. near Bern. Klee's enormous production (more than 10,000 paintings, drawings, and etchings) is unique in that it represents the successful combination of his sophisticated theories of art with a very personal inventiveness that has the appearance of great innocence. The son of a music teacher, Klee himself was a violinist, and musical analogies permeate his writing and his approach to art. He traveled through Europe, open to many artistic influences. The most important of these were the works of Blake, Beardsley, Goya, Ensor, and, especially, Cézanne. In 1911 he became associated with the Blaue Reiter group and later exhibited as one of the Blue Four. Klee's awakening to color occurred on a trip to Tunis in 1914, a year after he had met Delaunay and been made aware of new theories of color use. Thereafter his whimsical and fantastic images were rendered with a luminous and subtle color sense.

Klee's works are neither abstract nor figurative, but have strong elements of both approaches. Characteristic of his gently witty paintings are The Twittering Machine (1922, Mus. of Modern Art, New York City) and Fish Magic (1925, Phila. Mus. of Art). Other works reveal strong, rhythmic patterns, as in the unsettling Viaducts Break Ranks (1937, Hamburg). World famous by 1929, Klee taught at the Bauhaus (1920-31) and at the Düsseldorf academy (1931-33) until the Nazis, who judged his work degenerate, forced him to resign. He and his family fled Germany for his native city in 1933. In his series of Pedagogical Sketchbooks (tr. 1944) and lecture notes entitled The Thinking Eye (tr. 1961), Klee sought to define his intuitive approach to artistic creation. His last ten years were spent in Switzerland, and some 4,000 of his works are in the Paul Klee Center, Bern.

See his notebooks, ed. by J. Spiller (2 vol., tr. 1992); his diaries, ed. by his son Felix Klee (tr. 1964); his life and work in documents, ed. by F. Klee (tr. 1962); studies by J. M. Joran (1984), C. Lanchner, ed. (1987), O. K. Werckmeister (1989), and M. Franciscono (1991).

Bunyan, Paul, legendary American lumberjack. He was the hero of a series of "tall tales" popular through the timber country from Michigan westward. Bunyan was known for his fantastic strength and gigantic size. He is said to have ruled his gargantuan lumber camp between the winter of the blue snow and the spring that came up from China. His prized possession was Babe the Blue Ox, the distance between whose horns measured 42 ax handles and a plug of tobacco. In southern lumber camps a similar legendary figure is known as Tony Beaver.

See collections of legends by L. Untermeyer (1945) and H. W. Felton (1947); study of the legend by D. G. Hoffman (1952, repr. 1966) and N. Wartik (1989).

Sérusier, Paul, 1863-1927, French painter. In 1888 at Pont-Aven, Sérusier met Gauguin whose style he adhered to, particularly in his paintings of Breton landscapes. With Maurice Denis, Sérusier was a founder and spokesman of the Nabis. Sérusier had a highly methodical approach to art; he expressed his theories in ABC de la peinture (1921).
Whiteman, Paul, 1891-1967, American conductor, b. Denver. Whiteman played viola in the Denver Symphony Orchestra and in 1915 joined the San Francisco Symphony. During World War I he was an army band leader. In 1924 he inaugurated the period of "symphonic jazz" when he introduced Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue in New York City. Whiteman encouraged the composition of concert jazz works by establishing the annual Whiteman Award. He was influential in the formation of large jazz ensembles. His books include Jazz (1926) and Records for the Millions (1948).
Monroe, Paul, 1869-1947, American educator, b. North Madison, Ind., grad. Franklin College, 1890, Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1897. At Teachers College, Columbia, he was professor of education from 1902 until his retirement in 1938; he also served as director of the School of Education (1915-23) and of the International Institute after 1923. In 1932 he became president of Robert College and of the American College for Girls, both in Istanbul. Monroe made school surveys in the Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, and Iraq. He edited the Cyclopedia of Education and Principles of Secondary Education (1914) and wrote China, a Nation in Evolution (1928) and several works on education, including Founding of the American Public School System (1940).
Biya, Paul, 1933-, Cameroonian political leader. Educated in Cameroon and France, where he studied at the Sorbonne and other institutions, he joined Cameroon's civil service in 1962. After holding a number of posts under President Ahmadou Ahidjo, Biya became prime minister in 1975 and succeeded Ahidjo as president in 1982. As Biya, who came from the south, consolidated his power in a government previously dominated by northerners, he clashed with Ahidjo, who was accused of an attempted coup and went into exile (1983). Biya has retained power since then. Although he was forced to allow multiparty elections beginning in 1992, the votes have been marred by fraud and other irregularities and by opposition boycotts.
Carus, Paul, 1852-1919, American philosopher, born and educated in Germany. For many years he was editor of the Open Court and the Monist, periodicals devoted to philosophy and religion. His philosophy was monistic, seeking to establish religion on a scientific basis. Among his many works were Fundamental Problems (1889), The Religion of Science (1893), The Gospel of Buddha (1900), The History of the Devil (1900), and The Principle of Relativity (1913).
Strand, Paul, 1890-1976, American photographer, b. New York City. Strand studied under Lewis Hine, who introduced him to Alfred Stieglitz. At Stieglitz's famed "291" gallery, Strand had his first one-man exhibition (1916); the last two issues of Stieglitz's Camera Work (1917) were devoted to Strand's photography. His principal early subjects were Manhattan life and 20th-century machinery. In the 1920s he made his exquisitely composed landscape and nature photographs. Strand made documentary films in Mexico, the USSR, and the United States. His superb portraits of regions are reproduced in Time in New England (1950), Un Paese (1954), Tir A'Mhurain (1968, on the Hebrides), and Living Egypt (1969).

See his Retrospective Monograph (2 vol., 1972).

Bremer, Paul (Lewis Paul Bremer 3d), 1941-, U.S. diplomat and government official, b. Hartford, Conn. A career diplomat in the Foreign Service from 1966 to 1989, he was ambassador to the Netherlands from 1983 to 1986 and subsequently served as ambassador-at-large for counterterrrorism. A managing director at Kissinger Associates from 1989 to 2000, he was (1999-2000) chairman of the National Commission on Terrorism. Named presidential envoy to Iraq in May, 2003, he became administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority there in June and for a year was responsible for overseeing the U.S.-led occupation and the restoration of Iraqi self-government. He has written My Year in Iraq (2006).
Starrett, Paul, 1866-1957, American builder, b. Lawrence, Kans. After serving (1903-22) as president of the George A. Fuller Company in Chicago, he opened and headed the construction firm of Starrett Brothers, Inc., in New York City. Starrett was responsible for the erection of the Flatiron Building, the Empire State Building, the Pennsylvania RR station, and the Plaza, Biltmore, and Commodore hotels, all in New York. The Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia and the Lincoln Memorial in Washington were erected by the Fuller Company under his direction.

See his autobiography, Changing the Skyline (1938).

Dukas, Paul, 1865-1935, French composer and critic. He was influenced by both the romanticism of Wagner and the impressionism of Debussy. His compositions are few, the best known being a symphonic poem, The Sorcerer's Apprentice (1897), and an opera, Ariane et Barbe-Bleue (1907).
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976, American actor and bass singer, b. Princeton, N.J. The son of a runaway slave who became a minister, Robeson graduated first from Rutgers (1919), where he was an All-American football player, and then from Columbia Univ. law school (1923). He began his acting career in 1924 with the Provincetown Players. With a resonant voice and the ability to project a humane spirit, he won wide acclaim with his creation of the title role in Eugene O'Neill's Emperor Jones (1925; film, 1933). Other outstanding dramatic performances include Crown in DuBose Heyward's Porgy (1928) and Othello (in London, 1930, and New York, 1943-45). In 1925 he made his debut as a concert singer. Possessed of a magnificent bass voice, he became known especially for his rendition of "Ol' Man River" in Jerome Kern's musical Show Boat (1928; film, 1936) and for his interpretations of spirituals. He lived mainly in Europe from 1928 to 1939, traveling to the Soviet Union for the first time in 1934. Robeson's association with Communist causes and his winning of the International Stalin Peace Prize (1952) made him a controversial figure in the United States. He moved to England in 1958, and continued to appear in concerts in Europe and the Soviet Union. He returned to live in the United States in 1963.

See his Here I Stand (1958); biographies by his wife (1930), his son (2001), and M. B. Duberman (1988).

Newman, Paul, 1925-2008, American actor, b. Cleveland, Ohio. After performing in a Broadway play (1952-53) and in television dramas, Newman became a versatile film actor and a major Hollywood star. He made his movie debut in 1954 and achieved leading man status with his role in Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956). His enduring characterization is of a handsome, insolent, and self-reliant renegade antihero with a penchant for wry humor, as seen in The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), and The Sting (1973). He won a best-actor Academy Award for The Color of Money (1986) after eight nominations. Later examples of his more than 65 films include Blaze (1988), Mr. and Mrs. Bridge (1990), Nobody's Fool (1994), and Road to Perdition (2002), his last screen role. Newman also directed several movies, e.g., Rachel, Rachel (1968), usually showcases for his wife and frequent costar, Joanne Woodward. Newman was also was a successful racecar driver, a food-products entrepeneur, and a philanthropist.

See biographies by J. Epstein and E. Z. Morella (1988) and E. Lax (1996).

Cadmus, Paul, 1904-99, American painter, b. N.Y.C.; studied National Academy of Design (1919-26), Art Students' League (1928). From 1933-35 he and painter Jared French traveled to Europe, where he learned the egg-tempera technique later used in many of his paintings. A figurative artist, he painted in a vivid style sometimes dubbed magic realism. Cadmus first came to wide public attention when his painting The Fleet's In (1934), an illustrationlike frieze of lubricious sailors flirting with prostitutes and a gay man, was removed from a Corcoran Gallery exhibition by a U.S. Navy admiral who found the work "depraved." Thereafter, crowds flocked to his exhibitions. Cadmus became known for lively group scenes, often sexually-charged or homoerotic, and for tranquil portraits, often of male nudes. Among his best-known works are Coney Island (1934), Sailors and Floosies (1938), and the Seven Deadly Sins series (1945-49). Cadmus also designed sets and costumes for the ballet Filling Station (1938), directed by his brother-in-law, Lincoln Kirstein, and was known for his drawings, prints, and photographs.

See U. E. Johnson, Paul Cadmus: Prints and Drawings (1968); P. Eliasoph, Paul Cadmus, Yesterday and Today (1981); L. Kirstein, Paul Cadmus (1984, rev. 1992, rep. 1996); G. Davenport, The Drawings of Paul Cadmus (1989); D. Leddick, Intimate Companions: A Triography of George Platt Lynes, Paul Cadmus, Lincoln Kirstein, and Their Circle (2000).

Erdös, Paul, 1913-96, Hungarian mathematician, b. Budapest. A child prodigy, he was mostly home-schooled by his parents—both teachers of mathematics—until he entered the Univ. of Budapest in 1930. He graduated in 1934, simultaneously receiving his doctorate. After teaching in Europe, he joined the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, where he stayed for ten years. The remainder of his life was filled with positions at a number of schools, among them the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Notre Dame, Purdue, and Stanford, and making conference presentations. Although he was interested in history, medicine, and politics, his life was dedicated to mathematics. Erdös wrote about 1,500 papers, about five times as many as other prolific mathematicians, and had about 500 collaborators. He wrote fundamental papers on real analysis, geometry, topology, probability theory, complex analysis, approximation theory, and set theory, but he will be remembered best for his contributions to number theory and combinatorics, an area of mathematics fundamental to computer science.

See A. Baker et al., A Tribute to Paul Erdös (1991); A. Thomason, Combinatorics, Geometry, and Probability (1997); K. Alladi et al., Analytic and Elementary Number Theory (1998); B. Schechter, My Brain Is Open (1998); P. Hoffman, The Man Who Loved Only Numbers (1998).

Kagame, Paul, 1957-, Rwandan political leader. Kagame was born into a Tutsi family that fled (1960) ethnic violence in Rwanda. Raised in Uganda, he became a member of Yoweri Museveni's National Resistance Army, was active in the guerrilla war (1980-86) that brought Museveni to power in Uganda, and served (1986-1990) in the Ugandan army. Kagame then led the Rwandan Patriotic Front forces, but failed to oust the Rwandan government until after President Habyarimana's death (1994) and the bloody anti-Tutsi violence and chaos that ensued. In the new Hutu-Tutsi transitional government Kagame became vice president but held the real power. After President Bizimungu broke with Kagame and resigned (2000), Kagame succeeded to the office and consolidated his position. Credited with restoring stability to ethnically divided Rwanda, he also has been criticized for suppressing democratic opposition to his rule. He was elected president in 2003 after a campaign in which the government actively hindered opposition parties and their candidates.
Kane, Paul, 1810-71, Canadian painter, b. Ireland. Kane went to Toronto as a child. He studied art in the United States (1836-41) and in Europe (1841-45). After his return to Canada (1845) he made an extended journey into the Hudson's Bay Company territories of W Canada, traveling by snowshoe, horseback, and canoe to paint the Native Americans of the region. He returned to E Canada in 1848. Most of the paintings resulting from his journey are in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, and in the Parliament buildings, Ottawa. His account of his journey appeared as Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America (1859; new ed. with title Paul Kane's Frontier, incl. biography and catalog by J. R. Harper, 1971).
Karrer, Paul, 1889-1971, Swiss organic chemist, Ph.D. Univ. of Zürich, 1911. From 1912 to 1918, Karrer was a chemist at the Georg Speyer Haus, Frankfurt-am-Main. He left in 1919 to become professor of chemistry and director of the Chemical Institute at the Univ. of Zürich, where he remained until his retirement in 1953. Karrer won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Norman Haworth for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins, and vitamins A and B2. Karrer is credited with being the first to isolate vitamins A and K and to synthesize vitamins B2 and E. His most significant accomplishment was elucidating the structure of carotene, the yellow pigment found in carrots and other orange and yellow vegetables.
Doumer, Paul, 1857-1932, president of the French republic (1931-32). He entered the chamber of deputies in 1888, was governor-general of Indochina (1897-1902) and a senator after 1912, and served in several cabinets after World War I. After following Gaston Doumergue as president, he was assassinated by an insane Russian émigré. Albert Lebrun succeeded him.
Antschel, Paul: see Celan, Paul.
Muni, Paul, 1895-1967, American actor, b. Austria, whose original name was Muni Weisenfreund. His parents brought him to the United States in 1902 and from 1903 to 1913 toured with him in vaudeville. Turning to the legitimate theater, he toured (1914-17) the Midwest and acted (1918-25) with the Yiddish Art Theatre in New York City. He began working in films in 1928 and won an Academy Award in 1936 for his performance in The Life of Louis Pasteur. An outstanding character actor, Muni's films include The Life of Émile Zola (1937), The Good Earth (1937), Juarez (1939), and The Last Angry Man (1959). In 1955 he appeared on Broadway in Inherit the Wind.

See biography by M. B. Druxman (1974).

Kondouriotis, Paul, 1857-1935, Greek admiral and statesman. He became a national hero through his victories over the Turkish fleet in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and in the Balkan Wars of 1912-13. He was regent after the death (1920) of King Alexander and again after the departure (1923) of King George II from Greece. In 1924 he was elected president of the newly formed Greek republic, and remained at that post until 1929, except for a few months in 1926 when the brief dictatorship of General Theodore Pangalos forced him to resign. The name also appears as Koundouriotis.
Koundouritis, Paul: see Kondouriotis, Paul.
Kruger, Paul (Stephanas Johannes Paulus), 1825-1904, South African Transvaal statesman, known as Oom Paul. As a child he accompanied (1836) his family northward from the Cape Colony in the Great Trek that was eventually to cross the Vaal River and establish the Dutch-speaking republic of Transvaal (1852). Kruger's life was closely tied to the development of the country; he was a pioneer, soldier, farmer, and politician. The Transvaal was annexed by Great Britain in 1877. Kruger at first cooperated with the British but shortly thereafter was dismissed because of his demands for retrocession. He was one of the triumvirate (with Piet Joubert and Martinius Pretorius) who negotiated the Pretoria agreement with the British (1881) granting the Boers (Afrikaners) independence. Kruger was elected president in 1883 and reelected in 1888, 1893, and 1898. His policy was one of continual resistance to the British, who came to be personified in South Africa by Cecil Rhodes. Colonization of Rhodesia N of the Transvaal and the increasing importance of gold mining merely brought much greater resistance on Kruger's part to Rhodes's dream of a unified South Africa. In the 1890s, Kruger adopted a stringent policy against the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders who were settling in the Transvaal. The Jameson Raid (see Jameson, Sir Leander Starr) into the Transvaal (Dec., 1895), undertaken with Rhodes's knowledge, created an international crisis. The Kaiser congratulated Kruger (in the "Kruger telegram") for the successful repulsion of the British, with the implication that Germany had a right to interfere in the Transvaal. The message caused great indignation in England. Kruger fought in the early stages of the South African War, but in 1900 he went to Europe on a Dutch cruiser in a vain effort to enlist aid for his country. He died an exile in Switzerland.

See his memoirs (tr. 1902, repr. 1969); biography by M. Nathan (1941); studies by J. S. Marais (1962), D. M. Schreuder (1969), and C. T. Gordan (1970).

Krugman, Paul, 1953-, American economist, b. Long Island, N.Y., grad. Yale (B.A., 1974), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1977). A founder of the "new trade theory," Krugman beginning in 1979 conducted research into international trade patterns, explaining why certain goods are produced in certain places, with trade mainly occurring between relative equals. In the 1990s he worked in economic geography, analyzing how transportation costs and various other forces affect where companies locate and workers live. It was this work that was largely responsible for his winning the 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. His later academic research has concentrated on international finance and currency crises. Krugman has taught at Yale (1977-80), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1984-94; 1996-2000), Stanford (1994-96), and Princeton (2000-). An economic and political liberal with an entertaining prose style, he has written essays for several print and online periodicals, e.g., Slate and Fortune, and since 2000 has been an op-ed columnist for the New York Times. Extremely prolific, he has also written hundreds of academic papers and more than 20 books, from economic texts to bestsellers. Among the latter are The Return of Depression Economics (1999, upd. ed. 2009), The Great Unraveling (2003), and The Conscience of a Liberal (2007).
Keating, Paul, 1944-, Australian politician. A trade-union official and member of the Labor party, he was first elected to parliament in 1969. As federal treasurer (treasury minister) from 1983 to 1991 and deputy prime minister under Prime Minister Bob Hawke from 1990 to 1991, he advocated free-market economic policies designed to spur growth. In mid-1991 Keating challenged Hawke for party leadership; he lost and resigned his posts. A continuing recession eroded support for Hawke, however, and Keating replaced him at the end of 1991. In 1993 he led Labor to another electoral victory.

As prime minister, Keating moved to deregulate the financial markets and privatize government businesses, including the national airline. He emphasized Australia's ties with Asia and the importance of competing in a global economy. Keating also advocated Australia's withdrawal from even nominal British rule and its adoption of a purely republican mode of government. Although he initiated a number of successful free-market reforms, ongoing economic problems undid his administration. In the elections of 1996 Labor was defeated by a Liberal-National coalition led by John Howard. Keating stepped down as Labor party leader and then resigned his seat in parliament, ending a 27-year career in politics.

---- Paul is a common English name, derived from Paulus, a Roman cognomen. It may refer specifically to the following:

Roman and Byzantine empire



  • Paul the Apostle from Tarsus, or Saint Paul, early Christian missionary and author of numerous letters of the New Testament of the Christian Bible (AD 3-10 — 62-68)
  • See Saint Paul (disambiguation), for other saints named "Paul", and places named after them




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