Palapa was a series of communication satellites owned by Telkom, an Indonesian telecommunication company. Its well-known satellite is Palapa B2, which was launched from the Space Shuttle, but failed to reach orbit and was salvaged with a second Shuttle mission.
The program was started in February 1975, when the government of Indonesia awarded the contract for two satellites to Boeing. The name Palapa was chosen by president Suharto and means 'fruits of labor'.
The name Palapa also alludes to "Sumpah Palapa" the oath taken by Gajah Mada, a 14th century Prime Minister of the Javanese Majapahit Empire described in the Pararaton (Book of Kings). Gajah Mada swore that he would not taste any spice, as long as he had not succeeded in unifying Nusantara (the Indonesian archipelago). By referring to this ancient oath of unification, the Palapa satellite series was also identified as the modern means to unify Indonesia.
As the first developing country to operate its own domestic satellite system in the mid seventies, Indonesia has consistently taken the steps necessary for developing its existing geostationary satellite system for multiple services, safeguarding its global orbital allocation on an equitable first come first served basis, and embracing emerging satellite communication systems (including non-geostationary ones) expected to yet emerge from their lingering stage.
The generation of Palapa Satellite had been launched to fulfil the communication line in Indonesia that day by day keeps on increasing. Palapa Satellite becomes foundation continually for communication system in this biggest archipelago country. To make this satellite keep on working longer, high quality is needed. The type of microelectronic technology in this satellite determines the work of Palapa to run its task.
One of the applications is news broadcasting by digital satellite (DSNG). This technology has been developed for five years so that news in voice and video form are able to be broadcasted from one place to another. The development of technology is affected by the advance of satellite. To use DSNG application, TV broadcaster must rent minimum 9 MHz to delay video program or audio stereo with notification for a long term using.
For Broadcasting Satellite Services, Indonesia registered the connection line in the early 1990s to ITU. INDOSTAR-1 is a Broadcasting Satellite Service (BSS) system that has been set up and has run operationally since 1997.
|Palapa A1||July 8 1976||Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-17A||Delta-2914|
|Palapa A2||March 3 1977||Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-17A||Delta-2914|
Altogether four satellites of the second series were built. They were all of the type Hughes HS-376. When the launch of Palapa B2 failed, a third satellite was ordered. Originally named Palapa B3 and scheduled for STS-61-H, it was finally launched as Palapa B2P. Meanwhile Palapa B2 was retrieved by STS-51-A, refurbished and relaunched later as Palapa B2R.
|Palapa B1||June 6 1983||STS-7|
|Palapa B2||February 3 1984||STS-41-B|
|Palapa B2P||March 20 1987||Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-17B||Delta-3920 PAM-D|
|Palapa B2R||April 13 1990||Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-17B||Delta-6925-8|
|Palapa B4||May 13 1992||Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-17B||Delta-7925-8|
|Palapa C1||February 1 1996||Cape Canaveral, Pad LC-36B||Atlas-2AS|
|Palapa C2||May 16 1996||Kourou ELA-2||Ariane-44L H10-3|
|TELKOM-1||Augustus 21 1999||Kourou ELA-2||Ariane 42P Rocket|
|TELKOM-2||November 2 2005||Kourou ELA-2||Ariane 5 ECA Rocket|
Indosat will use Palapa D for their broadband internet service (IM2) with Ku-band technology (12/14 GHz). In 2006, their total income increase about 12, 3 %. Hopefully, with the new satellite coming up, the company will earn more profit form multimedia, internet, and communication bussiness.
Gorizont satellite arrives in the Pacific; Indonesia holds firm. (Gorizont and Palapa B1 satellites occupy same orbital slot in Pacific Ocean Region; International Telecommunication Union powerless to intercede between Indonesian and Tongan claims to slot)
Jul 26, 1993; In what could become a case study for the future of orbital slot diplomacy, the international framework for the way in which...
Columbia, PanAmSat object to Tongasat's use of orbital slots. (Columbia Communications Corp., Pan American Satellite Corp. file petition with FCC protesting Tongasat's arbitrary usurpation of orbital slot) (Separate Systems)
Sep 06, 1993; While the standoff between Indonesia and Tongasat continued over the Pacific Ocean last week, satellite service providers in the...
Rimsat signs Indian customer; Palapa interference continues. (Rimsat Ltd. contract with Sun TV for satellite communications services; conflict with Indonesian satellite over orbital slot) (Conference)
Oct 11, 1993; SAN JOSE, CalifWhile facing interference problems over the Pacific Ocean and efforts to block its landing rights in the United...