The pandeiro (pronounced: pɐ̃ˈdejɾu), is a type of hand frame drum.
There are two important distinctions between a pandeiro and the common tambourine. The tension of the head on the pandeiro can be tuned, allowing the player a choice of high and low notes. Also, the metal jingles (called platinelas in Portuguese) are crisper, drier and less sustained on pandeiros than on the tambourine. This provides clarity when swift, complex rhythms are played.
It is held in one hand, and struck on the head by the other hand to produce the sound. Typical pandeiro patterns are played by alternating the thumb, fingertips, heel, and palm of the hand.
A pandeiro can also be shaken to make sound, or one can run a finger along the head to create a "rasp" noise. The pandeiro is used in a number of Brazilian music forms, such as Samba, Choro, Coco and Capoeira music (see Capoeira songs).
Some of the best-known pandeiro players today are Paulinho Da Costa, Airto Moreira, Marcos Suzano, and Carlinhos Pandeiro de Ouro.
There are two main types of pandeiro, one is a round South American
instrument and the other is a European
square medieval frame drum.
The Medieval Pandeiro
The medieval Pandeiro
(also called an Adufe
) is a square double skinned frame drum, often with a bell inside. It is pictured in several 13th century illustrations and the instrument is still played in some Portuguese and Spanish villages, as well as in a number of traditional/popular folk events in the Iberian Peninsula
. It derives from a Moorish/Arabic instrument and smaller versions of them can still be found in North Africa.
This is the original type of pandeiro and the South American drum is more modern descendant of it.
The South American Pandeiro
This is similar to the tambourine
, and is a small, hand-held Brazilian percussion instrument
. It typically consists of a round wooden frame, with six pairs of metal discs fit along the sides, and an animal skin or nylon head.