Malaybalay City (Filipino: Lungsod ng Malaybalay; Cebuano: Siyudad sa Malaybalay), dubbed as the "South Summer Capital of the Philippines" and "City in the Forest", is a first class component city and the capital and administrative center of the province of Bukidnon, Philippines. The city is bordered north by Impasug-ong; west by Lantapan; south by Valencia City and San Fernando; and east by Cabanglasan and Agusan del Sur. According to the 2007 Census of Population by the National Statistics Office (NSO) the city is inhabited by 144, 065 residents.
When Spanish explorers came to the central portion of the province in the late 18th century, they inquired as to the name of the town. The people replied in sputtering Visayan "walay balay", which means "no house" in Visaya. The Spaniards mispronounced the name and repeated it as "Malaybalay".
It was formerly part of the province of Misamis Oriental as a municipal district in the late 19th century. When the special province of Agusan and its sub-province (Bukidnon) was created in 1907, Malaybalay was designated as the capital of Bukidnon. It was then formally established as a municipality in October 19, 1907 and was created into a city in February 11, 1998 by virtue of R.A. 8490.
A few years after their defeat, the survivors of the said battle who fled to Silae slowly returned to the area ans established a new settlement near the Sacub River (present-day Rizal Park) under the protection of Datu Mampaalong. Together with thirty (30) other datus, Datu Mampaalong accepted Spanish dominion and embraced Christianity on June 15, 1877, ending the long standing war between them. On that day, the Spaniards made Malaybalay into a pueblo named Oroquita del Interior with a territory covering the area of what is now the province of Bukidnon, but the name of the settlement was still retained as Malaybalay.
|Mayors of Malaybalay City|
|Juan Melendez – 1906-1908|
|Fernando Damasco – 1909-1913|
|Jose Ruiz – 1914-1918|
|Juan Melendez – 1924-1936|
|Faustino Caterial – 1936-1937|
|Catalino Damasco – 1937-1939|
|Gerardo Pimentel – 1940-1941|
|Salvador Alberto – 1943-1947|
|Teofilo Salcedo – 1948-1951|
|Fortunato Carbajal, Sr. – 1951-1954|
|Lorenzo S. Dinlayan – 1955-1971|
|Timoteo C. Ocaya – 1972-1979|
|Edilberto B. Mamawag – 1979-1980 (Appointed)|
|Reginaldo N. Tilanduca – 1980-1986|
|Violeta T. Labaria – 1986 (Appointed)|
|Almaco A. Villanueva – 1987 (Appointed)|
|Rogelio M. Bides – 1988 (Appointed)|
|Reginaldo N. Tilanduca – 1988-1992|
|Nicolas C. Jurolan – 1992-2001|
|Florencio T. Flores, Jr. – 2001 to present|
In 1850, Malaybalay became a part of the province of Misamis as a municipal district. The Philippine Commission then headed by Commissioner Dean C. Worcester, Secretary of Interior and a member of the Philippine Commission proposed the separation of Bukidnon from Misamis Province.
On August 20, 1907, the Philippine Commission Act No. 1693 was enacted creating the Province of Agusan and the sub-province of Bukidnon. Malaybalay was then formally created as a municipality on October 19, 1907. When Bukidnon was declared as a regular province and become an independent political unit on March 10, 1917 by virtue of the creation of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu under Act 2711, Malaybalay was designated as its provincial capital.
During the Second World War, in 1942, the Japanese occupation troops entered Bukidnon. They occupied Malaybalay, establishing a camp in Casisang. Guerrilla groups operating around Malaybalay made frequent raids on the Japanese camps from the time of the occupation until the arrival of the Americans. In 1945, American liberation forces, together with the Philippine Commonwealth Forces and Filipino guerrillas liberated Malaybalay.
On March 26, 1996, the Sangguniang Bayan of the municipality of Malaybalay passed Resolution No. 3699-96 petitioning to the House of Representatives for the conversion of Malaybalay into a city. Reginaldo Tilanduca, 2nd District Representative of Bukidnon at that time, files House Bill No. 6275, proposing the creation of Malaybalay into a component city. On February 11, 1998, President Fidel Ramos signed the act (R.A. 8490) that converted Malaybalay to a city, making it the first component city of Bukidnon.
Malaybalay City, the capital city of Bukidnon is located in the central part of the province. It is bounded in the east by the municipality of Cabanglasan and the Pantaron Range, which separates Bukidnon from the provinces of Agusan del Sur and Davao del Norte; on the west by the municipality of Lantapan and Mount Kitanglad; on the north by the municipality of Impasug-ong; and on the south by Valencia City and the municipality of San Fernando.
The climate classification of Malaybalay City falls under the Fourth Type or intermediate B type, which is characterized by the absence of a pronounced maximum period and dry season. The period from May to October is where heavy rains occur. Rain falls at a yearly average of and occurs throughout the year, though it is more intense during the country's rainy season from June to October. On the other hand, November to April are the relatively dry months. Compared with the rest of the country, the climate in Malaybalay is relatively cooler the whole year round and the area is not on the typhoon belt.
The total land area of the city is approximately 108, 259 hectares (984.38 km²), that is about 13% of the total area of Bukidnon. An estimated of sixty five percent (65%) of this is classified as forestland/timberland and the remaining thirty five (35%) is alienable and disposable areas (A & D), lands which could be used for various purposes such as for agriculture or for industry.
The city plays a strategic role in the protection of the headwater source of the Pulangi and the Tagoloan rivers because of its location the upper portion of both watershed areas. The Pulangi River then extends through the Cotabato provinces as the Rio Grande de Mindanao and to Cotabato City, where it empties into Illana Bay. The Tagoloan River, on the other hand, traverses northwestward towards Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental, where it joins the Macajalar Bay. These watershed areas provided potable water, irrigation, hydro-electric power and various recreation and tourism activities.
The average elevation of the city is 622 meters above sea level (2, 040.68 feet). About sixty percent (60%) of the city's area has above 30% slope, characterized by steep hills, mountains, and cliff-like stream side. About 25% are level, gently sloping, and undulating. The rest are rolling and hilly.
One of prominent geographical structure in the city is the Kitanglad Mountain Range, located in the western frontier, in its border with Lantapan and Impasug-ong. Some barangays (Dalwangan, Capitan Bayong, Imbayao and Mampayag) are located in the foot slopes of this mountain range. Steep hills are found in the central portion of the city (Kibalabag, Manalog and Can-ayan), where the Tagoloan River headwater can be found. The Central Mindanao Cordillera (Pantaron Mountain Range), is on the eastern side of the city, in its boundaries with Agusan del Sur province. The Pulangi River cuts across the area between the hills in the central part and the Central Cordillera in the eastern part, creating a portion of the Upper Pulangi river valley. The southern portion of the city is made up of level to undulating area, a river valley created by the Sawaga River and the Manupali River, which are both tributaries of the Pulangi River.
About sixty six percent (66%) of the city's soil is identified as undifferentiated mountain soil and the rest are clay. The predominant types of clay are Kidapawan, Alimodian and Adtuyon, which are generally good for agriculture.
Malaybalay is originally the home of the Bukidnon "lumads" or natives, but there has been an influx of settlers and immigrants from the Visayas and Luzon for the last four decades contributing to the growth of the population of the city. The original inhabitants, the Bukidnons, have retreated to the hiterlands as the migrants continued to occupy and dominate the population centers in the city. At present, Malaybalay City is the second most populous political subdivision in the province, after Valencia City.
The Census of Population conducted by the National Statistics Office in 2007 showed that the city now has 144, 065 inhabitants. The historical growth of population of the city showed a variable pattern of growth (See Figure). The first census of population in was made 1918 with Malaybalay having only 16,428 inhabitants. The 21-year period from 1918 to 1939 was a low-growth period with the city's population growing at a 0.6% annually. This was then followed by a period of population decline until the post-World War II era, declining by 1.5% per year. The twelve year period from 1948 to 1960 is a period of high growth, when the city's population almost doubled fro its 1948 level. This pace of growth continued until 1970, growing 6.7%. In 1970, Malaybalay has 65,918 inhabitants. A 5-year period of declining growth followed, the population dropped to 60,779. After the decline, Malaybalay's population has been increasing since then, growing by 3.4% from 1990-1995, 1.9% from 1995-2000. Government demographers estimate that the city's population will reach more than 150,000 by 2010.
The city is predominantly rural, with only 16% of the population in urban areas, 40% in urbanizing barangays and 46% in rural areas. Population is evenly distributed in the urban and rural areas. The urban areas are generally found on the confines of the Sayre Highway that traverses the city. The main urban population is found in the Poblacion-Casisang area. Secondary population centers includes barangays Aglayan, Bangcud and Kalasungay.
Malaybalay has one of the lowest average population density in the province, second only to Impasug-ong with only 146 persons per square kilometer although there are barangays, especially in the Poblacion area, with high population density.
Cebuano is prevailing medium of communication in the city. More than half of the city's population are native-speakers of this dialect. Other dialects are Binukid, spoken by the lumads or the original inhabitants, Boholano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, and other tribal dialects.
Malaybalay City forty six (46) barangays each headed by a barangay captain together with seven Sangguniang Barangay members.
The Sayre Highway bisects the Poblacion, the main urban center of the City, serving as the main thoroughfare of the city. Buses that ply the Cagayan de Oro, Bukidnon, Cotabato and Davao City route, as well as jeepneys, multi-cabs, vans and private vehicles pass through this highway contributing to its heavy traffic. Suburbs are served by multicabs, motorelas and improvised bicycles (trisikads).