is a process of deliberately redesigning the human body
means, with the goal of removing "biological limitations." The idea of participant evolution was first put forward by Manfred E. Clynes
and Nathan S. Kline
in the 1960s in their article Cyborgs and Space
, where they argued that the human species was already on a path of participant evolution. Science fiction
writers have speculated what the next stage of such participant evolution will be.
Whilst Clynes and Kline saw participant evolution as the process of creating cyborgs, the idea has been adopted and propounded by transhumanists who argue that individuals should have the choice of using human enhancement technologies on themselves and their children, to progressively become transhuman and ultimately posthuman, as part of a voluntary regimen of participant evolution.