Paul

Paul

[pawl for 1–3, 5; poul for 4]
Gauguin, Paul, 1848-1903, French painter and woodcut artist, b. Paris; son of a journalist and a French-Peruvian mother.

Early Life

Gauguin was first a sailor, then a successful stockbroker in Paris. In 1874 he began to paint on weekends. By the age of 35, with the encouragement of Camille Pissarro, he devoted himself completely to his art, having given up his position and separated (1885) from his wife and five children. Allying himself with the Impressionists, he exhibited with them from 1879 to 1886. The next year he sailed for Panama and Martinique. In protest against the "disease" of civilization, he determined to live primitively, but illness forced him to return to France. The next years were spent in Paris and Brittany, with a brief but tragic stay with Van Gogh at Arles.

Later Life and Art

In 1888, Gauguin and Émile Bernard proposed a synthetist theory of art, emphasizing the use of flat planes and bright, nonnaturalistic color in conjunction with symbolic or primitive subjects. The Yellow Christ (Albright-Knox Art Gall., Buffalo) is characteristic of this period. In 1891, Gauguin sold 30 canvases and with the proceeds went to Tahiti. There he spent two years living poorly, painting some of his finest pictures, and writing Noa Noa (tr. 1947), an autobiographical novel set in Tahiti. In 1893 he returned to France, collected a legacy, and exhibited his work, rousing some interest but making very little money. Disheartened and sick from syphilis, which had afflicted him for many years, he again set out for the South Seas in 1895. There his last years were spent in poverty, despair, and physical suffering. In 1897 he attempted suicide and failed, living to paint for five more years. He died on Hiva Oa in the Marquesas Islands.

Gauguin's Style and Impact on Modern Art

Today Gauguin is recognized as a highly influential founding father of modern art. He rejected the tradition of western naturalism, using nature as a starting point from which to abstract figures and symbols. He stressed linear patterns and remarkable color harmonies, imbuing his paintings with a profound sense of mystery. He revived the art of woodcutting with his free and daring knife work and his expressive, irregular shapes and strong contrasts. He produced some fine lithographs and a number of pottery pieces.

There are major examples of Gauguin's work in the United States, including The Day of the God (Art Inst., Chicago), Ia Orana Maria (1891; Metropolitan Mus.), By the Sea (1892; National Gall. of Art, Washington, D.C.), and his masterpiece Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going? (1897; Mus. of Fine Arts, Boston). W. Somerset Maugham's Moon and Sixpence (1919), based loosely on the life of Gauguin, did much to promote the Gauguin legend that arose shortly after his death.

See his letters ed. by M. Malingue (tr. 1949); his intimate journals tr. by V. W. Brooks (1958); P. Gauguin, My Father, Paul Gauguin (tr. 1937); D. Sweetman, Paul Gauguin: A Complete Life (1995); M. M. Mathews, Paul Gauguin: An Erotic Life (2001); studies by R. J. Goldwater (1957), B. Danielsson (tr. 1965), and W. Andersen (1971).

Broca, Paul, 1824-80, French pathologist, anthropologist, and pioneer in neurosurgery. A professor in Paris at the Faculty of Medicine and at the Anthropological Institute, he was a founder of the Anthropological Society of Paris (1859) and of the Revue d'anthropologie (1872). An authority on aphasia, he localized the brain center for articulate speech in the convolution of Broca, or Broca's area (the third convolution of the left frontal lobe). He originated methods of classifying hair and skin color and of establishing brain and skull ratios.
Creston, Paul, 1906-85, American composer, b. New York City as Guiseppe Guttoveggio. Creston was largely self-taught in composition. His music is generally tonal and conservative. Among Creston's many works are six symphonies (1940-81), Two Choric Dances (1938) for orchestra, two violin concertos (1956, 1960), a concerto for marimba (1940), and a concerto for alto saxophone (1941). Creston wrote Principles of Rhythm (1964) and Rational Metric Notation (1979).
Taylor, Paul, 1930-, American modern-dance choreographer, b. Pittsburgh. Taylor trained as an artist before he received scholarships to study dance. In 1953 he made his debut with the Merce Cunningham company and performed his first dance composition. From 1955 to 1961 he won acclaim both as a leading soloist with the Martha Graham company and as the creator of witty and innovative avant-garde dances for his own company, which he had formed in 1954. He has choreographed more than 100 works, including Jack and the Beanstalk (1954), Aureole (1962), Esplanade (1975), Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rehearsal) (1980), Company B (1991), The Word (1998), Arabesque (2000), Promethean Fire (2002), Beloved Renegade (2008), and Brief Encounters (2009). His later works generally have been less radical than his earlier ones.

See his autobiography, Private Domain (1987); The Paul Taylor Dance Company (video, 1978).

Scarron, Paul, 1610-60, French writer. His picaresque novel Le Romant comique (1651) vividly portrays the lives of a company of strolling players. He also wrote short stories, collected as Les Nouvelles tragi-comiques (1655), satires, and burlesque poems and plays. Scarron married (1652) Françoise d'Aubigné, known later as Mme de Maintenon. He was long bedridden with paralysis.
Bourget, Paul, 1852-1935, French novelist. His early novels were naturalistic, but Le Disciple (1889, tr. 1901), a tale of the destruction of a pupil who applies his master's naturalistic literary theories to life, marked a change. Bourget thereafter wrote in a Catholic and strongly moralistic tone that won critical admiration, but little popularity. Representative of his more than 60 novels are Cruelle Énigme (1885, tr. Love's Cruel Enigma, 1891), Cosmopolis (1893, tr. 1893), Le Démon de midi (1914), and Le Sens de la mort (1915, tr. The Night Cometh, 1916). He is best remembered for his literary criticism, especially Essais de psychologie contemporaine (1883).
Bowles, Paul, 1910-99, American writer and composer, b. New York City. He studied in Paris with Virgil Thomson and Aaron Copland and composed (1930s-40s) a number of modernist operas, ballets, song cycles, and orchestral and chamber pieces. From 1947 on he lived in Tangier, Morocco. Strongly individualistic and written with an austere lack of sentimentality, his fiction is frequently set in the Arab world and often traces the corruption of innocence and the psychic disintegration of "civilized man" in a savagely primitive environment. His works include the short-story collections The Delicate Prey (1950), The Time of Friendship (1967), Collected Stories, 1939-1976 (1979), and Unwelcome Words (1988); and the novels The Sheltering Sky (1949), Up above the World (1966), and In the Red Room (1981). His 62 short stories were brought together in a 2001 collection. Bowles was also an accomplished travel writer, poet, and photographer.

See his autobiography, Without Stopping (1972); biographies by C. Sawyer-Laucanno (1989) and M. Dillon (1998); film biography, Let it Come Down (1999), by J. Baichwal; In Touch: The Letters of Paul Bowles (1994), ed. by J. Miller; Conversations with Paul Bowles (1993), ed. by G. D. Caponi; study by R. F. Patterson (1986); bibliography by J. Miller (1986).

His wife was Jane Auer Bowles, 1917-73, American writer, b. New York City. Original and idiosyncratic, her works often treat the conflict between the weak and the strong. They include the novel Two Serious Ladies (1943) and a play, In the Summer House (1954).

See her Collected Works (1978); biography by M. Dillon (1981); Out in the World: The Collected Letters of Jane Bowles (1985), ed. by M. Dillon.

Ehrenfest, Paul, 1880-1933, Austrian physicist. In 1904, Ehrenfest received his doctorate in theoretical physics in Vienna and married the Russian mathematician Tatyana Alexeyevna Afanassyewa. Together they wrote what has become a classical exposition of statistical mechanics. He was one of the first to take German physicist Max Planck's quantum theory seriously and to try to define its relation to the older physics. In 1912 he succeeded Dutch physicist H. A. Lorentz in the chair of theoretical physics at the Univ. of Leiden. He proved an energetic, lucid, and inspiring teacher. His acute criticisms and his formulation of the adiabatic principle—which Niels Bohr placed among the foundations of quantum theory—were important contributions to advancing modern physics.

See M. J. Klein, Paul Ehrenfest: The Making of a Theoretical Physicist (Vol. 1, 2d ed. 1985).

Ehrlich, Paul, 1854-1915, German bacteriologist. He directed (1896) an institute for serum research at Steglitz, near Berlin, that was transferred (1899) to Frankfurt-am-Main as the Institute for Experimental Therapy. For his work in immunology he shared with Élie Metchnikoff the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He made valuable contributions also in hematology, in cellular pathology, in the use of dyes in microscopy and in the treatment of disease, in the study of cancer, and in his discovery of salvarsan (or "606," so called from its numerical order in his experimental series) and of neosalvarsan (less toxic than salvarsan) for the treatment of syphilis.
Heyse, Paul, 1830-1914, German realistic writer. Besides the 120 novellas on which his reputation rests, he wrote some 50 plays, 6 novels, and many fine translations, especially of Italian poets. He was the first German to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature (1910). His most famous story is L'Arrabbiata (1855, tr. The Fury, 1855). Heyse's writings are elegant, polished, and psychologically probing.
Hindemith, Paul, 1895-1963, German-American composer and violist, b. Hanau, Germany. Hindemith combined experimental and traditional techniques into a distinctively modern style. After studying at the Frankfurt Conservatory, he began his career as a viola player. He taught (1927-37) composition at the Berlin Hochschule, but during the Nazi regime his compositions were banned because of their dissonance and modernity. In 1935 he was commissioned by the Turkish government to reorganize that country's musical education. Later he taught at Yale Univ. (1940-53), becoming a U.S. citizen in 1946; but in 1951 he returned to Europe to teach at the Univ. of Zürich. Hindemith's early compositions are highly contrapuntal and often atonal. Later works display a return to tonality that has often been termed neoclassical. His best-known work is the symphony (1934) drawn from his opera Mathis der Maler [Mathis the painter] (1938), which is based on the life of the painter Mathias Grünewald. Other operas include Cardillac (1926) and Neues vom Tage [news of the day] (1929). Many of Hindemith's works might be classed as Gebrauchsmusik [utility music], written for specific performance by amateur school groups or chamber music organizations. His aim was to establish closer contact between composer and public. Included in this group are the children's opera Wir bauen eine Stadt [we are building a city] (1931) and numerous sonatas and chamber works. Other important works are the Ludus Tonalis (1943) for piano; the song cycle Das Marienleben (1923, 1948) set to poems by Rilke; the viola concerto Der Schwanendreher (1935), based on medieval German folk songs; the ballet Nobilissima Visione (1938); and the setting for chorus and orchestra of Walt Whitman's When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd (1946). His writings include Traditional Harmony (2 vol., 1943, 1948), The Craft of Musical Composition (1937, tr. 1942) and A Composer's World (1952).

See studies by I. Kemp (1970) and G. Skelton (1975).

Éluard, Paul, 1895-1952, French poet. He was a leading exponent of surrealism. Among his volumes of verse are Mourir de ne pas mourir [to die of not dying] (1924) and L'Immaculée Conception (with André Breton, 1930). A member of the French resistance in World War II, Éluard is revealed as poet and man of action in the verse of Poésie et vérité (1942) and Au rendez-vous allemand (1945).
Celan, Paul, pseud. of Paul Antschel, 1920-70, Romanian-French poet. Although he spent his early years in Romania and his later years in France, Celan wrote in German and is widely considered the greatest postwar poet in Europe. A Jew, who lost both parents in a Nazi camp, he composed works that focus on the moral horror of the Holocaust and the destruction of the world as he knew it, as in his most famous poem, "Deathfugue." Celan was strongly influenced by Friedrich Hölderlin, Rainer Maria Rilke, Georg Trakl, and Osip Mandelstam. Frequently dissonant and freighted with pain, his poems are richly allusive and complicated. Celan was also a masterful translator of such authors as Shakespeare, Valéry, and Dickinson. He lived in Paris from 1948 until his suicide by drowning.

See the collection of his critical essays, ed. by A. Fioretos (1993); translations of his work by J. Neugroschel (1971), M. Hamburger (1988), N. Popov and H. McHugh (2000), J. Felstiner (2001), and P. Joris (2001); biography by I. Chalfen (1979; tr. 1991); J. Feltsiner, Paul Celan: Poet, Survivor, Jew (1995).

Cézanne, Paul, 1839-1906, French painter, b. Aix-en-Provence. Cézanne was the leading figure in the revolution toward abstraction in modern painting.

Early Life and Work

From early childhood Cézanne was a close friend of Émile Zola, who for a time encouraged the painter in his work. Cézanne went to Paris in 1861; there he met Pissarro, who strongly influenced his development. He divided his time between Provence and the environs of Paris until his retirement to Aix in 1899. Cézanne's early work is marked by a heavy use of the palette knife, from which he created thickly textured and violently deformed shapes and scenes of a fantastic, dreamlike quality. Although these impulsive paintings exhibit few of the features of his later style, they anticipate the expressionist idiom of the 20th cent.

Through Pissarro, Cézanne came to know Manet and the impressionist painters (see impressionism). He was concerned, after 1870, with the use of color to create perspective, but the steady, diffused light in his works is utterly unrelated to the impressionist preoccupation with transitory light effects. House of the Hanged Man (1873-74; Louvre) is characteristic of his impressionist period. He exhibited at the group's show of 1874 but later diverged from the impressionist style and developed a firmer structure in his paintings.

Mature Work

Cézanne sought to "recreate nature" by simplifying forms to their basic geometric equivalents, utilizing color and considerable distortion to express the essence of landscape (e.g., Mont Sainte-Victoire, 1885-87, Phillips Coll., Washington, D.C.), still lifes (e.g., The Kitchen Table, 1888-90, Louvre), and figural groupings (e.g., The Card Players, 1890-92; one version, S.C. Clark Coll., New York City). His portraits are vital studies of character, e.g., Madame Cézanne (c.1885; S. S. and V. White Coll., Ardmore, Pa.) and Ambroise Vollard (Musée du Petit Palais, Paris).

Cézanne developed a new type of spatial pattern. Instead of adhering to the traditional focalized system of perspective, he portrayed objects from shifting viewpoints. He created vibrating surface effects from the play of flat planes against one another and from the subtle transitions of tone and color. In all his work he revealed a reverence for the integrity and dignity of simple forms by rendering them with an almost classical structural stability. His Bathers (1898-1905; Philadelphia Mus. of Art) is the monumental embodiment of a number of Cézanne's visual systems.

The artist's later works are largely still lifes (among them his famous apples), male figures, and recurring landscape subjects. While retaining a solid substructure, they seem freer and more spontaneous and employ more transparent painterly effects than earlier works. Cézanne worked in oil, watercolor, and drawing media, often making several versions of his works.

Influence and Collections

Cézanne's influence on the course of modern art, particularly on the development of cubism, is enormous and profound. His theories spawned a whole new school of aesthetic criticism, especially in England, that has ranked him among the foremost French masters. There are fine collections of his paintings in the Louvre; the Metropolitan Museum and the Museum of Modern Art, New York City; and the Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pa.

Bibliography

See his letters, ed. by J. Rewald (tr. 1941); his drawings, ed. by A. Chappuis (1973); his watercolors, ed. by T. Reff (1963); catalogues raisonnés by A. Chappuis (2 vol., tr. 1973) and J. Rewald (2 vol., 1997); biographies by J. Lindsay (1969) and J. Rewald (new ed. 1986); studies by M. Schapiro (2d ed. 1962), W. Andersen (1970), S. Geist (1988), R. Fry (new ed. 1989), and F. Cachin, I. Cahn, H. Layrette, and J. J. Rishel (1996).

Dessau, Paul, 1894-1979, German conductor and composer. As a conductor he worked (1919-23) in Cologne before moving to Berlin from 1925 until 1933. A fervent socialist, he left Germany for the United States where he collaborated with Bertolt Brecht on such works as Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder [Mother Courage and her children] (1941) and Der gute Mensch von Seuzuan (tr. The Good Woman of Setzuan, 1943), writing the music for each. After World War II, Dessau moved back to East Germany where he continued to work with Brecht. His later work includes the opera Einstein (1971).
Poiret, Paul, 1879-1944, French couturier, b. Paris. He served an apprenticeship with Jacques Doucet in the 1890s, moved to the Maison Worth in 1900, and in 1903 opened his own small studio. Dominating Paris couture from 1909 to 1914, Poiret revolutionized fashion with his designs for the "new woman," ending wasp waists and constricting corsets, reviving a simple, Empire-waisted silhouette, and introducing pantaloons. Around 1910 he introduced the appropriately named hobble skirt, with volume around the hips narrowing to an ankle-hugging bottom. He created ensembles of walking coats and dresses, and short hoop "lampshade" tunics over long sheaths. Inspired by interests in art nouveau, East Asia, and the Ballets Russes, he designed jewel-colored evening gowns and such exotic costumes as coulottes, harem pants and skirts, fringed capes, and turbans. He was the first designer to produce (1911) a line of fragrances and cosmetics, and also created items for the home. World War I brought an end to Poiret's flights of fancy, and though he was active in the 1920s his designs were no longer fashionable.

See studies by P. White (1973), Y. Deslandres (1987), A. MacKrell (1990), F. Baudot (1997), and H. Koda and A. Bolton (2007).

Valéry, Paul, 1871-1945, French poet and critic. A follower of the symbolists, Valéry was one of the greatest French poets of the 20th cent. He was encouraged by Pierry Loüys and by Mallarmé to publish a few poems in several small reviews, but he soon turned from poetry to prose with La Soirée avec M. Teste (1896; tr. An Evening with Mr. Teste, 1925). In 1912, Gide and other admirers urged him to publish a collection of his early poems. A brief valedictory to poetry, which he had planned to add to the collection, grew into his masterpiece, La Jeune Parque (1917). It is a long and somewhat obscure poem, which, together with Le Cimetière marin (1920; tr. The Graveyard by the Sea, 1932), offers the best example of Valéry's poetics. In 1920 appeared Odes and Album de vers anciens, followed in 1922 by Charmes. His prose works include five collections of essays, all called Variété (1924-44; partial tr. Variety, 1927, 1938), and four dialogues on subjects ranging from the arts to mathematics and the sciences. He succeeded Anatole France in the French Academy in 1925. Between the world wars Valéry was a member of the Committee of Letters and Arts of the League of Nations, serving as its president in the 1930s. Valéry held the chair of poetry at the Collège de France. A recipient of many honors, he was accorded a state funeral at his death. Publication (in English) of a projected 15-volume edition of The Collected Works of Paul Valéry, edited by Jackson Mathews, was begun in 1956.

See studies by H. A. Grubbs (1968), W. N. Ince (2d ed. 1970), and C. M. Crow (1972); bibliography by A. J. Arnold (1970).

Van Zeeland, Paul, 1893-1973, Belgian political leader. He was a professor of law and later director of the institute of economic science at the Univ. of Louvain and vice governor of the national bank of Belgium. In 1935 he was made premier of a government of national unity. Given decree powers, he weathered the Belgian economic crisis by stringent measures that included devaluation of the currency. In 1936, he instituted reform and social legislation and suppressed the turbulent Rexists (the Belgian fascists) after proclaiming martial law. In his administration Belgium denounced (1936) its military alliance with France, reverting to its policy of neutrality, and received (1937) a German guarantee of its inviolability. In 1937, accused by the Rexists of political corruption, Van Zeeland was completely exonerated. Nevertheless, he resigned his post. He remained an unofficial adviser and in 1938 vainly urged a conference of the great powers to restore international economic cooperation. In 1939 he became president of the committee on refugees, established at London, and throughout World War II he continued to work for international economic cooperation. Van Zeeland was made (1944) high commissioner for the repatriation of displaced Belgians. A leader of the Catholic party, he later served as foreign minister in several cabinets and also as a financial adviser to the Belgian government and to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's council of ministers.
Green, Paul, 1894-1981, American dramatist, b. Lillington, N.C., grad. Univ. of North Carolina, 1921. He is known for his realistic plays depicting the lives of blacks and white tenant farmers. His first full-length play, In Abraham's Bosom (1926; Pulitzer Prize) was followed by such works as The Field God (1927), The House of Connelly (1931), Johnny Johnson (with music by Kurt Weill, 1936), and Native Son (with Richard Wright, 1941). Green also wrote short stories and novels. His essays on the theater were collected in The Hawthorn Tree (1943), Dramatic Heritage (1953), and Drama and the Weather (1958).

See his Five Plays of the South (1963); study by B. H. Clark (1974).

Greengard, Paul, 1925-, American neuroscientist, b. New York, N.Y., Ph.D. The Johns Hopkins 1953. Greengard was on the staff at Geigy Research Laboratories (1959-67) and a professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1961-70) and Yale (1968-83). In 1983 he became a professor at Rockefeller Univ. Greengard shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arvid Carlsson and Eric Kandel for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. Greengard's contribution to the work was his discovery of the mechanism by which dopamine and several other neurotransmitters carry messages between nerve cells. His findings contributed to an improved understanding of how several drugs work in the body.
Sandby, Paul, 1725-1809, English watercolorist and draftsman. He was employed to survey the Highlands of Scotland after the 1745 rebellion. During his years in Scotland (1746-51) he learned to interpret landscape with delicacy and precision of detail. Most of his paintings of landscapes are done in watercolor or gouache; many of his most important drawings he reproduced in aquatint, a process that he introduced in England. Windsor Castle is the subject of a number of his drawings, which have sometimes been confused with those of his brother, Thomas (1721-99), also a fine draftsman. Much of Paul's work is in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

See A. P. Oppé, The Drawings of Paul and Thomas Sandby … at Windsor Castle (1947).

Morin, Paul, 1889-1963, French Canadian poet, b. Montreal. After taking degrees in the arts, science, and law at Laval Univ., he studied in Paris. His two books of poems, Le Paon d'émail [the enamel peacock] (1911) and Poèmes de cendre et d'or [poems in ashes and gold] (1922), are noted for technical brilliance and exotic language.
Lafargue, Paul, 1842-1911, French socialist, b. Cuba; son-in-law of Karl Marx. With Jules Guesde he helped found a Marxist socialist party in France. His many writings, which were influential in other countries, include The Religion of Capital (1887, tr. 1894) and The Evolution of Property from Savagery to Civilization (1891, tr. 1894).
Langevin, Paul, 1872-1946, French physicist and chemist. He was professor of experimental physics at the Collège de France from 1909 and at the École municipale de Physique et de Chimie, Paris, from 1904 (director from 1929); dismissed by the Vichy government in 1940, he resumed his posts in 1944. He is noted for his work on the electron theory of magnetism and for his research on sound devices for submarine detection.
Nash, Paul, 1889-1946, English painter and wood engraver. He studied at the Slade School of Art, London. Nash worked at the front as official artist in both World Wars. He helped to form Unit One, an English avant-garde group of artists and architects. Nash's paintings of the English landscape were imbued with a visionary and mystical atmosphere. His writings were published in one volume in 1949.
Radin, Paul, 1883-1959, American anthropologist, b. Poland, grad., College of the City of New York, 1902, Ph.D. Columbia, 1911. He was a student of Franz Boas and studied the Winnebago tribe for much of his life, writing classic accounts of this group: The Winnebago Tribe (1923) and The Culture of the Winnebago (1949). Radin also wrote on the religion, philosophy, and psychology of the individual in pre-literate society: Primitive Man as a Philosopher (1927, rev. ed. 1958) and The World of Primitive Man (1953).
Paul, Saint, d. A.D. 64? or 67?, the apostle to the Gentiles, b. Tarsus, Asia Minor. He was a Jew. His father was a Roman citizen, probably of some means, and Paul was a tentmaker by trade. His Jewish name was Saul. He was educated in Jerusalem, where he studied under Gamaliel and became a zealous nationalist; he was probably a Pharisee. The chronology of St. Paul's life is difficult, but there is general agreement (within a few years) on almost all details. The hypothetical dates given here are according to one chronological system.

The sources for St. Paul's life are the Acts of the Apostles, in which he is the dominant figure, and the Pauline Epistles. The value of the latter depends on the extent to which they are accepted as genuinely written by the apostle. Romans, First and Second Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, First Thessalonians, and Philemon are undoubted; Ephesians and Second Thessalonians are rejected by most critics; First and Second Timothy and Titus are generally considered to be in their present form later and non-Pauline; finally, Hebrews was not written by St. Paul himself.

Paul's first known contact with Christianity is his presence at the martyrdom of St. Stephen. Soon after this he got a commission from the chief priest to go to Damascus to help suppress Christianity there (A.D. 33). As he approached Damascus he suddenly saw a blinding light and heard Jesus ask, "Why persecutest thou me?" Paul was temporarily blinded and was led into Damascus, where he was found (on the Lord's direction) by the disciple Ananias. On regaining his sight, Paul was baptized and immediately began preaching. (Acts 8.1-3; 9.1-30; 22.3-21; 26.9-23; Gal. 1.12-15.)

Paul spent the next 13 years learning the faith, part of the time living in seclusion in the Arabian desert. He visited Jerusalem probably twice (A.D. 37, 44) and dwelt at Tarsus and Antioch for some time. (Acts 11.) From Antioch, Paul set out on his first missionary journey (Acts 13-14.27; A.D. 47-49), on which he was accompanied by St. Barnabas and for a time by St. Mark. In general the method was to go from city to city preaching in synagogues and in marketplaces. Among the stops on this first mission were Cyprus, Antioch, and Derbe. Churches were set up, and as soon as the little Christian groups seemed strong enough the apostle and his companions would move on. Among their stops were Cyprus, Pamphylia, and Derbe. About A.D. 50 there was a council of the apostles at Jerusalem to discuss whether Gentile Christians should be circumcised, i.e., whether Christianity was to be a Jewish sect. St. Paul opposed the Judaistic group vigorously, and the council decided against them. (Acts 15; Gal. 2.)

On his second mission (Acts 15.36-18.22; A.D. 50-53) Paul, having quarreled with Barnabas, was accompanied by Silas. During visits to Philippi and Salonica they founded two churches that were to become great. They later sailed to Athens where Paul delivered his famous address on the "unknown god" in the market. (Acts 17.16-34.) From Athens, Paul went to Corinth. In the course of a long stay there he wrote First and Second Thessalonians (A.D. 52). Possibly about this time he also wrote his letter to the Galatians, although some scholars think this was the earliest of the epistles (written from Antioch), while others believe it was written later from Ephesus. At length Paul sailed to Caesarea in Palestine and visited Jerusalem again. He spent some time in Antioch.

The third missionary journey of St. Paul (Acts 18.23-21.26; A.D. 53-57) took him to Galatia, then Phrygia, and over to Ephesus. His two-and-a-half-year stay in Ephesus was one of the most fruitful periods of his life; in this time he wrote his two letters to the Corinthians (c.A.D. 56). He went to Corinth to help the Christians there, and he probably wrote the Epistle to the Romans there. Thence he returned to Ephesus and finally to Jerusalem. This was his last visit there (A.D. 57-59), for soon after he arrived he was arrested for provoking a riot.

After being held prisoner for two years and after hearings before the council of priests, before the Roman procurator Felix and his successor Festus, before Herod Agrippa II, and again before Festus, he appealed to Rome on his citizen's right. So he was sent to Rome under guard. (Acts 21.27-28.31.) On the way they were shipwrecked on Malta but finally landed at Puteoli (Puzzuoli). Paul was imprisoned (A.D. 60) in Rome but was allowed to conduct his ministry among the Roman Christians and Jews who visited him. Of his final fate tradition says that he was beheaded south of the city, near the Ostian Way, probably during the persecution of Nero. A lesser tradition claims that Paul was released after his first imprisonment and that he went East again, and perhaps also to Spain, before his martyrdom. Some scholars believe that Paul was executed after his initial imprisonment, probably A.D. 62. St. Paul's tomb and shrine are at the Roman basilica of St. Paul's Outside the Walls.

St. Paul's figure dominates the apostolic age, and his epistles have left a tremendous impress on Christianity. The first Christian theological writing is found in them, where it is characterized rather by spiritual fervor than by systematic analysis. St. Paul became a fountainhead of Christian doctrine, and countless interpretations have been given of his teachings. Thus, Roman Catholic theology leans upon him at all times, and Martin Luther derived from the Epistle to the Romans his principle of justification by faith alone. There can be no doubt that Paul's interpretation of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, his doctrine of the church as the mystical body of Christ, his teaching on law and grace, and his view of justification have been decisive in the formation of the Christian faith. The feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, June 29, is one of the principal days of the church calendar; the conversion of St. Paul is commemorated Jan. 25.

See D. R. McDonald, The Legend and the Apostle (1983); J. A. Ziesler, Pauline Christianity (1990); E. P. Sanders, Paul (1991); B. Chilton, Rabbi Paul: An Intellectual Biography (2004); J. Murphy-O'Connor, Paul: His Story (2004); G. Wills, What Paul Meant (2006).

Paul, 1901-64, king of the Hellenes (1947-64), brother and successor of George II. He married (1938) Princess Frederika of Brunswick. During Paul's reign Greece followed a pro-Western policy, and the Cyprus question was temporarily resolved. Paul was succeeded by his son, Constantine II.
Paul, Alice, 1885-1977, American feminist, b. Moorestown, N.J. She helped found the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (1913), which became the National Woman's party (1917). After the passage of the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution, she worked for passage of an equal rights amendment. See also woman suffrage.
Paul, Les, 1915-2009, American guitarist and inventor, b. Waukesha, Wis., as Lester William Polsfuss (later Polfuss). He began playing country music at 14, later switched to jazz, and started his own trio in 1936. Considered one of the finest jazz guitarists, he remains famous for his amazing versatility. Dissatisfied with the sound of available instruments, Paul invented (1941) a solid-body electric guitar which, marketed (1952) by Gibson, was extremely important in the development of rock music and was played by many of its greatest stars. Several versions of his guitars are still manufactured. Paul also created techniques in his home studio that allowed him to overdub numerous tracks, producing the distinctive sound of Les Paul and Mary Ford (his wife) in such 1950s hits as "Vaya Con Dios" and "How High the Moon." The multitrack recording originated by Paul has since been widely used to make popular recordings. He also invented the eight-track tape recorder, which initiated the modern recording era, and made important innovations in reverb and other areas of studio methodology. Paul was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988.

See M. Cochran, Les Paul: In His Own Words (2008); R. Lawrence, The Early Years of the Les Paul Legacy: 1915-1963 and The Modern Years of the Les Paul Legacy: 1968-2008 (both: 2008).

Paul, Wolfgang, 1913-93, German physicist, Ph.D. Technical Univ., Berlin, 1939. A professor at the Univ. of Bonn since 1952, Paul worked with Hans Dehmelt to develop an ion trap technique (known as the Paul trap), which made possible the detailed study of subatomic particles. For this invention, Dehmelt and Paul shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physics with Norman F. Ramsey.
Berg, Paul, 1926-, American biologist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Western Reserve Univ., 1952. A professor at Washington Univ. at St. Louis and Stanford Univ., he shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics (with Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger) for his work with recombinant DNA. Berg developed techniques for attaching selected parts of DNA molecules to bacterial DNA, enabling the synthesis of such proteins as insulin and interferon.
Signac, Paul, 1863-1935, French neoimpressionist painter. First influenced by Monet, he was later associated with Seurat in developing the divisionist technique. Interested in the science of color, he painted with a greater intensity and with broader strokes than Seurat. In such vigorous, colorful works as Port of St. Tropez (1916; Brooklyn Mus., New York City) Signac broke through the confines of neoimpressionist theory. He wrote a treatise, D'Eugène Delacroix au néo-impressionisme (1889), long considered the foremost work on the school.

See study by his granddaughter, Françoise Cachin (tr. 1973).

Simon, Paul, 1941-, American singer, songwriter, and guitarist, b. Newark, N.J. A polished and intelligent folk-rock lyricist and performer, he first gained fame as half of Simon and Garfunkel. Not long after their highly successful album Bridge over Troubled Water (1970), Simon split with Garfunkel and pursued a solo career, releasing the album Paul Simon in 1972. In his solo work, Simon has used a startling variety of national and international styles, mingling them with an idiosyncratic and highly personal content. His folk-inflected and often introspective songs of the 1970s are typified by the album Still Crazy after All These Years (1975). Simon broadened his themes in Graceland (1986), one of the most popular albums of the decade, which featured several African musicians, including the South African choral group Ladysmith Black Mambazo. His next album, The Rhythm of the Saints (1990), explored Afro-Brazilian music. After the failure of his Latin-themed Broadway musical The Capeman (1997, written with Derek Walcott), Simon toured (1999) with Bob Dylan. Later albums include You're the One (2000) and Surprise (2006).

See biography, P. Humphries, Paul Simon: Still Crazy after All These Years (1989); M. S. Cohen, Simon and Garfunkel (1977); J. Morella and P. Barey, Simon and Garfunkel (1991); S. Luftig, ed. Paul Simon Companion: Four Decades of Commentary (1997); S. Steinberg, dir., American Masters, Paul Simon (video documentary, 1993).

Sabatier, Paul, 1854-1941, French organic chemist, D.Sc. Collège de France, 1880. He joined the faculty at the Univ. of Toulouse in 1882 and taught there until he retired in 1930. Sabatier was a corecipient of the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Victor Grignard for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals, particularly nickel. His work in catalysis laid the groundwork for a number of laboratory syntheses and also led to the development of margarine, hydrogenated oils, and synthetic methanol.
Sabatier, Paul, 1858-1928, French Protestant clergyman and historian; brother of Auguste Sabatier. Ill health required his withdrawal from the active ministry, and he went to Assisi, Italy; there he studied the life of St. Francis. His subsequent Life of St. Francis of Assisi (1893) was widely translated and has passed through a number of editions. In 1919, Sabatier became professor of Protestant theology at Strasbourg.
Gerhardt, Paul, 1607-76, German hymn writer and clergyman. Some of his famous texts, such as O Sacred Head Sore Wounded, are much used in English translations.
Scofield, Paul, 1922-2008, English actor, b. Hurstpierpoint, Sussex. Scofield joined the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in 1945, and had his first major success in King John. At the Stratford Memorial Theatre he won wide acclaim for his Hamlet and King Lear. His portrayal of Sir Thomas More in the stage (1960-62) and film (1966) versions of A Man for All Seasons gained him international renown along with a Tony and an Academy Award. He also appeared in such other stage productions as Uncle Vanya (1970), Volpone (1977), Amadeus (1979, 1982), Othello (1980), Heartbreak House (1992), and John Gabriel Borkman (1996). Noted for his strong, sculptured face and unusual rumbling voice, Scofield made several films, including The Train (1964), King Lear (1971), A Delicate Balance (1973), Henry V (1989), Quiz Show (1994), and The Crucible (1996).

See biography by G. O'Connor (2002).

Claudel, Paul, 1868-1955, French dramatist, poet, and diplomat. He was ambassador to Tokyo (1921-27), Washington, D.C. (1927-33), and Brussels (1933-35). Claudel's writings deal largely with man's inner spirit, and reveal the influence of his profound and mystical Catholicism. His early plays were inspired by the French symbolists, notably by Rimbaud. Perhaps his finest play is L'Annonce faite à Marie (1912, tr. Tidings Brought to Mary, 1916). Among his other dramas is the lengthy Le Soulier de satin (1929, tr. The Satin Slipper, 1931). In his theatrical works Claudel combined extensive use of symbols—primarily religious—and exotic backgrounds with the techniques of pantomime, ballet, music, and the cinema. The rich lyric verse of Cinq Grandes Odes (1910) marks his highest poetic achievement. His prose works include Art poétique (1906) and writings on the Bible.

See B. L. Knapp, Paul Claudel (1982); A. Caranfa, Claudel: Beauty and Grace (1989).

Painlevé, Paul, 1863-1933, French statesman and mathematician. A mathematical prodigy when a child, he entered on a career devoted to science. He was a professor at the Sorbonne and the École Polytechnique when the Dreyfus Affair aroused his interest in politics. He entered on his political career as a leftist deputy (1910). In World War I he held several cabinet posts and was briefly premier in 1917. He was premier once more in 1925, succeeding Herriot, and was minister of war (1925-29) and minister of aviation (1930-31, 1932-33). In mathematics, Painlevé ranked among the best minds of his time; his contribution was particularly important in the field of differential equations. He published numerous writings on mathematics, astronomy, mechanics, philosophy, and politics.
Auster, Paul, 1947-, American writer, b. Newark, N.J. After publishing four volumes of poetry, he wrote his first novel, Squeeze Play (1982). A compelling storyteller, Auster became well known for the short novels of The New York TrilogyCity of Glass (1985), Ghosts (1986), and The Locked Room (1986)—tautly surreal variations on the urban detective story. Written with great clarity and touched by symbolism, metaphysical and epistemological concerns, and a sharply contemporary sensibility, his later novels include Moon Palace (1989); The Music of Chance (1991); Leviathan (1992); Timbuktu (1999), a tale of dog and master told from the dog's point of view; The Book of Illusions (2002); Oracle Night (2003); The Brooklyn Follies (2005); Travels in the Scriptorium (2007); Man in the Dark (2008); and Invisible (2009), in which the central character learns about love from several people in varying situations, including an incestuous affair with his sister. Auster is also an essayist, translator, screenwriter, and memoirist.

See C. Springer, A Paul Auster Sourcebook (2001); studies by D. Barone, ed. (1995), A. Varvogli (2001), I. Shiloh (2002),and H. Bloom, ed. (2004).

Mellon, Paul, 1907-99, American philanthropist and art collector, b. Pittsburgh. The son of Andrew W. Mellon, he attended Yale (B.A., 1929) and Clare College, Cambridge (A.B., 1931). He worked briefly at Mellon Bank but left (1936) business to devote himself to American cultural interests. Over six decades he donated roughly $1 billion to national institutions and projects. He oversaw the construction of the National Gallery of Art, conceived by his late father as a gift to the American people, and in 1941 presented it to the nation together with his father's art collection. Serving on its board for more than 40 years, he was its president (1938-39, 1963-79) and chairman (1979-85). Mellon commissioned I. M. Pei to design its East Building (1978) and over the years gave the museum more than 900 works. He also created the Yale Center for Studies in British Art (1972) and its sister museum (1977) and chose Louis Kahn as its architect. Mellon, who established the Old Dominion (1941) and Bollingen (1942) foundations, also supported various universities, libraries, environmental causes, and arts, education, and public health organizations.

See his Reflections in a Silver Spoon: A Memoir (1992).

Potter, Paul or Paulus, 1625-54, Dutch animal and landscape painter and etcher. In The Hague he enjoyed the patronage of the prince of Nassau, for whom he painted the celebrated life-sized Young Bull (1647; Mauritshuis, The Hague). He moved to Amsterdam in 1652. In his brief life Potter painted over 175 pictures, considered the finest animal paintings of the Dutch school. He was also able to render landscape with a sensitive feeling for atmosphere. His works are to be seen in many important European collections. Well-known examples are Bear Hunt and Shepherds with Their Flocks (Rijks Mus.), Landscape with Cattle (National Gall., London), and Meadow with Oxen (Louvre). His etchings of animals are characterized by the same simplicity and naturalism as his paintings.
Verlaine, Paul, 1844-96, French poet. He gained some notice with the Parnassian poetry of Poèmes saturniens (1866) and Fětes galantes (1869) and became a figure in the bohemian literary world of Paris. Verlaine's turbulent marriage broke up as a result of his liaison with his young protégé, Arthur Rimbaud. The two poets traveled in Belgium and England; their relationship ended in tragedy when Verlaine shot and wounded Rimbaud and was imprisoned in Belgium for two years. In prison he was brought back to the Catholic faith of his childhood and wrote some noble religious poetry that appeared in Sagesse (1881). From that time also dates his Romances sans paroles (1874), which shows Verlaine as one of the first of the symbolists. The sensitive appreciation of the common incidents and sights of life and the haunting and simple music of his verse, combined with the melancholy and unreal disillusion of the decadents, distinguish his poetry. More striking, however, is the candor of Verlaine himself. Through the degrading incidents of his later life, which was marked by drunkenness, poverty, and debauchery, he preserved his honesty and inverted naïveté. Jadis et Naguère (1884) and Parallèlement (1889) were perhaps the best of his later volumes of poetry. Of his prose works the only one of importance is Les Poètes maudits (1884), sketches of his fellow symbolists, particularly Mallarmé and Rimbaud.
Vidal de la Blache, Paul, French geographer, 1845-1918, the father of French human geography. He was educated at the École Normale Supérieure, Paris, and had an avid interest in history and geography. He taught geography in Nancy and Paris and was a member (1898-1905) of the Faculté des Lettres, Paris, holding the geography chair. Vidal believed that there was an interrelationship between the natural environment and man's activities. He was the founder (1891) and editor of Annales de géographie. Among his works are États et nations de l'Europe (1889), Tableau de la géographie de la France (1903), and the posthumous Principes de géographie humaine (1923; tr. Principles of Human Geography, 1926) and Géographie universelle (15 vol., 1927-48, completed by Lucien Gallois).
Hazard, Paul, 1878-1944, French scholar. He began his teaching at the Univ. of Lyons in 1910. After World War I he taught at the Sorbonne and in 1925 was appointed to the chair of comparative literature in the Collège de France. In alternate years between 1932 and 1940 he was a visiting lecturer at Columbia Univ. Recognized as an authority on comparative literature, Hazard was elected to the French Academy in 1939. Among his important writings are Histoire illustrée de la littérature française (comp. with Joseph Bédier, 2 vol., 1923-24); Books, Children and Men (1932, tr. 1944); The European Mind, the Critical Years, 1680-1715 (3 vol., 1935, tr. 1953); and European Thought in the Eighteenth Century (3 vol., 1946, tr. 1954).
Revere, Paul, 1735-1818, American silversmith and political leader in the American Revolution, b. Boston. In his father's smithy he learned to work gold and silver, and he became a leading silversmith of New England. He also turned to various other skills—designing, engraving, printing, bell founding, and dentistry. In the French and Indian War he was a soldier, and in the period of growing colonial discontent with British measures after the Stamp Act (1765), he was a fervent anti-British propagandist. He early joined the Sons of Liberty, took part in the Boston Tea Party, and was a courier (1774) for the Massachusetts committee of correspondence. Revere became a figure of popular history and legend, however, because of his ride on the night of Apr. 18, 1775, to warn the people of the Massachusetts countryside that British soldiers were being sent out in the expedition that, as it turned out, started the American Revolution (see Lexington and Concord, battles of). William Dawes and Samuel Prescott also rode forth with the news. Revere did not reach his destination at Concord but was captured by the British; nevertheless, it is Revere who is remembered as the midnight rider, chiefly because of the poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He designed the first seal for the united colonies, designed and printed the first Continental bond issue, and established (1776) a powder mill at Canton, Mass. His military career was not distinguished. On the ill-fated expedition against Penobscot he was arrested for disobeying orders (though a court-martial later acquitted him of the charges), and in 1780 he returned to silversmithing. His shrewdness in other enterprises, particularly the establishment of a copper-rolling and brass-casting foundry at Canton, helped to make his later years very prosperous.

See biographies by E. G. Taylor (1930) and E. Forbes (1942, repr. 1962); D. H. Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (1994).

Reynaud, Paul, 1878-1966, French statesman and lawyer. He held several cabinet posts, and after Nov., 1938, as minister of finance in the cabinet of Édouard Daladier, he pursued an extremely deflationary policy. During World War II he succeeded Daladier as premier in Mar., 1940. On May 18, as France faced military disaster, he called in Marshal Pétain as vice premier to boost French morale. On June 16 he gave way to Pétain and others who wished to surrender to Germany, and resigned. Imprisoned later in 1940, he was among the defendants at the abortive Riom war-guilt trial. After the war Reynaud served as finance minister (1948) and vice premier (1953).
Horgan, Paul (Paul George Vincent O'Shaughnessy Horgan), 1903-95, American writer, b. Buffalo, N.Y. His diverse works reflect his fascination with the effects of history and landscape on people. Among his books are the novels Main Line West (1936), Things As They Are (1964), Whitewater (1970), and The Thin Mountain Air (1977); his nonfiction includes Great River: The Rio Grande in North American History (1954; Pulitzer), Encounters With Stravinsky (1972), Approaches to Writing (1975), and Lamy of Santa Fe (1975; Pulitzer).
de Kruif, Paul, 1890-1971, American author, b. Zeeland, Mich., grad. Univ. of Michigan (B.S., 1912). He was bacteriologist at the university from 1912 to 1917. Among his books are Microbe Hunters (1926), The Fight for Life (1938), and Hunger Fighters (1939).
Delvaux, Paul, 1897-1994, Belgian painter. Delvaux, influenced by Magritte and Chirico, created meticulous surreal compositions based on Renaissance ideas of perspective and peopled with self-absorbed somnambulists. Often containing an ironic eroticism, Delvaux's visionary paintings allude to the double standards of Victorian sexual morality. His Venus Asleep (1944) is in the Tate Gallery, London.
Troubetzkoy, Paul, Prince, 1866-1938, Russian sculptor, b. Italy. The son of a Russian nobleman and an American woman, Troubetzkoy worked in Russia, France, Italy, and the United States. His sculpture was influenced by the impressionism of Rodin. Troubetzkoy's finest portraits and animal sculptures date from the early 1900s. Among his illustrious sitters were Tolstoy, Rodin, Anatole France, and George Bernard Shaw. An equestrian portrait is in the Detroit Institute of Arts, and other works are in many major collections.
Klee, Paul, 1879-1940, Swiss painter, graphic artist, and art theorist, b. near Bern. Klee's enormous production (more than 10,000 paintings, drawings, and etchings) is unique in that it represents the successful combination of his sophisticated theories of art with a very personal inventiveness that has the appearance of great innocence. The son of a music teacher, Klee himself was a violinist, and musical analogies permeate his writing and his approach to art. He traveled through Europe, open to many artistic influences. The most important of these were the works of Blake, Beardsley, Goya, Ensor, and, especially, Cézanne. In 1911 he became associated with the Blaue Reiter group and later exhibited as one of the Blue Four. Klee's awakening to color occurred on a trip to Tunis in 1914, a year after he had met Delaunay and been made aware of new theories of color use. Thereafter his whimsical and fantastic images were rendered with a luminous and subtle color sense.

Klee's works are neither abstract nor figurative, but have strong elements of both approaches. Characteristic of his gently witty paintings are The Twittering Machine (1922, Mus. of Modern Art, New York City) and Fish Magic (1925, Phila. Mus. of Art). Other works reveal strong, rhythmic patterns, as in the unsettling Viaducts Break Ranks (1937, Hamburg). World famous by 1929, Klee taught at the Bauhaus (1920-31) and at the Düsseldorf academy (1931-33) until the Nazis, who judged his work degenerate, forced him to resign. He and his family fled Germany for his native city in 1933. In his series of Pedagogical Sketchbooks (tr. 1944) and lecture notes entitled The Thinking Eye (tr. 1961), Klee sought to define his intuitive approach to artistic creation. His last ten years were spent in Switzerland, and some 4,000 of his works are in the Paul Klee Center, Bern.

See his notebooks, ed. by J. Spiller (2 vol., tr. 1992); his diaries, ed. by his son Felix Klee (tr. 1964); his life and work in documents, ed. by F. Klee (tr. 1962); studies by J. M. Joran (1984), C. Lanchner, ed. (1987), O. K. Werckmeister (1989), and M. Franciscono (1991).

Bunyan, Paul, legendary American lumberjack. He was the hero of a series of "tall tales" popular through the timber country from Michigan westward. Bunyan was known for his fantastic strength and gigantic size. He is said to have ruled his gargantuan lumber camp between the winter of the blue snow and the spring that came up from China. His prized possession was Babe the Blue Ox, the distance between whose horns measured 42 ax handles and a plug of tobacco. In southern lumber camps a similar legendary figure is known as Tony Beaver.

See collections of legends by L. Untermeyer (1945) and H. W. Felton (1947); study of the legend by D. G. Hoffman (1952, repr. 1966) and N. Wartik (1989).

Sérusier, Paul, 1863-1927, French painter. In 1888 at Pont-Aven, Sérusier met Gauguin whose style he adhered to, particularly in his paintings of Breton landscapes. With Maurice Denis, Sérusier was a founder and spokesman of the Nabis. Sérusier had a highly methodical approach to art; he expressed his theories in ABC de la peinture (1921).
Whiteman, Paul, 1891-1967, American conductor, b. Denver. Whiteman played viola in the Denver Symphony Orchestra and in 1915 joined the San Francisco Symphony. During World War I he was an army band leader. In 1924 he inaugurated the period of "symphonic jazz" when he introduced Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue in New York City. Whiteman encouraged the composition of concert jazz works by establishing the annual Whiteman Award. He was influential in the formation of large jazz ensembles. His books include Jazz (1926) and Records for the Millions (1948).
Monroe, Paul, 1869-1947, American educator, b. North Madison, Ind., grad. Franklin College, 1890, Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1897. At Teachers College, Columbia, he was professor of education from 1902 until his retirement in 1938; he also served as director of the School of Education (1915-23) and of the International Institute after 1923. In 1932 he became president of Robert College and of the American College for Girls, both in Istanbul. Monroe made school surveys in the Philippine Islands, Puerto Rico, and Iraq. He edited the Cyclopedia of Education and Principles of Secondary Education (1914) and wrote China, a Nation in Evolution (1928) and several works on education, including Founding of the American Public School System (1940).
Biya, Paul, 1933-, Cameroonian political leader. Educated in Cameroon and France, where he studied at the Sorbonne and other institutions, he joined Cameroon's civil service in 1962. After holding a number of posts under President Ahmadou Ahidjo, Biya became prime minister in 1975 and succeeded Ahidjo as president in 1982. As Biya, who came from the south, consolidated his power in a government previously dominated by northerners, he clashed with Ahidjo, who was accused of an attempted coup and went into exile (1983). Biya has retained power since then. Although he was forced to allow multiparty elections beginning in 1992, the votes have been marred by fraud and other irregularities and by opposition boycotts.
Carus, Paul, 1852-1919, American philosopher, born and educated in Germany. For many years he was editor of the Open Court and the Monist, periodicals devoted to philosophy and religion. His philosophy was monistic, seeking to establish religion on a scientific basis. Among his many works were Fundamental Problems (1889), The Religion of Science (1893), The Gospel of Buddha (1900), The History of the Devil (1900), and The Principle of Relativity (1913).
Strand, Paul, 1890-1976, American photographer, b. New York City. Strand studied under Lewis Hine, who introduced him to Alfred Stieglitz. At Stieglitz's famed "291" gallery, Strand had his first one-man exhibition (1916); the last two issues of Stieglitz's Camera Work (1917) were devoted to Strand's photography. His principal early subjects were Manhattan life and 20th-century machinery. In the 1920s he made his exquisitely composed landscape and nature photographs. Strand made documentary films in Mexico, the USSR, and the United States. His superb portraits of regions are reproduced in Time in New England (1950), Un Paese (1954), Tir A'Mhurain (1968, on the Hebrides), and Living Egypt (1969).

See his Retrospective Monograph (2 vol., 1972).

Bremer, Paul (Lewis Paul Bremer 3d), 1941-, U.S. diplomat and government official, b. Hartford, Conn. A career diplomat in the Foreign Service from 1966 to 1989, he was ambassador to the Netherlands from 1983 to 1986 and subsequently served as ambassador-at-large for counterterrrorism. A managing director at Kissinger Associates from 1989 to 2000, he was (1999-2000) chairman of the National Commission on Terrorism. Named presidential envoy to Iraq in May, 2003, he became administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority there in June and for a year was responsible for overseeing the U.S.-led occupation and the restoration of Iraqi self-government. He has written My Year in Iraq (2006).
Starrett, Paul, 1866-1957, American builder, b. Lawrence, Kans. After serving (1903-22) as president of the George A. Fuller Company in Chicago, he opened and headed the construction firm of Starrett Brothers, Inc., in New York City. Starrett was responsible for the erection of the Flatiron Building, the Empire State Building, the Pennsylvania RR station, and the Plaza, Biltmore, and Commodore hotels, all in New York. The Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia and the Lincoln Memorial in Washington were erected by the Fuller Company under his direction.

See his autobiography, Changing the Skyline (1938).

Dukas, Paul, 1865-1935, French composer and critic. He was influenced by both the romanticism of Wagner and the impressionism of Debussy. His compositions are few, the best known being a symphonic poem, The Sorcerer's Apprentice (1897), and an opera, Ariane et Barbe-Bleue (1907).
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976, American actor and bass singer, b. Princeton, N.J. The son of a runaway slave who became a minister, Robeson graduated first from Rutgers (1919), where he was an All-American football player, and then from Columbia Univ. law school (1923). He began his acting career in 1924 with the Provincetown Players. With a resonant voice and the ability to project a humane spirit, he won wide acclaim with his creation of the title role in Eugene O'Neill's Emperor Jones (1925; film, 1933). Other outstanding dramatic performances include Crown in DuBose Heyward's Porgy (1928) and Othello (in London, 1930, and New York, 1943-45). In 1925 he made his debut as a concert singer. Possessed of a magnificent bass voice, he became known especially for his rendition of "Ol' Man River" in Jerome Kern's musical Show Boat (1928; film, 1936) and for his interpretations of spirituals. He lived mainly in Europe from 1928 to 1939, traveling to the Soviet Union for the first time in 1934. Robeson's association with Communist causes and his winning of the International Stalin Peace Prize (1952) made him a controversial figure in the United States. He moved to England in 1958, and continued to appear in concerts in Europe and the Soviet Union. He returned to live in the United States in 1963.

See his Here I Stand (1958); biographies by his wife (1930), his son (2001), and M. B. Duberman (1988).

Newman, Paul, 1925-2008, American actor, b. Cleveland, Ohio. After performing in a Broadway play (1952-53) and in television dramas, Newman became a versatile film actor and a major Hollywood star. He made his movie debut in 1954 and achieved leading man status with his role in Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956). His enduring characterization is of a handsome, insolent, and self-reliant renegade antihero with a penchant for wry humor, as seen in The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), and The Sting (1973). He won a best-actor Academy Award for The Color of Money (1986) after eight nominations. Later examples of his more than 65 films include Blaze (1988), Mr. and Mrs. Bridge (1990), Nobody's Fool (1994), and Road to Perdition (2002), his last screen role. Newman also directed several movies, e.g., Rachel, Rachel (1968), usually showcases for his wife and frequent costar, Joanne Woodward. Newman was also was a successful racecar driver, a food-products entrepeneur, and a philanthropist.

See biographies by J. Epstein and E. Z. Morella (1988) and E. Lax (1996).

Cadmus, Paul, 1904-99, American painter, b. N.Y.C.; studied National Academy of Design (1919-26), Art Students' League (1928). From 1933-35 he and painter Jared French traveled to Europe, where he learned the egg-tempera technique later used in many of his paintings. A figurative artist, he painted in a vivid style sometimes dubbed magic realism. Cadmus first came to wide public attention when his painting The Fleet's In (1934), an illustrationlike frieze of lubricious sailors flirting with prostitutes and a gay man, was removed from a Corcoran Gallery exhibition by a U.S. Navy admiral who found the work "depraved." Thereafter, crowds flocked to his exhibitions. Cadmus became known for lively group scenes, often sexually-charged or homoerotic, and for tranquil portraits, often of male nudes. Among his best-known works are Coney Island (1934), Sailors and Floosies (1938), and the Seven Deadly Sins series (1945-49). Cadmus also designed sets and costumes for the ballet Filling Station (1938), directed by his brother-in-law, Lincoln Kirstein, and was known for his drawings, prints, and photographs.

See U. E. Johnson, Paul Cadmus: Prints and Drawings (1968); P. Eliasoph, Paul Cadmus, Yesterday and Today (1981); L. Kirstein, Paul Cadmus (1984, rev. 1992, rep. 1996); G. Davenport, The Drawings of Paul Cadmus (1989); D. Leddick, Intimate Companions: A Triography of George Platt Lynes, Paul Cadmus, Lincoln Kirstein, and Their Circle (2000).

Erdös, Paul, 1913-96, Hungarian mathematician, b. Budapest. A child prodigy, he was mostly home-schooled by his parents—both teachers of mathematics—until he entered the Univ. of Budapest in 1930. He graduated in 1934, simultaneously receiving his doctorate. After teaching in Europe, he joined the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, where he stayed for ten years. The remainder of his life was filled with positions at a number of schools, among them the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Notre Dame, Purdue, and Stanford, and making conference presentations. Although he was interested in history, medicine, and politics, his life was dedicated to mathematics. Erdös wrote about 1,500 papers, about five times as many as other prolific mathematicians, and had about 500 collaborators. He wrote fundamental papers on real analysis, geometry, topology, probability theory, complex analysis, approximation theory, and set theory, but he will be remembered best for his contributions to number theory and combinatorics, an area of mathematics fundamental to computer science.

See A. Baker et al., A Tribute to Paul Erdös (1991); A. Thomason, Combinatorics, Geometry, and Probability (1997); K. Alladi et al., Analytic and Elementary Number Theory (1998); B. Schechter, My Brain Is Open (1998); P. Hoffman, The Man Who Loved Only Numbers (1998).

Kagame, Paul, 1957-, Rwandan political leader. Kagame was born into a Tutsi family that fled (1960) ethnic violence in Rwanda. Raised in Uganda, he became a member of Yoweri Museveni's National Resistance Army, was active in the guerrilla war (1980-86) that brought Museveni to power in Uganda, and served (1986-1990) in the Ugandan army. Kagame then led the Rwandan Patriotic Front forces, but failed to oust the Rwandan government until after President Habyarimana's death (1994) and the bloody anti-Tutsi violence and chaos that ensued. In the new Hutu-Tutsi transitional government Kagame became vice president but held the real power. After President Bizimungu broke with Kagame and resigned (2000), Kagame succeeded to the office and consolidated his position. Credited with restoring stability to ethnically divided Rwanda, he also has been criticized for suppressing democratic opposition to his rule. He was elected president in 2003 after a campaign in which the government actively hindered opposition parties and their candidates.
Kane, Paul, 1810-71, Canadian painter, b. Ireland. Kane went to Toronto as a child. He studied art in the United States (1836-41) and in Europe (1841-45). After his return to Canada (1845) he made an extended journey into the Hudson's Bay Company territories of W Canada, traveling by snowshoe, horseback, and canoe to paint the Native Americans of the region. He returned to E Canada in 1848. Most of the paintings resulting from his journey are in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, and in the Parliament buildings, Ottawa. His account of his journey appeared as Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America (1859; new ed. with title Paul Kane's Frontier, incl. biography and catalog by J. R. Harper, 1971).
Karrer, Paul, 1889-1971, Swiss organic chemist, Ph.D. Univ. of Zürich, 1911. From 1912 to 1918, Karrer was a chemist at the Georg Speyer Haus, Frankfurt-am-Main. He left in 1919 to become professor of chemistry and director of the Chemical Institute at the Univ. of Zürich, where he remained until his retirement in 1953. Karrer won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Norman Haworth for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins, and vitamins A and B2. Karrer is credited with being the first to isolate vitamins A and K and to synthesize vitamins B2 and E. His most significant accomplishment was elucidating the structure of carotene, the yellow pigment found in carrots and other orange and yellow vegetables.
Doumer, Paul, 1857-1932, president of the French republic (1931-32). He entered the chamber of deputies in 1888, was governor-general of Indochina (1897-1902) and a senator after 1912, and served in several cabinets after World War I. After following Gaston Doumergue as president, he was assassinated by an insane Russian émigré. Albert Lebrun succeeded him.
Antschel, Paul: see Celan, Paul.
Muni, Paul, 1895-1967, American actor, b. Austria, whose original name was Muni Weisenfreund. His parents brought him to the United States in 1902 and from 1903 to 1913 toured with him in vaudeville. Turning to the legitimate theater, he toured (1914-17) the Midwest and acted (1918-25) with the Yiddish Art Theatre in New York City. He began working in films in 1928 and won an Academy Award in 1936 for his performance in The Life of Louis Pasteur. An outstanding character actor, Muni's films include The Life of Émile Zola (1937), The Good Earth (1937), Juarez (1939), and The Last Angry Man (1959). In 1955 he appeared on Broadway in Inherit the Wind.

See biography by M. B. Druxman (1974).

Kondouriotis, Paul, 1857-1935, Greek admiral and statesman. He became a national hero through his victories over the Turkish fleet in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and in the Balkan Wars of 1912-13. He was regent after the death (1920) of King Alexander and again after the departure (1923) of King George II from Greece. In 1924 he was elected president of the newly formed Greek republic, and remained at that post until 1929, except for a few months in 1926 when the brief dictatorship of General Theodore Pangalos forced him to resign. The name also appears as Koundouriotis.
Koundouritis, Paul: see Kondouriotis, Paul.
Kruger, Paul (Stephanas Johannes Paulus), 1825-1904, South African Transvaal statesman, known as Oom Paul. As a child he accompanied (1836) his family northward from the Cape Colony in the Great Trek that was eventually to cross the Vaal River and establish the Dutch-speaking republic of Transvaal (1852). Kruger's life was closely tied to the development of the country; he was a pioneer, soldier, farmer, and politician. The Transvaal was annexed by Great Britain in 1877. Kruger at first cooperated with the British but shortly thereafter was dismissed because of his demands for retrocession. He was one of the triumvirate (with Piet Joubert and Martinius Pretorius) who negotiated the Pretoria agreement with the British (1881) granting the Boers (Afrikaners) independence. Kruger was elected president in 1883 and reelected in 1888, 1893, and 1898. His policy was one of continual resistance to the British, who came to be personified in South Africa by Cecil Rhodes. Colonization of Rhodesia N of the Transvaal and the increasing importance of gold mining merely brought much greater resistance on Kruger's part to Rhodes's dream of a unified South Africa. In the 1890s, Kruger adopted a stringent policy against the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders who were settling in the Transvaal. The Jameson Raid (see Jameson, Sir Leander Starr) into the Transvaal (Dec., 1895), undertaken with Rhodes's knowledge, created an international crisis. The Kaiser congratulated Kruger (in the "Kruger telegram") for the successful repulsion of the British, with the implication that Germany had a right to interfere in the Transvaal. The message caused great indignation in England. Kruger fought in the early stages of the South African War, but in 1900 he went to Europe on a Dutch cruiser in a vain effort to enlist aid for his country. He died an exile in Switzerland.

See his memoirs (tr. 1902, repr. 1969); biography by M. Nathan (1941); studies by J. S. Marais (1962), D. M. Schreuder (1969), and C. T. Gordan (1970).

Krugman, Paul, 1953-, American economist, b. Long Island, N.Y., grad. Yale (B.A., 1974), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1977). A founder of the "new trade theory," Krugman beginning in 1979 conducted research into international trade patterns, explaining why certain goods are produced in certain places, with trade mainly occurring between relative equals. In the 1990s he worked in economic geography, analyzing how transportation costs and various other forces affect where companies locate and workers live. It was this work that was largely responsible for his winning the 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. His later academic research has concentrated on international finance and currency crises. Krugman has taught at Yale (1977-80), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1984-94; 1996-2000), Stanford (1994-96), and Princeton (2000-). An economic and political liberal with an entertaining prose style, he has written essays for several print and online periodicals, e.g., Slate and Fortune, and since 2000 has been an op-ed columnist for the New York Times. Extremely prolific, he has also written hundreds of academic papers and more than 20 books, from economic texts to bestsellers. Among the latter are The Return of Depression Economics (1999, upd. ed. 2009), The Great Unraveling (2003), and The Conscience of a Liberal (2007).
Keating, Paul, 1944-, Australian politician. A trade-union official and member of the Labor party, he was first elected to parliament in 1969. As federal treasurer (treasury minister) from 1983 to 1991 and deputy prime minister under Prime Minister Bob Hawke from 1990 to 1991, he advocated free-market economic policies designed to spur growth. In mid-1991 Keating challenged Hawke for party leadership; he lost and resigned his posts. A continuing recession eroded support for Hawke, however, and Keating replaced him at the end of 1991. In 1993 he led Labor to another electoral victory.

As prime minister, Keating moved to deregulate the financial markets and privatize government businesses, including the national airline. He emphasized Australia's ties with Asia and the importance of competing in a global economy. Keating also advocated Australia's withdrawal from even nominal British rule and its adoption of a purely republican mode of government. Although he initiated a number of successful free-market reforms, ongoing economic problems undid his administration. In the elections of 1996 Labor was defeated by a Liberal-National coalition led by John Howard. Keating stepped down as Labor party leader and then resigned his seat in parliament, ending a 27-year career in politics.

orig. Jenó Pál Wigner

(born Nov. 17, 1902, Budapest, Hung.—died Jan. 1, 1995, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) Hungarian-born U.S. physicist. After studies at the University of Berlin, he immigrated to the U.S. in 1930 and joined the faculty of Princeton University. He was instrumental in getting the Manhattan Project started and was present when Enrico Fermi initiated the first chain reaction. He determined that the nuclear force is short-range and does not involve an electric charge, using group theory to investigate atomic structure. His name was given to several formulations, including the Breit-Wigner formula, which describes resonant nuclear reactions. He won a 1963 Nobel Prize (shared with Maria Mayer and Hans Jensen [1907–73], who won for unrelated work) for his insights into quantum mechanics, especially principles governing interaction of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and his formulation of the law of conservation of parity (see conservation law). In addition to his many scientific awards, he received numerous awards for his work for peace.

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(born March 28, 1890, Denver, Colo., U.S.—died Dec. 29, 1967, Doylestown, Pa.) U.S. musician and bandleader. Whiteman made his first records in 1920. His instrumental concept, known as “symphonic jazz,” featured lush harmonies and simplified jazz rhythms but little improvisation; he nevertheless became known as “The King of Jazz.” Whiteman commissioned George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue and conducted its premiere in 1924. The Whiteman band featured, among others, Bing Crosby, Bix Beiderbecke, and Jack Teagarden. His popularity waned in the late 1940s, but he was a television-series host in the 1950s and occasionally led bands up to the time of his death.

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(born June 2, 1863, Zara, Dalmatia, Austrian Empire—died May 7, 1942, Winterthur, Switz.) Austrian conductor and composer. After studies in Leipzig, he came to the attention of Franz Liszt, who arranged the premiere of Weingartner's first opera at Weimar (1884). He held conducting posts at Danzig, Hamburg, and Mannheim, and he became conductor of the Berlin Opera in 1891. He succeeded Gustav Mahler as conductor of the Vienna Opera (1908–11) and stayed on with the Vienna Philharmonic until 1927. He also directed the Basel Conservatory (1927–33) and was a distinguished writer on music.

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(born Sept. 5, 1927, Cape May, N.J., U.S.) U.S. economist. He worked as an economist for the Chase Manhattan Bank (1957–61; 1965–68). As an undersecretary at the U.S. Treasury Department (1969–74), Volcker was the chief architect of the U.S.'s abandonment of the gold-exchange standard and the devaluations of the U.S. dollar (1971, 1973). After serving as president of the Federal Reserve Bank (1975–79), he was appointed head of the Federal Reserve System in 1979 by Pres. Jimmy Carter and served until 1987. To end a period of very high inflation, he slowed the growth of the money supply and allowed interest rates to rise, causing a recession (1982–83) but dramatically reducing inflation.

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(born April 24, 1581, Pouy, France—died Sept. 27, 1660, Paris; canonized 1737; feast day September 27) French religious leader. Educated by the Franciscans at Dax, he was ordained in 1600 and graduated from the University of Toulouse in 1604. It is said that he was captured at sea by Barbary pirates but escaped. In 1625 he founded the Congregation of the Mission (also called Lazarists or Vincentians) in Paris as a preaching and teaching order. He also established the Confraternities of Charity, associations of laywomen who nursed the sick. With St. Louise de Marillac he cofounded the Daughters of Charity (Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul).

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(born March 30, 1844, Metz, France—died Jan. 8, 1896, Paris) French lyric poet. After entering the civil service, he was first associated with the Parnassian poets, contributing to the first volume of the anthology Le Parnasse contemporain (1866). His early collections, Poèmes saturniens (1866), Fêtes galantes (1869), La Bonne chanson (1870), and Romances sans paroles (1874), show the intense lyricism and musicality that would mark all his verse. His marriage was shattered by his infatuation with Arthur Rimbaud, and the two scandalized Paris with their behaviour in 1872–73. While in prison in Belgium (1873–75) for shooting Rimbaud when the latter threatened to leave him, he converted to Catholicism and probably composed the famous “Art poétique,” adopted in 1882 by the poets of the Symbolist movement. Sagesse (1880) expresses his religious faith and his emotional odyssey. He later taught French and English; he spent his late years in poverty, but just before his death he was sponsored for a major international lecture tour. His Les Poètes maudits (1884; “The Accursed Poets”) consists of short biographical studies of six poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Rimbaud. He is regarded as the third great member (with Charles Baudelaire and Mallarmé) of the so-called Decadents.

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(born , Aug. 20, 1886, Starzeddel, Brandenburg, Ger.—died Oct. 22, 1965, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) German-born U.S. Protestant theologian. He studied at Berlin, Tübingen, and Halle and was a chaplain with the German army during World War I. He taught successively at Marburg, Dresden, and Frankfurt am Main. In 1933 the Nazi takeover prompted him to immigrate to the U.S. With the aid of Reinhold Niebuhr, he joined the faculty of New York's Union Theological Seminary. He became respected for his lucid preaching and his Systematic Theology, 3 vol. (1951–63). He moved to Harvard University in 1955 and to the University of Chicago in 1962. His theological system was an unusual combination of biblical, existentialist, and metaphysical elements, and he attempted to convey an understanding of God that depended neither on revelation nor on science. His other works include The Courage to Be (1952) and Dynamics of Faith (1957).

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White Fence, photograph by Paul Strand, 1916.

(born Oct. 16, 1890, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 31, 1976, Oregeval, France) U.S. photographer. He studied photography with Lewis Hine. At Hine's urging, he frequented Alfred Stieglitz's “291” gallery; the avant-garde paintings by Pablo Picasso, Paul Cézanne, and Georges Braque that he saw there led him to emphasize abstract form and pattern in his photographs, such as Wall Street (1915). He rejected soft-focus Pictorialism in favour of the minute detail and rich tonal range afforded by the use of large-format cameras. Much of his later work was devoted to North American and European scenes and landscapes. He collaborated on documentary films with Charles Sheeler and Pare Lorentz.

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(born April 20, 1920, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. jurist. He studied law at Northwestern University and clerked at the Supreme Court of the United States before joining a Chicago law firm, where he specialized in antitrust law while also teaching and serving on various public commissions. He was appointed to the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (1970) by Pres. Richard Nixon and to the Supreme Court by Pres. Gerald Ford (1975). Though initially perceived as a conservative, he proved to be a moderate liberal; indeed, as the court became more conservative in the 1980s and early '90s, after appointments by Pres. Ronald Reagan and Pres. George Bush, Stevens became perhaps the court's most liberal member.

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(born Feb. 24, 1955, San Francisco, Cal., U.S.) U.S. businessman. Adopted in infancy, he grew up in Los Altos. He dropped out of Reed College and went to work for Atari Corp. designing video games. In 1976 he cofounded (with Stephen Wozniak) Apple Computer (incorporated in 1977; now Apple Inc.). The first Apple computer, created when Jobs was only 21, changed the public's idea of a computer from a huge machine for scientific use to a home appliance that could be used by anyone. Apple's Macintosh computer, which appeared in 1984, introduced a graphical user interface and mouse technology that became the standard for all applications interfaces. In 1980 Apple became a public corporation, and Jobs became the company's chairman. Management conflicts led him to leave Apple in 1985 to form NeXT Computer Inc., but he returned to Apple in 1996 and became CEO in 1997. The striking new iMac computer (1998) revived the company's flagging fortunes.

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(born March 21, 1925, London, Eng.) British director and producer. After directing plays in Stratford-upon-Avon, he became director of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden (1947–50). He directed several innovative Shakespearean productions that aroused controversy. Appointed codirector of the Royal Shakespeare Co. in 1962, he directed critically acclaimed productions of King Lear (1962) and A Midsummer Night's Dream (1970). He won international fame with his avant-garde direction of Peter Weiss's play Marat/Sade (1964). His films include Lord of the Flies (1962), King Lear (1969), and the six-hour Mahabharata (1989). In 1970 he cofounded, with Jean-Louis Barrault, the International Centre for Theatre Research.

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(born Oct. 13, 1941, Newark, N.J., U.S.) U.S. pop singer and songwriter. Simon began performing with Art Garfunkel (b. 1941) in the 1950s, using the name Tom and Jerry. After a break, the two reunited in 1964 as Simon and Garfunkel. Their first hit single was “Sounds of Silence” (1966); others over the next six years included “Mrs. Robinson” (for the film The Graduate) and “Bridge over Troubled Water.” After the two parted company, Simon released several hit albums, including Still Crazy After All These Years (1975). His Graceland (1986) album, recorded with African musicians, became the most successful and influential of the new genre of world music. Both African music and Brazilian music informed his album The Rhythm of the Saints (1990). With the West Indian poet Derek Walcott he wrote the Broadway musical The Capeman (1998).

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(born Nov. 11, 1863, Paris, Fr.—died Aug. 15, 1935, Paris) French painter. At 18 he gave up architecture to pursue painting in the Impressionist manner. In 1884 he became a founder of the Salon des Indépendants. With Georges Seurat he developed an exact mathematical system of applying dots of colour, which they called Pointillism (see Neo-Impressionism). He traveled extensively along the European coast painting landscapes and seascapes; in his later years he painted street scenes of Paris and other cities. He was a master of watercolour, in which he achieved great brilliance of colour and a free, spontaneous style. His work had a great influence on Henri Matisse.

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(born Jan. 21, 1922, Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, Eng.—died March 19, 2008, near Sussex) British actor. After entertaining the troops in World War II, he joined the theatre company at Stratford-upon-Avon (later the Royal Shakespeare Company) in 1946, winning acclaim as Henry V and Hamlet. He had his greatest success in A Man for All Seasons in London (1960) and New York City (1961–62) and reprised the role on film (1966, Academy Award). He continued to excel in stage productions, notably Uncle Vanya (1970) and Amadeus (1979). He appeared in the film versions of King Lear (1971), A Delicate Balance (1973), and Henry V (1989), and he later acted in the films Quiz Show (1994) and The Crucible (1996).

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(baptized July 4, 1610, Paris, France—died Oct. 7, 1660, Paris) French writer. With his first works, Scarron helped make the burlesque a characteristic literary form of his time. Virgile travesty, 7 vol. (1648–53) was a very successful parody of Virgil's Aeneid. Scarron's plays, often based on Spanish originals, were important in the theatrical life of Paris. He is now remembered for a single novel, Le Roman comique, 3 vol. (1651–57; “The Comic Novel”), which recounts the comical adventures of a company of strolling players; its realism makes it an invaluable source of information about conditions in the French provinces in the 17th century. His widow, Madame de Maintenon, was later married to Louis XIV.

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Jean-Paul Sartre, photograph by Gisèle Freund, 1968.

(born June 21, 1905, Paris, France—died April 15, 1980, Paris) French philosopher, novelist, and playwright, the foremost exponent of existentialism. He studied at the Sorbonne, where he met Simone de Beauvoir, who became his lifelong companion and intellectual collaborator. His first novel, Nausea (1938), narrates the feeling of revulsion that a young man experiences when confronted with the contingency of existence. Sartre used the phenomenological method of Edmund Husserl (see phenomenology) with great skill in three successive publications: Imagination: A Psychological Critique (1936), Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions (1939), and The Psychology of Imagination (1940). In Being and Nothingness (1943), he places human consciousness, or nothingness (néant), in opposition to being, or thingness (être); consciousness is nonmatter and thus escapes all determinism. In his postwar treatise Existentialism and Humanism (1946) he depicts this radical freedom as carrying with it a responsibility for the welfare of others. In the 1940s and '50s he wrote many critically acclaimed plays—including The Flies (1943), No Exit (1946), and The Condemned of Altona (1959)—the study Saint Genet, Actor and Martyr (1952), and numerous articles for Les Temps Modernes, the monthly review that he and de Beauvoir founded and edited. A central figure of the French left after the war, he was an outspoken admirer of the Soviet Union—though not a member of the French Communist Party—until the crushing of the Hungarian uprising by Soviet tanks in 1956, which he condemned. His Critique of Dialectical Reason (1960) faults Marxism for failing to adapt itself to the concrete circumstances of particular societies and for not respecting individual freedom. His final works include an autobiography, The Words (1963), and Flaubert (4 vol., 1971–72), a lengthy study of the author. He declined the 1964 Nobel Prize for Literature.

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(born April 24, 1581, Pouy, France—died Sept. 27, 1660, Paris; canonized 1737; feast day September 27) French religious leader. Educated by the Franciscans at Dax, he was ordained in 1600 and graduated from the University of Toulouse in 1604. It is said that he was captured at sea by Barbary pirates but escaped. In 1625 he founded the Congregation of the Mission (also called Lazarists or Vincentians) in Paris as a preaching and teaching order. He also established the Confraternities of Charity, associations of laywomen who nursed the sick. With St. Louise de Marillac he cofounded the Daughters of Charity (Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul).

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City (pop., 2000: 287,151), capital of Minnesota, U.S. It is in the eastern part of the state, on the Mississippi River just east of Minneapolis, with which it forms the Twin Cities. In 1805 Zebulon Pike made an unofficial treaty there with the Dakota (Sioux) for possession of the region. First settled in 1838, it was known as Pig's Eye until 1841, when a log chapel dedicated to St. Paul was built there. It became the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849 and of the state in 1858. It was important in the development of the upper Midwest because of its location on the Mississippi and its rail links, which promoted its livestock market. It is a major transportation, commercial, and industrial centre with diversified manufactures, including automobiles, electronic equipment, and food products. Educational institutions include Macalester and Concordia colleges.

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(born June 28, 1577, Siegen, Westphalia—died May 30, 1640, Antwerp, Spanish Neth.) Flemish painter and diplomat. After apprenticeships in Antwerp, he was admitted to its painters' guild in 1598. He went to Italy in 1600 and until 1608 worked for the duke of Mantua, who in 1603 sent him to Spain to present paintings and other gifts to Philip III, the first of many diplomatic missions he would perform for various courts over three decades. The enormous fame he would achieve made him welcome at royal courts, and sovereigns often discussed affairs of state while they sat for portraits. Returning to the Spanish Netherlands (now Belgium) in 1608, he was appointed court painter to the Spanish Habsburg regents, and over the next decade produced numerous altarpieces. A devout Catholic, he became the Counter-Reformation's chief artistic proponent in northern Europe. In 1620 he contracted to design 39 ceiling paintings for the Jesuit church, to be completed by assistants, including the young Anthony Van Dyck. In France he did 21 large canvases for Marie de Médicis and a tapestry cycle for Louis XIII; for Britain his Allegory of Peace and War (1629–30) commemorated the success of his own diplomatic efforts to end hostilities between Britain and Spain, and he decorated the royal Banqueting House for Charles I; in Spain he did more than 60 oil sketches for Philip IV's hunting lodge. Both Charles and Philip knighted him. His output was prodigious. He was the greatest exponent of Baroque painting's dynamism, vitality, and sensual exuberance. His profound stylistic influence extended over three centuries.

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(born April 9, 1898, Princeton, N.J., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1976, Philadelphia, Pa.) U.S. singer, actor, and activist. Born to a former slave turned preacher and a Quaker mother, Robeson attended Rutgers University, where he was an All-America football player. Graduating at the head of his class, he went on to earn a law degree at Columbia University. Because of a lack of opportunity for African Americans in law, he turned to theatre, joining a group that included Eugene O'Neill and appearing in his All God's Chillun Got Wings (1924) and The Emperor Jones (1924), a huge success in New York City and London. He also starred in the film version of The Emperor Jones (1933). Robeson's superb bass-baritone brought him worldwide renown with his performance of “Ol' Man River” in Show Boat (1928). His lead role in Othello won high praise in London (1930) and on Broadway (1943). He visited the Soviet Union in 1934 and became identified with leftist politics. In 1950 his passport was withdrawn because he refused to disclaim membership in the Communist Party. Viciously harassed and ostracized, Robeson left the U.S. to live in Europe and travel in Soviet-bloc countries, but he returned in 1963 because of ill health.

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(born Oct. 15, 1878, Barcelonnette, France—died Sept. 21, 1966, Paris) French politician and premier (1940). After serving in World War I, he served in the Chamber of Deputies (1919–24, 1928–40) and in cabinet positions (1930–32). As minister of finance (1938–40) and premier (1940), he called on France to resist Nazi Germany. After the German invasion, Reynaud resigned rather than conclude an armistice; he was arrested and kept in captivity (1940–45). He returned to the Chamber of Deputies (1946–62) and helped draft the constitution of the Fifth Republic.

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(born , Jan. 1, 1735, Boston, Mass.—died May 10, 1818, Boston) American patriot and silversmith. He entered his father's trade as a silversmith and engraver. An ardent supporter of the colonists' cause, he took part in the Boston Tea Party. As the principal rider for Boston's Committee of Safety, he arranged to signal the British approach by having lanterns placed in Boston's Old North Church steeple: “One if by land and two if by sea.” On April 18, 1775, he set off to ride to Lexington to alert colonists that British troops were on the march and to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock to flee. Though he was stopped by a British patrol, he was able to alert the patriot leaders; because of his warning, the minutemen were prepared for the Battle of Lexington and the start of the American Revolution. His ride was celebrated in a famous poem by Henry W. Longfellow (1863). During the war, Revere constructed a powder mill to supply colonial arms. After the war he discovered a process for rolling sheet copper and opened a rolling mill that produced sheathing for ships such as the USS Constitution. He continued to design handsome silver bowls, flatware, and utensils that are museum pieces today.

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Jackson Pollock painting in his studio on Long Island, New York, 1950.

(born Jan. 28, 1912, Cody, Wyo., U.S.—died Aug. 11, 1956, East Hampton, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He grew up in California and Arizona. In the early 1930s he studied in New York City under Thomas Hart Benton, and later he was employed on the WPA Federal Art Project. In 1945 he married the artist Lee Krasner. Two years later, after several years of semiabstract work stimulated by psychotherapy, Pollock began to lay his canvas on the floor and pour or drip paint onto it in stages. This process permitted him to record the force and scope of his gestures in trajectories of enamel or aluminum paint that “veiled” the figurative elements found in his earlier work. The results were huge areas covered with complex and dynamic linear patterns that fuse image and form and engulf the vision of the spectator in their scale and intricacy. Pollock believed that art derived from the unconscious and judged his work and that of others on its inherent authenticity of personal expression. He became known as a leading practitioner of Abstract Expressionism, particularly the form known as action painting. Championed by critic Clement Greenberg and others, he became a celebrity. When he died in a car crash at 44, he was one of the few American painters to be recognized during his lifetime and afterward as the peer of 20th-century European masters of modern art.

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(born April 20, 1879, Paris, Fr.—died April 30, 1944, Paris) French fashion designer. After working in the Parisian fashion house of Charles Frederick Worth, he opened his own shop in 1902. In 1908 he revived the Empire style, popular in France during the reign of Napoleon I. Seeking to restore naturalness to female garb, he was principally responsible for the decline of the corset. He is best known for the hobble skirt, to which he later added draped and belted knee-length tunics. Fringed and tasseled capes, multicoloured feathers, and fox stoles imparted a theatrical look to his designs. His flowing Greek costumes were extremely popular in the prewar era, but his popularity faded in the 1920s and he died in poverty.

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(born June 28, 1577, Siegen, Westphalia—died May 30, 1640, Antwerp, Spanish Neth.) Flemish painter and diplomat. After apprenticeships in Antwerp, he was admitted to its painters' guild in 1598. He went to Italy in 1600 and until 1608 worked for the duke of Mantua, who in 1603 sent him to Spain to present paintings and other gifts to Philip III, the first of many diplomatic missions he would perform for various courts over three decades. The enormous fame he would achieve made him welcome at royal courts, and sovereigns often discussed affairs of state while they sat for portraits. Returning to the Spanish Netherlands (now Belgium) in 1608, he was appointed court painter to the Spanish Habsburg regents, and over the next decade produced numerous altarpieces. A devout Catholic, he became the Counter-Reformation's chief artistic proponent in northern Europe. In 1620 he contracted to design 39 ceiling paintings for the Jesuit church, to be completed by assistants, including the young Anthony Van Dyck. In France he did 21 large canvases for Marie de Médicis and a tapestry cycle for Louis XIII; for Britain his Allegory of Peace and War (1629–30) commemorated the success of his own diplomatic efforts to end hostilities between Britain and Spain, and he decorated the royal Banqueting House for Charles I; in Spain he did more than 60 oil sketches for Philip IV's hunting lodge. Both Charles and Philip knighted him. His output was prodigious. He was the greatest exponent of Baroque painting's dynamism, vitality, and sensual exuberance. His profound stylistic influence extended over three centuries.

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orig. Saul

(born AD 10?, Tarsus in Cilicia—died 67?, Rome) Early Christian missionary and theologian, known as the Apostle to the Gentiles. Born a Jew in Tarsus, Asia Minor, he was trained as a rabbi but earned his living as a tentmaker. A zealous Pharisee, he persecuted the first Christians until a vision of Jesus, experienced while on the road to Damascus, converted him to Christianity. Three years later he met St. Peter and Jesus' brother James and was henceforth recognized as the 13th Apostle. From his base in Antioch, he traveled widely, preaching to the Gentiles. By asserting that non-Jewish disciples of Christ did not have to observe Jewish law, he helped to establish Christianity as a separate religion rather than a Jewish sect. On a journey to Jerusalem, he aroused such hostility among the Jews that a mob gathered, and he was arrested and imprisoned for two years. The circumstances of his death are unknown. Paul's ministry and religious views are known largely from his letters, or epistles, collected in the New Testament, which are the first Christian theological writing and the source of much Christian doctrine. It was due to Paul more than anyone else that Christianity became a world religion.

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orig. Lester Polfus

(born June 9, 1915, Waukesha, Wis., U.S.) U.S. guitarist and inventor. He played many styles of popular music, initially country but later jazz, and in the 1940s he was a sideman for Nat King Cole and Bing Crosby. He invented the first solid-body electric guitar and was instrumental in developing modern multitrack recording. His overdubbed, sped-up recordings from the late 1940s and early 1950s—including “Brazil” (1948), “Nola” (1950), and “How High the Moon” (1951), often with his wife, Mary Ford (1924–77) singing multiple harmony parts—demonstrated the potential of tape. He continued to perform occasionally into his 80s.

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in full Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg

Hindenburg

(born Oct. 2, 1847, Posen, Prussia—died Aug. 2, 1934, Neudeck, Ger.) German field marshal and second president (1925–34) of the Weimar Republic. Born to an aristocratic family, he retired from the Prussian army as a general in 1911. Recalled to duty in World War I, he commanded German forces in East Prussia and became a national hero after the Battle of Tannenberg (1914). With Erich Ludendorff as his chief aide, he nominally commanded all German forces until the end of the war, then retired again in 1919. Supported by conservative groups, he was elected president of Germany in 1925. When the Great Depression led to a political crisis, he was pressured to make the government more independent of parliamentary controls. In 1930 he allowed Chancellor Heinrich Brüning to dissolve the Reichstag, and in the new elections the Nazi Party emerged as the second largest party. In 1932 Hindenburg was reelected president by opponents of the Nazis; however, his advisers considered the Nazis useful, and in 1933 he was persuaded to appoint Adolf Hitler chancellor.

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(born March 28, 1890, Denver, Colo., U.S.—died Dec. 29, 1967, Doylestown, Pa.) U.S. musician and bandleader. Whiteman made his first records in 1920. His instrumental concept, known as “symphonic jazz,” featured lush harmonies and simplified jazz rhythms but little improvisation; he nevertheless became known as “The King of Jazz.” Whiteman commissioned George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue and conducted its premiere in 1924. The Whiteman band featured, among others, Bing Crosby, Bix Beiderbecke, and Jack Teagarden. His popularity waned in the late 1940s, but he was a television-series host in the 1950s and occasionally led bands up to the time of his death.

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orig. Giovanni Battista Montini

(born Sept. 26, 1897, Concesio, near Brescia, Italy—died Aug. 6, 1978, Castel Gandolfo) Pope (1963–78). Educated at Brescia and ordained in 1920, he continued his studies in Rome, earning degrees in civil and canon law. He was a church diplomat for much of his career, until he was named archbishop of Milan in 1954. He became a cardinal in 1958, and in 1963 he was elected pope. Paul VI presided over the final sessions of the Second Vatican Council and appointed commissions to carry out its reforms, including revisions in the mass. He also relaxed rules on fasting, removed a number of questionable saints from the church's calendar, and enforced conservative positions on birth control and clerical celibacy. He promoted ecumenism and was the first pope to travel widely, visiting Israel, India, Asia, and Latin America.

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White Fence, photograph by Paul Strand, 1916.

(born Oct. 16, 1890, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died March 31, 1976, Oregeval, France) U.S. photographer. He studied photography with Lewis Hine. At Hine's urging, he frequented Alfred Stieglitz's “291” gallery; the avant-garde paintings by Pablo Picasso, Paul Cézanne, and Georges Braque that he saw there led him to emphasize abstract form and pattern in his photographs, such as Wall Street (1915). He rejected soft-focus Pictorialism in favour of the minute detail and rich tonal range afforded by the use of large-format cameras. Much of his later work was devoted to North American and European scenes and landscapes. He collaborated on documentary films with Charles Sheeler and Pare Lorentz.

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(born Nov. 11, 1863, Paris, Fr.—died Aug. 15, 1935, Paris) French painter. At 18 he gave up architecture to pursue painting in the Impressionist manner. In 1884 he became a founder of the Salon des Indépendants. With Georges Seurat he developed an exact mathematical system of applying dots of colour, which they called Pointillism (see Neo-Impressionism). He traveled extensively along the European coast painting landscapes and seascapes; in his later years he painted street scenes of Paris and other cities. He was a master of watercolour, in which he achieved great brilliance of colour and a free, spontaneous style. His work had a great influence on Henri Matisse.

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(baptized July 4, 1610, Paris, France—died Oct. 7, 1660, Paris) French writer. With his first works, Scarron helped make the burlesque a characteristic literary form of his time. Virgile travesty, 7 vol. (1648–53) was a very successful parody of Virgil's Aeneid. Scarron's plays, often based on Spanish originals, were important in the theatrical life of Paris. He is now remembered for a single novel, Le Roman comique, 3 vol. (1651–57; “The Comic Novel”), which recounts the comical adventures of a company of strolling players; its realism makes it an invaluable source of information about conditions in the French provinces in the 17th century. His widow, Madame de Maintenon, was later married to Louis XIV.

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(born Oct. 15, 1878, Barcelonnette, France—died Sept. 21, 1966, Paris) French politician and premier (1940). After serving in World War I, he served in the Chamber of Deputies (1919–24, 1928–40) and in cabinet positions (1930–32). As minister of finance (1938–40) and premier (1940), he called on France to resist Nazi Germany. After the German invasion, Reynaud resigned rather than conclude an armistice; he was arrested and kept in captivity (1940–45). He returned to the Chamber of Deputies (1946–62) and helped draft the constitution of the Fifth Republic.

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(born , Jan. 1, 1735, Boston, Mass.—died May 10, 1818, Boston) American patriot and silversmith. He entered his father's trade as a silversmith and engraver. An ardent supporter of the colonists' cause, he took part in the Boston Tea Party. As the principal rider for Boston's Committee of Safety, he arranged to signal the British approach by having lanterns placed in Boston's Old North Church steeple: “One if by land and two if by sea.” On April 18, 1775, he set off to ride to Lexington to alert colonists that British troops were on the march and to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock to flee. Though he was stopped by a British patrol, he was able to alert the patriot leaders; because of his warning, the minutemen were prepared for the Battle of Lexington and the start of the American Revolution. His ride was celebrated in a famous poem by Henry W. Longfellow (1863). During the war, Revere constructed a powder mill to supply colonial arms. After the war he discovered a process for rolling sheet copper and opened a rolling mill that produced sheathing for ships such as the USS Constitution. He continued to design handsome silver bowls, flatware, and utensils that are museum pieces today.

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(born April 20, 1879, Paris, Fr.—died April 30, 1944, Paris) French fashion designer. After working in the Parisian fashion house of Charles Frederick Worth, he opened his own shop in 1902. In 1908 he revived the Empire style, popular in France during the reign of Napoleon I. Seeking to restore naturalness to female garb, he was principally responsible for the decline of the corset. He is best known for the hobble skirt, to which he later added draped and belted knee-length tunics. Fringed and tasseled capes, multicoloured feathers, and fox stoles imparted a theatrical look to his designs. His flowing Greek costumes were extremely popular in the prewar era, but his popularity faded in the 1920s and he died in poverty.

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(born Jan. 26, 1925, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. film actor. He studied drama at Yale University and the Actors Studio and first appeared on Broadway in Picnic (1953). In 1954 he made his screen debut in the disastrous biblical epic The Silver Chalice. He won favourable notice in Somebody up There Likes Me (1956) and The Long Hot Summer (1958). In many of his best-remembered roles, he captured the darker, less heroic aspects of a character's nature, as in such successful films as The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), The Color of Money (1986; Academy Award), and Nobody's Fool (1994). He directed and produced films such as Rachel, Rachel (1968) and The Glass Menagerie (1987), both of which starred his wife, Joanne Woodward. In 1982 he launched the successful “Newman's Own” line of food products, with its profits going to a number of charitable causes.

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Paul Laurence Dunbar, 1906.

(born June 27, 1872, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 9, 1906, Dayton) U.S. author. The son of former slaves, Dunbar became the first African American writer to try to live by his writings and one of the first to attain national prominence. He wrote for a largely white readership, using black dialect and depicting the pre-Civil War South in pastoral, idyllic tones. His verse collections include Oak and Ivy (1893), Majors and Minors (1895), and Lyrics of Lowly Life (1896). His poems reached a wide readership, and he gave readings in the U.S. and England. He also published four short-story collections and four novels, including The Sport of the Gods (1902).

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orig. Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger

(born Oct. 10, 1825, Cradock district, Cape Colony—died July 14, 1904, Clarens, Switz.) South African soldier and statesman, noted as the builder of the Afrikaner nation. As a boy of 10, Kruger took part in the Great Trek and was impressed by the ability of the Boers to defend themselves against hostile African peoples and to establish an orderly government. When the British annexed the Transvaal in 1877, Kruger became the recognized champion of his people in the struggle to regain independence. After leading a series of armed attacks, he succeeded in obtaining limited independence and was elected president of the restored republic (1883–1902). In 1895 he fended off an attempt by Cecil Rhodes and Leander Starr Jameson to end Boer control of the republic. His age prevented his participation in the South African War and he retreated to the Netherlands; he died in Switzerland and was buried (December 1904) in Pretoria, S.Af.

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Klee, 1939

(born Dec. 18, 1879, Münchenbuchsee, Switz.—died June 29, 1940, Muralto) Swiss painter. After studies in Germany and Italy, he settled in Munich, where he became associated with Der Blaue Reiter (1911). He taught at the Bauhaus (1920–31), then at the Düsseldorf Academy. He lost his post when the Nazis came to power in 1933 and returned to Switzerland. One of the foremost artists of the 20th century, he belonged to no movement, yet he assimilated and even anticipated some of the major artistic tendencies of his time. Using both representational and abstract approaches, he produced some 9,000 paintings, drawings, and watercolours in a great variety of styles. His works, which tend to be small in scale, are remarkable for their delicate nuances of line, colour, and tonality. In Klee's highly sophisticated art, irony and a sense of the absurd are joined to an intense evocation of the mystery and beauty of nature. Music figures prominently in his work—in his many images of opera and musicians, and to some extent as a model for his compositions. But literature had the greater pull on him; his art is steeped in poetic and mythic allusion, and the h1s he gave to his pictures tend to charge them with additional meanings. His late paintings, anticipating his approaching death, are among his most memorable.

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(born October 1957, Rwanda) President of Rwanda from 2000. An ethnic Tutsi, Kagame grew up in exile in Uganda, where in 1986 he helped overthrow Milton Obote in favour of Yoweri Museveni. In 1990 he helped direct an unsuccessful coup in Rwanda, and following the 1994 genocide that left almost one million Rwandans dead (most of them Tutsi), he assumed control of the joint Tutsi-Hutu opposition forces that soon controlled all of Rwanda. In July 1994 he was named vice president and minister of defense under Hutu president Pasteur Bizimungu. After Bizimungu resigned in 2000, Kagame was named president. In 1997 he was instrumental in the overthrow of Mobutu Sese Seko in neighbouring Zaire (Congo) and the installation of Laurent Kabila as president.

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(born , Aug. 20, 1886, Starzeddel, Brandenburg, Ger.—died Oct. 22, 1965, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) German-born U.S. Protestant theologian. He studied at Berlin, Tübingen, and Halle and was a chaplain with the German army during World War I. He taught successively at Marburg, Dresden, and Frankfurt am Main. In 1933 the Nazi takeover prompted him to immigrate to the U.S. With the aid of Reinhold Niebuhr, he joined the faculty of New York's Union Theological Seminary. He became respected for his lucid preaching and his Systematic Theology, 3 vol. (1951–63). He moved to Harvard University in 1955 and to the University of Chicago in 1962. His theological system was an unusual combination of biblical, existentialist, and metaphysical elements, and he attempted to convey an understanding of God that depended neither on revelation nor on science. His other works include The Courage to Be (1952) and Dynamics of Faith (1957).

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orig. Alessandro Farnese

(born Feb. 29, 1468, Canino, Papal States—died Nov. 10, 1549, Rome) Pope (1534–49). The son of a noble Tuscan family, he was made a cardinal-deacon in 1493 and served as bishop in Parma and Ostia before being named dean of the College of Cardinals by Pope Leo X. Ordained a priest in 1519, he was unanimously elected pope in 1534. Though loose in morals in earlier years (he had three sons and a daughter), he became an efficient promoter of reform, convening the Council of Trent in 1545 and initiating the Counter-Reformation. He also supported the newly founded Jesuits and was a patron of the arts, the last in the tradition of the Renaissance popes.

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(born Nov. 16, 1895, Hanau, near Frankfurt am Main, German Empire—died Dec. 28, 1963, Frankfurt am Main, W.Ger.) German composer. His talent was noticed early, and he received thorough training on viola, violin, clarinet, and piano. He became concertmaster of the Frankfurt Opera at age 20, and his compositions began drawing attention at new-music festivals. Because his wife was Jewish and his music was considered “degenerate” by the Nazis, he left Germany in 1938, settling in the U.S. in 1940. Advocating Gebrauchsmusik (“useful music”), he wrote solo sonatas and concertos for many of the standard orchestral instruments. Mathis der Maler (1935) is the best known of his six operas; the symphony based on it, and the Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Weber (1943), are widely performed.

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(born Oct. 13, 1941, Newark, N.J., U.S.) U.S. pop singer and songwriter. Simon began performing with Art Garfunkel (b. 1941) in the 1950s, using the name Tom and Jerry. After a break, the two reunited in 1964 as Simon and Garfunkel. Their first hit single was “Sounds of Silence” (1966); others over the next six years included “Mrs. Robinson” (for the film The Graduate) and “Bridge over Troubled Water.” After the two parted company, Simon released several hit albums, including Still Crazy After All These Years (1975). His Graceland (1986) album, recorded with African musicians, became the most successful and influential of the new genre of world music. Both African music and Brazilian music informed his album The Rhythm of the Saints (1990). With the West Indian poet Derek Walcott he wrote the Broadway musical The Capeman (1998).

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(born Dec. 30, 1910, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1999, Tangier, Mor.) U.S.-Moroccan composer, writer, and translator. Bowles studied musical composition with Aaron Copland and wrote music for more than 30 plays and films. He moved to Morocco in the 1940s. He set his best-known novel, The Sheltering Sky (1948; film, 1990), in Tangier. His protagonists, in that novel and other works, are often Westerners maimed by their contact with traditional cultures that bewilder them, and violent events and psychological collapse are recounted in a detached and elegant style. His wife, Jane Bowles (1917–73), is known for the novel Two Serious Ladies (1943) and the play In the Summer House (1953).

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(born March 14, 1854, Strehlen, Silesia, Prussia—died Aug. 20, 1915, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Ger.) German medical scientist. After early work on distribution of foreign substances in the body and on cell nutrition, he found uses for staining agents in diagnosis (including that of tuberculosis) and treatment. He also researched typhoid, fever medications, and eye diseases. In one paper, he showed that different tissues' oxygen consumption reflected the intensity of their cell processes. Ehrlich developed a method of stimulating production of antitoxins by injecting increasing amounts of toxin into animals; his work was crucial to the creation of a diphtheria antitoxin. He and Élie Metchnikoff received the 1908 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. With Sahachiro Hata, he developed Salvarsan, the first effective syphilis treatment, in 1910.

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orig. Giuseppe Guttoveggio

(born Oct. 10, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 24, 1985, San Diego, Calif.) U.S. composer. Born to a poor immigrant family, he was largely self-taught in music. His numerous works, many of which achieved wide performance, are highly rhythmical and tonally accessible. They include six symphonies, a Requiem and three masses, and several concertos. He is noted for the rhythmic vitality and full harmonies of his music, which is marked by modern dissonances and polyrhythms.

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(born Aug. 6, 1868, Villeneuve-sur-Fère, France—died Feb. 23, 1955, Paris) French poet, playwright, and diplomat. He converted to Catholicism at age 18. His brilliant diplomatic career began in 1892, and he eventually served as ambassador to Japan (1921–27) and the U.S. (1927–33). At the same time he pursued a literary career, expressing in poetry and drama his conception of the grand design of creation. He reached his largest audience through plays such as Break of Noon (1906), The Hostage (1911), Tidings Brought to Mary (1912), and his masterpiece, The Satin Slipper (1929); recurring themes in these works are human and divine love and the search for salvation. He wrote the librettos for Darius Milhaud's opera Christopher Columbus (1930) and Arthur Honegger's oratorio Joan of Arc (1938). His best-known poetic work is the confessional Five Great Odes (1910).

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orig. Paul Antschel

(born Nov. 23, 1920, Cernāutsubcommai, Rom.—died May 1, 1970, Paris, France) Romanian poet who wrote in German. When Romania came under Nazi control during World War II, Celan, a Jew, was sent to a forced-labour camp; his parents were murdered. He moved to Vienna in 1947 and published his first volume of poetry, The Sand from the Urns, in 1948. His second volume, Poppy and Memory (1952), established his reputation in West Germany. He produced seven more volumes before taking his own life by drowning in the Seine. Celan's dense and complex verse is marked by his experience of World War II; his early poem “Todesfuge” is one of the most famous poetic expressions of the Holocaust.

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(born April 9, 1898, Princeton, N.J., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1976, Philadelphia, Pa.) U.S. singer, actor, and activist. Born to a former slave turned preacher and a Quaker mother, Robeson attended Rutgers University, where he was an All-America football player. Graduating at the head of his class, he went on to earn a law degree at Columbia University. Because of a lack of opportunity for African Americans in law, he turned to theatre, joining a group that included Eugene O'Neill and appearing in his All God's Chillun Got Wings (1924) and The Emperor Jones (1924), a huge success in New York City and London. He also starred in the film version of The Emperor Jones (1933). Robeson's superb bass-baritone brought him worldwide renown with his performance of “Ol' Man River” in Show Boat (1928). His lead role in Othello won high praise in London (1930) and on Broadway (1943). He visited the Soviet Union in 1934 and became identified with leftist politics. In 1950 his passport was withdrawn because he refused to disclaim membership in the Communist Party. Viciously harassed and ostracized, Robeson left the U.S. to live in Europe and travel in Soviet-bloc countries, but he returned in 1963 because of ill health.

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Legendary giant lumberjack of the U.S. frontier. A symbol of strength and vitality, he is accompanied by a giant blue ox, Babe. He was credited with creating Puget Sound, digging the Grand Canyon, and building the Black Hills, and was known for his prodigious appetite, eating hotcakes off a griddle so large it was greased by men using sides of bacon as skates. Tales of his exploits probably originated in lumber camps, and were first published by James MacGillivray in “The Round River Drive” (1910), which soon led to a national myth.

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(born June 28, 1824, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Fr.—died July 9, 1880, Paris) French surgeon. His study of brain lesions contributed significantly to understanding of the origins of aphasia. Much of Broca's research concerned the comparative study of the skulls of the races of humankind, work that aided the development of modern physical anthropology. He originated methods to study the brain's form, structure, and surface features and sections of prehistoric skulls. His discovery (1861) of the brain's speech centre (convolution of Broca) was the first anatomical proof of localization of brain function.

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(born Dec. 30, 1910, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1999, Tangier, Mor.) U.S.-Moroccan composer, writer, and translator. Bowles studied musical composition with Aaron Copland and wrote music for more than 30 plays and films. He moved to Morocco in the 1940s. He set his best-known novel, The Sheltering Sky (1948; film, 1990), in Tangier. His protagonists, in that novel and other works, are often Westerners maimed by their contact with traditional cultures that bewilder them, and violent events and psychological collapse are recounted in a detached and elegant style. His wife, Jane Bowles (1917–73), is known for the novel Two Serious Ladies (1943) and the play In the Summer House (1953).

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(born June 30, 1926, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. biochemist. He received his Ph.D. from Western Reserve University. While studying the actions of isolated genes, he devised methods for splitting DNA molecules at selected sites and attaching the resulting segments to the DNA of a virus or plasmid, which could then enter bacterial or animal cells. The foreign DNA was incorporated into the host and caused the synthesis of proteins not ordinarily found there. One of the earliest practical results of this research was the development of a strain of bacteria that contained the gene for producing insulin. In 1980 Berg shared a Nobel Prize with Walter Gilbert (b. 1932) and Frederick Sanger.

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orig. Paul Antschel

(born Nov. 23, 1920, Cernāutsubcommai, Rom.—died May 1, 1970, Paris, France) Romanian poet who wrote in German. When Romania came under Nazi control during World War II, Celan, a Jew, was sent to a forced-labour camp; his parents were murdered. He moved to Vienna in 1947 and published his first volume of poetry, The Sand from the Urns, in 1948. His second volume, Poppy and Memory (1952), established his reputation in West Germany. He produced seven more volumes before taking his own life by drowning in the Seine. Celan's dense and complex verse is marked by his experience of World War II; his early poem “Todesfuge” is one of the most famous poetic expressions of the Holocaust.

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(born Aug. 8, 1902, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Oct. 20, 1984, Tallahassee, Fla., U.S.) English mathematician and theoretical physicist. His first major contribution (1925–26) was a general and logically simple form of quantum mechanics. About the same time, he developed ideas of Enrico Fermi, which led to the Fermi-Dirac statistics. He then applied Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity to the quantum mechanics of the electron and showed that the electron must have spin of 12. Dirac's theory also revealed new states later identified with the positron. He shared the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics with Erwin Schrödinger. In 1932 Dirac was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, a chair once occupied by Isaac Newton. Dirac retired from Cambridge in 1969 and held a professorship at Florida State University from 1971 until his death.

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(born Sept. 5, 1927, Cape May, N.J., U.S.) U.S. economist. He worked as an economist for the Chase Manhattan Bank (1957–61; 1965–68). As an undersecretary at the U.S. Treasury Department (1969–74), Volcker was the chief architect of the U.S.'s abandonment of the gold-exchange standard and the devaluations of the U.S. dollar (1971, 1973). After serving as president of the Federal Reserve Bank (1975–79), he was appointed head of the Federal Reserve System in 1979 by Pres. Jimmy Carter and served until 1987. To end a period of very high inflation, he slowed the growth of the money supply and allowed interest rates to rise, causing a recession (1982–83) but dramatically reducing inflation.

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(born March 30, 1844, Metz, France—died Jan. 8, 1896, Paris) French lyric poet. After entering the civil service, he was first associated with the Parnassian poets, contributing to the first volume of the anthology Le Parnasse contemporain (1866). His early collections, Poèmes saturniens (1866), Fêtes galantes (1869), La Bonne chanson (1870), and Romances sans paroles (1874), show the intense lyricism and musicality that would mark all his verse. His marriage was shattered by his infatuation with Arthur Rimbaud, and the two scandalized Paris with their behaviour in 1872–73. While in prison in Belgium (1873–75) for shooting Rimbaud when the latter threatened to leave him, he converted to Catholicism and probably composed the famous “Art poétique,” adopted in 1882 by the poets of the Symbolist movement. Sagesse (1880) expresses his religious faith and his emotional odyssey. He later taught French and English; he spent his late years in poverty, but just before his death he was sponsored for a major international lecture tour. His Les Poètes maudits (1884; “The Accursed Poets”) consists of short biographical studies of six poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Rimbaud. He is regarded as the third great member (with Charles Baudelaire and Mallarmé) of the so-called Decadents.

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(born Aug. 6, 1868, Villeneuve-sur-Fère, France—died Feb. 23, 1955, Paris) French poet, playwright, and diplomat. He converted to Catholicism at age 18. His brilliant diplomatic career began in 1892, and he eventually served as ambassador to Japan (1921–27) and the U.S. (1927–33). At the same time he pursued a literary career, expressing in poetry and drama his conception of the grand design of creation. He reached his largest audience through plays such as Break of Noon (1906), The Hostage (1911), Tidings Brought to Mary (1912), and his masterpiece, The Satin Slipper (1929); recurring themes in these works are human and divine love and the search for salvation. He wrote the librettos for Darius Milhaud's opera Christopher Columbus (1930) and Arthur Honegger's oratorio Joan of Arc (1938). His best-known poetic work is the confessional Five Great Odes (1910).

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Russian Pavel Petrovich

(born Oct. 1, 1754, St. Petersburg, Russia—died March 23, 1801, St. Petersburg) Tsar of Russia (1796–1801). He was the son of Peter III and Catherine II, whom he succeeded as emperor in 1796. He reversed many of Catherine's policies, strengthened the autocracy, and established the law of succession within the male line of the Romanov dynasty. He provoked the hostility of the nobles and the army with his tyrannical rule and capricious foreign policy, which drew Russia into war with France. In a plot by the nobles to depose him and place his son Alexander (later Alexander I) on the throne, Paul was assassinated.

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(born Jan. 26, 1925, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. film actor. He studied drama at Yale University and the Actors Studio and first appeared on Broadway in Picnic (1953). In 1954 he made his screen debut in the disastrous biblical epic The Silver Chalice. He won favourable notice in Somebody up There Likes Me (1956) and The Long Hot Summer (1958). In many of his best-remembered roles, he captured the darker, less heroic aspects of a character's nature, as in such successful films as The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), The Color of Money (1986; Academy Award), and Nobody's Fool (1994). He directed and produced films such as Rachel, Rachel (1968) and The Glass Menagerie (1987), both of which starred his wife, Joanne Woodward. In 1982 he launched the successful “Newman's Own” line of food products, with its profits going to a number of charitable causes.

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(born Oct. 15, 1926, Poitiers, France—died June 25, 1984, Paris) French structuralist philosopher and historian. A professor at the Collège de France from 1970, he examined the codes and concepts by which societies operate, especially the “principles of exclusion” (such as the distinctions between the sane and the insane) by which a society defines itself. He theorized that, by surveying social attitudes in relation to institutions such as asylums, hospitals, and prisons, one can examine the development and omnipresence of power. His books—including Madness and Civilization (1961), The Order of Things (1966), The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969), Discipline and Punish (1975), and History of Sexuality, 3 vol. (1976–84)—made him one of the most influential intellectuals of his time. He was an outspoken homosexual, and he died of AIDS. Seealso structuralism.

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orig. Lester Polfus

(born June 9, 1915, Waukesha, Wis., U.S.) U.S. guitarist and inventor. He played many styles of popular music, initially country but later jazz, and in the 1940s he was a sideman for Nat King Cole and Bing Crosby. He invented the first solid-body electric guitar and was instrumental in developing modern multitrack recording. His overdubbed, sped-up recordings from the late 1940s and early 1950s—including “Brazil” (1948), “Nola” (1950), and “How High the Moon” (1951), often with his wife, Mary Ford (1924–77) singing multiple harmony parts—demonstrated the potential of tape. He continued to perform occasionally into his 80s.

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orig. Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger

(born Oct. 10, 1825, Cradock district, Cape Colony—died July 14, 1904, Clarens, Switz.) South African soldier and statesman, noted as the builder of the Afrikaner nation. As a boy of 10, Kruger took part in the Great Trek and was impressed by the ability of the Boers to defend themselves against hostile African peoples and to establish an orderly government. When the British annexed the Transvaal in 1877, Kruger became the recognized champion of his people in the struggle to regain independence. After leading a series of armed attacks, he succeeded in obtaining limited independence and was elected president of the restored republic (1883–1902). In 1895 he fended off an attempt by Cecil Rhodes and Leander Starr Jameson to end Boer control of the republic. His age prevented his participation in the South African War and he retreated to the Netherlands; he died in Switzerland and was buried (December 1904) in Pretoria, S.Af.

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Klee, 1939

(born Dec. 18, 1879, Münchenbuchsee, Switz.—died June 29, 1940, Muralto) Swiss painter. After studies in Germany and Italy, he settled in Munich, where he became associated with Der Blaue Reiter (1911). He taught at the Bauhaus (1920–31), then at the Düsseldorf Academy. He lost his post when the Nazis came to power in 1933 and returned to Switzerland. One of the foremost artists of the 20th century, he belonged to no movement, yet he assimilated and even anticipated some of the major artistic tendencies of his time. Using both representational and abstract approaches, he produced some 9,000 paintings, drawings, and watercolours in a great variety of styles. His works, which tend to be small in scale, are remarkable for their delicate nuances of line, colour, and tonality. In Klee's highly sophisticated art, irony and a sense of the absurd are joined to an intense evocation of the mystery and beauty of nature. Music figures prominently in his work—in his many images of opera and musicians, and to some extent as a model for his compositions. But literature had the greater pull on him; his art is steeped in poetic and mythic allusion, and the h1s he gave to his pictures tend to charge them with additional meanings. His late paintings, anticipating his approaching death, are among his most memorable.

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(born October 1957, Rwanda) President of Rwanda from 2000. An ethnic Tutsi, Kagame grew up in exile in Uganda, where in 1986 he helped overthrow Milton Obote in favour of Yoweri Museveni. In 1990 he helped direct an unsuccessful coup in Rwanda, and following the 1994 genocide that left almost one million Rwandans dead (most of them Tutsi), he assumed control of the joint Tutsi-Hutu opposition forces that soon controlled all of Rwanda. In July 1994 he was named vice president and minister of defense under Hutu president Pasteur Bizimungu. After Bizimungu resigned in 2000, Kagame was named president. In 1997 he was instrumental in the overthrow of Mobutu Sese Seko in neighbouring Zaire (Congo) and the installation of Laurent Kabila as president.

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orig. John Paul

John Paul Jones, portrait by Charles Willson Peale, 1781.

(born July 6, 1747, Kirkbean, Kirkcudbright, Scot.—died July 18, 1792, Paris, France) American naval hero. He went to sea at age 12 and became a ship's master at age 21. He joined his brother in Virginia in 1775. When the American Revolution began, he joined the new Continental Navy under Esek Hopkins. In 1776 he sailed the Providence along the Atlantic coast, capturing eight British ships and sinking eight more. Appointed by Congress to the newly built Ranger, he made a spectacular cruise through St. George's Channel and the Irish Sea (1777–78), where he took a number of prizes. In 1779 he commanded the Bonhomme Richard and intercepted a merchant fleet. Though outgunned by an escort ship, the Serapis, he forced its surrender after a fierce battle, answering its challenge to surrender with “I have not yet begun to fight!” His ship sank soon after, and he sailed two British prizes to the Netherlands. In 1790 he retired, in ill health, to France.

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(born April 20, 1920, Chicago, Ill., U.S.) U.S. jurist. He studied law at Northwestern University and clerked at the Supreme Court of the United States before joining a Chicago law firm, where he specialized in antitrust law while also teaching and serving on various public commissions. He was appointed to the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (1970) by Pres. Richard Nixon and to the Supreme Court by Pres. Gerald Ford (1975). Though initially perceived as a conservative, he proved to be a moderate liberal; indeed, as the court became more conservative in the 1980s and early '90s, after appointments by Pres. Ronald Reagan and Pres. George Bush, Stevens became perhaps the court's most liberal member.

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orig. John Paul

John Paul Jones, portrait by Charles Willson Peale, 1781.

(born July 6, 1747, Kirkbean, Kirkcudbright, Scot.—died July 18, 1792, Paris, France) American naval hero. He went to sea at age 12 and became a ship's master at age 21. He joined his brother in Virginia in 1775. When the American Revolution began, he joined the new Continental Navy under Esek Hopkins. In 1776 he sailed the Providence along the Atlantic coast, capturing eight British ships and sinking eight more. Appointed by Congress to the newly built Ranger, he made a spectacular cruise through St. George's Channel and the Irish Sea (1777–78), where he took a number of prizes. In 1779 he commanded the Bonhomme Richard and intercepted a merchant fleet. Though outgunned by an escort ship, the Serapis, he forced its surrender after a fierce battle, answering its challenge to surrender with “I have not yet begun to fight!” His ship sank soon after, and he sailed two British prizes to the Netherlands. In 1790 he retired, in ill health, to France.

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orig. Karol Wojtyła

John Paul II, 1979.

(born May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Pol.—died April 2, 2005, Vatican City) Pope (1978–2005), the bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic church, the first non-Italian pope in 455 years and the first ever from a Slavic country. He studied for the priesthood at an underground seminary in Kraków during World War II and was ordained in 1946. He earned a doctorate in philosophy in Rome (1948) and returned home to serve in a parish, earning a second doctorate (also 1948), in sacred theology, from the Jagiellonian University. He became archbishop of Kraków in 1964 and cardinal in 1967. Elected pope after the 33-day pontificate of John Paul I (b. 1912—d. 1978), he became known for his energy, charisma, and intellect as well as for his conservative theological views and fervent anticommunism. In 1981 John Paul was shot in St. Peter's Square by a Turkish gunman, but he recovered, resumed his work, and forgave his would-be assassin. His trips abroad attracted some of the largest crowds ever assembled. His nonviolent activism spurred movements that contributed to the peaceful dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. He championed economic and political justice in developing nations. In naming 44 cardinals from five continents (February 2001), John Paul reached out to cultures around the world. He also canonized more saints, from more parts of the world, than had any other pope. His ecumenical efforts, including meetings with Jewish, Muslim, and Eastern Orthodox religious leaders, were widely praised, but he often drew criticism for his traditionalist views on issues of gender and sexuality. Although afflicted with Parkinson disease since the early 1990s, John Paul remained active and made a historic trip to Jerusalem in March 2000, during which he sought to improve relations between the Roman Catholic church and Jews.

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(born Feb. 24, 1955, San Francisco, Cal., U.S.) U.S. businessman. Adopted in infancy, he grew up in Los Altos. He dropped out of Reed College and went to work for Atari Corp. designing video games. In 1976 he cofounded (with Stephen Wozniak) Apple Computer (incorporated in 1977; now Apple Inc.). The first Apple computer, created when Jobs was only 21, changed the public's idea of a computer from a huge machine for scientific use to a home appliance that could be used by anyone. Apple's Macintosh computer, which appeared in 1984, introduced a graphical user interface and mouse technology that became the standard for all applications interfaces. In 1980 Apple became a public corporation, and Jobs became the company's chairman. Management conflicts led him to leave Apple in 1985 to form NeXT Computer Inc., but he returned to Apple in 1996 and became CEO in 1997. The striking new iMac computer (1998) revived the company's flagging fortunes.

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Jean-Paul Sartre, photograph by Gisèle Freund, 1968.

(born June 21, 1905, Paris, France—died April 15, 1980, Paris) French philosopher, novelist, and playwright, the foremost exponent of existentialism. He studied at the Sorbonne, where he met Simone de Beauvoir, who became his lifelong companion and intellectual collaborator. His first novel, Nausea (1938), narrates the feeling of revulsion that a young man experiences when confronted with the contingency of existence. Sartre used the phenomenological method of Edmund Husserl (see phenomenology) with great skill in three successive publications: Imagination: A Psychological Critique (1936), Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions (1939), and The Psychology of Imagination (1940). In Being and Nothingness (1943), he places human consciousness, or nothingness (néant), in opposition to being, or thingness (être); consciousness is nonmatter and thus escapes all determinism. In his postwar treatise Existentialism and Humanism (1946) he depicts this radical freedom as carrying with it a responsibility for the welfare of others. In the 1940s and '50s he wrote many critically acclaimed plays—including The Flies (1943), No Exit (1946), and The Condemned of Altona (1959)—the study Saint Genet, Actor and Martyr (1952), and numerous articles for Les Temps Modernes, the monthly review that he and de Beauvoir founded and edited. A central figure of the French left after the war, he was an outspoken admirer of the Soviet Union—though not a member of the French Communist Party—until the crushing of the Hungarian uprising by Soviet tanks in 1956, which he condemned. His Critique of Dialectical Reason (1960) faults Marxism for failing to adapt itself to the concrete circumstances of particular societies and for not respecting individual freedom. His final works include an autobiography, The Words (1963), and Flaubert (4 vol., 1971–72), a lengthy study of the author. He declined the 1964 Nobel Prize for Literature.

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(born April 9, 1933, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France) French film actor. After studying in Paris and performing with provincial stage companies, he appeared in minor film roles before achieving international fame in Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (1960). Though not conventionally handsome, he became the leading antihero of New Wave cinema, acting in 25 films by 1963, then went on to appear in such acclaimed films as Pierrot le Fou (1965), Mississippi Mermaid (1969), and Les Misérables (1995).

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(born Dec. 15, 1892, Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.—died June 6, 1976, Sutton Place, Surrey, Eng.) U.S. oil billionaire, reputed to be the richest man in the world at his death. The son of an oil millionaire, he began buying and selling oil leases in Oklahoma in 1913. He acquired Pacific Western Oil Corp. in 1932 and soon gained control of several independent oil companies. He renamed his oil concern Getty Oil Co. in 1956. His most lucrative venture was a 60-year oil concession in Saudi Arabia. His financial empire eventually encompassed some 200 enterprises. A zealous art collector, he founded the J. Paul Getty Museum near Malibu, Calif., in 1953.

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(born March 27, 1851, Paris, France—died Dec. 1, 1931, Paris) French composer and teacher. Trained in organ and composition, he rejected the prevailing French style as frivolous by comparison with the German musical tradition. He wrote several important stage works, including Fervaal (1895) and The Legend of Saint Christopher (1915), but orchestral works such as Symphony on a French Mountain Air (1886), Summer Day in the Mountains (1905), and Istar (1896) remain better known. In 1894 he cofounded the music academy called the Schola Cantorum in Paris, where many of France's foremost composers and musicians would be trained.

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in full Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg

Hindenburg

(born Oct. 2, 1847, Posen, Prussia—died Aug. 2, 1934, Neudeck, Ger.) German field marshal and second president (1925–34) of the Weimar Republic. Born to an aristocratic family, he retired from the Prussian army as a general in 1911. Recalled to duty in World War I, he commanded German forces in East Prussia and became a national hero after the Battle of Tannenberg (1914). With Erich Ludendorff as his chief aide, he nominally commanded all German forces until the end of the war, then retired again in 1919. Supported by conservative groups, he was elected president of Germany in 1925. When the Great Depression led to a political crisis, he was pressured to make the government more independent of parliamentary controls. In 1930 he allowed Chancellor Heinrich Brüning to dissolve the Reichstag, and in the new elections the Nazi Party emerged as the second largest party. In 1932 Hindenburg was reelected president by opponents of the Nazis; however, his advisers considered the Nazis useful, and in 1933 he was persuaded to appoint Adolf Hitler chancellor.

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(born Nov. 16, 1895, Hanau, near Frankfurt am Main, German Empire—died Dec. 28, 1963, Frankfurt am Main, W.Ger.) German composer. His talent was noticed early, and he received thorough training on viola, violin, clarinet, and piano. He became concertmaster of the Frankfurt Opera at age 20, and his compositions began drawing attention at new-music festivals. Because his wife was Jewish and his music was considered “degenerate” by the Nazis, he left Germany in 1938, settling in the U.S. in 1940. Advocating Gebrauchsmusik (“useful music”), he wrote solo sonatas and concertos for many of the standard orchestral instruments. Mathis der Maler (1935) is the best known of his six operas; the symphony based on it, and the Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Weber (1943), are widely performed.

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Joseph Goebbels, circa 1935.

(born Oct. 29, 1897, Rheydt, Ger.—died May 1, 1945, Berlin) German Nazi leader. After earning a doctorate from Heidelberg University, he joined the Nazi Party and was appointed district leader in Berlin by Adolf Hitler in 1926. A gifted speaker, Goebbels also edited the party's journal and began to create the Führer myth around Hitler, instituting the party demonstrations that helped convert the masses to Nazism. After Hitler seized power in 1933, Goebbels took control of the national propaganda machinery. During World War II he carried on a personal propaganda blitz to raise hopes on the home front. Named chancellor in Hitler's will, he remained with Hitler to the end. One day after Hitler's suicide, Goebbels and his wife killed themselves and their six children.

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(born Dec. 15, 1892, Minneapolis, Minn., U.S.—died June 6, 1976, Sutton Place, Surrey, Eng.) U.S. oil billionaire, reputed to be the richest man in the world at his death. The son of an oil millionaire, he began buying and selling oil leases in Oklahoma in 1913. He acquired Pacific Western Oil Corp. in 1932 and soon gained control of several independent oil companies. He renamed his oil concern Getty Oil Co. in 1956. His most lucrative venture was a 60-year oil concession in Saudi Arabia. His financial empire eventually encompassed some 200 enterprises. A zealous art collector, he founded the J. Paul Getty Museum near Malibu, Calif., in 1953.

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(born June 7, 1848, Paris, France—died May 8, 1903, Atuona, Hiva Oa, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia) French painter, sculptor, and printmaker. He spent his childhood in Lima (his mother was a Peruvian Creole). From circa 1872 to 1883 he was a successful stockbroker in Paris. He met Camille Pissarro about 1875, and he exhibited several times with the Impressionists. Disillusioned with bourgeois materialism, in 1886 he moved to Pont-Aven, Brittany, where he became the central figure of a group of artists known as the Pont-Aven school. Gauguin coined the term “Synthetism” to describe his style during this period, referring to the synthesis of his paintings' formal elements with the idea or emotion they conveyed. Late in October 1888 Gauguin traveled to Arles, in the south of France, to stay with Vincent van Gogh. The style of the two men's work from this period has been classified as Post-Impressionist because it shows an individual, personal development of Impressionism's use of colour, brushstroke, and nontraditional subject matter. Increasingly focused on rejecting the materialism of contemporary culture in favour of a more spiritual, unfettered lifestyle, in 1891 he moved to Tahiti. His works became open protests against materialism. He was an influential innovator; Fauvism owed much to his use of colour, and he inspired Pablo Picasso and the development of Cubism.

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(born Oct. 15, 1926, Poitiers, France—died June 25, 1984, Paris) French structuralist philosopher and historian. A professor at the Collège de France from 1970, he examined the codes and concepts by which societies operate, especially the “principles of exclusion” (such as the distinctions between the sane and the insane) by which a society defines itself. He theorized that, by surveying social attitudes in relation to institutions such as asylums, hospitals, and prisons, one can examine the development and omnipresence of power. His books—including Madness and Civilization (1961), The Order of Things (1966), The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969), Discipline and Punish (1975), and History of Sexuality, 3 vol. (1976–84)—made him one of the most influential intellectuals of his time. He was an outspoken homosexual, and he died of AIDS. Seealso structuralism.

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orig. Jenó Pál Wigner

(born Nov. 17, 1902, Budapest, Hung.—died Jan. 1, 1995, Princeton, N.J., U.S.) Hungarian-born U.S. physicist. After studies at the University of Berlin, he immigrated to the U.S. in 1930 and joined the faculty of Princeton University. He was instrumental in getting the Manhattan Project started and was present when Enrico Fermi initiated the first chain reaction. He determined that the nuclear force is short-range and does not involve an electric charge, using group theory to investigate atomic structure. His name was given to several formulations, including the Breit-Wigner formula, which describes resonant nuclear reactions. He won a 1963 Nobel Prize (shared with Maria Mayer and Hans Jensen [1907–73], who won for unrelated work) for his insights into quantum mechanics, especially principles governing interaction of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and his formulation of the law of conservation of parity (see conservation law). In addition to his many scientific awards, he received numerous awards for his work for peace.

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(born March 14, 1854, Strehlen, Silesia, Prussia—died Aug. 20, 1915, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Ger.) German medical scientist. After early work on distribution of foreign substances in the body and on cell nutrition, he found uses for staining agents in diagnosis (including that of tuberculosis) and treatment. He also researched typhoid, fever medications, and eye diseases. In one paper, he showed that different tissues' oxygen consumption reflected the intensity of their cell processes. Ehrlich developed a method of stimulating production of antitoxins by injecting increasing amounts of toxin into animals; his work was crucial to the creation of a diphtheria antitoxin. He and Élie Metchnikoff received the 1908 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. With Sahachiro Hata, he developed Salvarsan, the first effective syphilis treatment, in 1910.

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Paul Laurence Dunbar, 1906.

(born June 27, 1872, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 9, 1906, Dayton) U.S. author. The son of former slaves, Dunbar became the first African American writer to try to live by his writings and one of the first to attain national prominence. He wrote for a largely white readership, using black dialect and depicting the pre-Civil War South in pastoral, idyllic tones. His verse collections include Oak and Ivy (1893), Majors and Minors (1895), and Lyrics of Lowly Life (1896). His poems reached a wide readership, and he gave readings in the U.S. and England. He also published four short-story collections and four novels, including The Sport of the Gods (1902).

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orig. Giuseppe Guttoveggio

(born Oct. 10, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 24, 1985, San Diego, Calif.) U.S. composer. Born to a poor immigrant family, he was largely self-taught in music. His numerous works, many of which achieved wide performance, are highly rhythmical and tonally accessible. They include six symphonies, a Requiem and three masses, and several concertos. He is noted for the rhythmic vitality and full harmonies of his music, which is marked by modern dissonances and polyrhythms.

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Legendary giant lumberjack of the U.S. frontier. A symbol of strength and vitality, he is accompanied by a giant blue ox, Babe. He was credited with creating Puget Sound, digging the Grand Canyon, and building the Black Hills, and was known for his prodigious appetite, eating hotcakes off a griddle so large it was greased by men using sides of bacon as skates. Tales of his exploits probably originated in lumber camps, and were first published by James MacGillivray in “The Round River Drive” (1910), which soon led to a national myth.

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(born March 21, 1925, London, Eng.) British director and producer. After directing plays in Stratford-upon-Avon, he became director of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden (1947–50). He directed several innovative Shakespearean productions that aroused controversy. Appointed codirector of the Royal Shakespeare Co. in 1962, he directed critically acclaimed productions of King Lear (1962) and A Midsummer Night's Dream (1970). He won international fame with his avant-garde direction of Peter Weiss's play Marat/Sade (1964). His films include Lord of the Flies (1962), King Lear (1969), and the six-hour Mahabharata (1989). In 1970 he cofounded, with Jean-Louis Barrault, the International Centre for Theatre Research.

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(born June 28, 1824, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Fr.—died July 9, 1880, Paris) French surgeon. His study of brain lesions contributed significantly to understanding of the origins of aphasia. Much of Broca's research concerned the comparative study of the skulls of the races of humankind, work that aided the development of modern physical anthropology. He originated methods to study the brain's form, structure, and surface features and sections of prehistoric skulls. His discovery (1861) of the brain's speech centre (convolution of Broca) was the first anatomical proof of localization of brain function.

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(born Aug. 24, 1902, Luméville, France—died Nov. 28, 1985, Haute-Savoie) French historian and educator. While a prisoner of the Germans during World War II, Braudel wrote from memory his thesis on the history of the Mediterranean region in the 16th century, later published as The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Phillip II (1949). With Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre, he became an influential leader of the Annales school, which emphasized the effects of factors such as climate, geography, and demographics on history. His second major work was Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century (1967, 1979).

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(born June 30, 1926, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. biochemist. He received his Ph.D. from Western Reserve University. While studying the actions of isolated genes, he devised methods for splitting DNA molecules at selected sites and attaching the resulting segments to the DNA of a virus or plasmid, which could then enter bacterial or animal cells. The foreign DNA was incorporated into the host and caused the synthesis of proteins not ordinarily found there. One of the earliest practical results of this research was the development of a strain of bacteria that contained the gene for producing insulin. In 1980 Berg shared a Nobel Prize with Walter Gilbert (b. 1932) and Frederick Sanger.

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(born April 9, 1933, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France) French film actor. After studying in Paris and performing with provincial stage companies, he appeared in minor film roles before achieving international fame in Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (1960). Though not conventionally handsome, he became the leading antihero of New Wave cinema, acting in 25 films by 1963, then went on to appear in such acclaimed films as Pierrot le Fou (1965), Mississippi Mermaid (1969), and Les Misérables (1995).

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---- Paul is a common English name, derived from Paulus, a Roman cognomen. It may refer specifically to the following:

Roman and Byzantine empire

Christianity

Saints

  • Paul the Apostle from Tarsus, or Saint Paul, early Christian missionary and author of numerous letters of the New Testament of the Christian Bible (AD 3-10 — 62-68)
  • See Saint Paul (disambiguation), for other saints named "Paul", and places named after them

Popes

Royals

Other

Notable Pauls

Places

Other uses

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