Terrorism in Pakistan
has been prevalent since the 1980s mostly due to the Soviet-Afghan War
, and the subsequent proxy war
against the communists
that continued for at least a decade. The war brought numerous fighters from all over the world to South Asia
in the name of jihad
, often financed by the United States
or Saudi Arabia
. These fighters, known as mujahideen
, created havoc in Pakistan by carrying out terrorist activities inside the country well after the war officially ended.
Terrorism in Pakistan is mainly a result of Pakistan's support of terrorist activities in its neighbouring countries namely India and Afghanistan through state funding of Islamic terrorists. Subsequent to 9/11 Pakistan had to do a volte face under extreme US pressure and had to fight the very own islamic militants who had long been harboured and nurtered by them. This in return for American financial and military support as a part of the War on Terror. Some Islamic fundamentalists and terrorists view cooperation with the US as an affront to Islam.
The sectarian violence plaguing the country presently is also said to originate in the controversial Islamic policies of General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq initiated during his tenure from 1977 to 1988. These policies gave immense power to religious figures in the country, who in turn spread intolerant religious dogmas among the masses.
There have been many secessionists movements within Pakistan, the most significant of which is the Balochistan liberation movement. The movement gained momentum after the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War, when then-East Pakistan successfully attained independence from Pakistan. The Balochistan Liberation Army is currently active in its efforts to achieve independence by employing guerrilla attacks on both civilian and military targets. The attacks frequently incorporate IEDs, and are often filmed and made available on the internet, apparently for propaganda purposes.
According to one source, in 1987, 90% of all reported terrorist activities worldwide were located in Pakistan. This can be attributed to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan's status as the sixth most populous country in the world, with diverse cultures, languages, traditions and customs. The different cultures in Pakistan are associated with differing ideologies, further encouraging regionalism.
Pakistan's intelligence agency, the ISI, has often been accused of playing a role in major terrorist attacks across the world including the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, terrorism in Kashmir, Mumbai Train Bombings, London Bombings, Indian Parliament Attack, Varnasi bombings, Hyderabad bombings The ISI is also accused of supporting Taliban forces and recruiting and training mujahideen to fight in Afghanistan and Kashmir
Pakistan is also said to be a haven for terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda, Lashkar-e-Omar, Lashkar-e-Toiba, Sipah-e-Sahaba. Pakistan is accused of sheltering and training the Taliban in operations "which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and on several occasions apparently directly providing combat support," as quoted by the Human Rights Watch.
Three of the main causal factors contributing to terrorism in Pakistan are sectarian/religious violence
, mistrust of the Musharraf
coalition in the War on Terrorism
, and a history of training camps in Pakistan. Other causes, such as political rivalry and business disputes, also take their toll. It is estimated that more than 4,000 people have died in Pakistan in the past 25 years due to sectarian strife.
Role of Madrassas
The presence of many unregulated Madrassas
throughout Pakistan is believed to contribute significantly to its terrorism problem. Although the madrassas were created to fill the hole left by the state in educating young people free of charge, some became recruiting centers for terrorists, as most of the financing for the institutions came from terrorist groups and not from the government. There was also a great dearth of well-rounded education in these institutions, as their graduates were only good for Mosque
services, and not other fields of life. Thus, social and economic factors played a great role in helping to spread intolerance. The word Taliban
itself means "students", with "Talib" (singular) meaning a student.
A small number of these madrassas are supposed to provide military training which give inspiration to European extremists of South Asian descent. The 7 July 2005 London bombings was carried out by people who are believed to have visited a Pakistani madrassa at some time in their life, stoking fears that perhaps certain groups in Pakistan were encouraging violent activity. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf initially acknowledged that some madrassas might be involved in extremism and terrorism.. The Pakistani government denied the charges, saying that just because a citizen visits Pakistan once after living and being educated abroad until then, does not mean that the person was encouraged to perform terrorist acts in Pakistan. The government still acted swiftly, requiring all religious schools to register with the government. Also, Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf's cooperation with the United States' War on Terrorism has led to several assassination attempts on him by those who seek the destruction of Western interests. The president referred to this as terrorism.
See also: Pakistani involvement in the War on Terrorism
Intelligence agencies around the world have long suspected Pakistan as a source of extremism and terrorism. It has recently been revealed that Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, a top scientist involved with Pakistan's nuclear program has been selling nuclear technologies to Iran, North Korea and Libya. Khan was tried within Pakistan. It is unclear whether the state has been involved with his dealings. Pakistan has used Islamist militants to fight its wars in Afghanistan and Kashmir.
The Government of Pakistan is accused by India of having supplied monetary aid to certain terrorist organizations fighting for secession in Kashmir. It has strongly denied the latter. However some statements have claimed the involvement of Pakistan's Federal Minister for Railways, Sheikh Rashid Ahmed, in establishing terrorist training camps in the early stages of the war many years ago. American intelligence sources, mainly the FBI claims that there are "terrorist training camps" in Pakistan and that the terrorists come to Pakistan from all over the globe. In Pakistan, most modernized infrastructure of terrorist training exists, supported by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in terms of money, ideological training, and moral support. Many other nations and nonpartisan sources also state that Pakistan is one of the perpetrators of state-sponsored terrorism by providing help to Kashmiri and other terrorist outfits with connections to Al-Qaeda.
Terrorist groups in Pakistan
(The Army of Omar) is a terrorist organisation which is believed to have its members derived from 3 organizations, Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami
(LeJ) and Jaish-e-Mohammed
(JeM). The main terrorist activities for which it has been accused are:
- Attack on a church in Bahawalpur in Punjab on October 28, 2002, resulting in 18 deaths and 9 injuries.
- The group, was allegedly involved in the March 17, 2002 grenade attack on a church in the heavily guarded diplomatic enclave in Islamabad in which five persons, including a US diplomat's wife and daughter, were killed and 41 others injured.
- LeO was reportedly involved in the suicide bombing outside the Sheraton Hotel in Karachi on May 8, 2002 and the June 14th attack on the US consulate in Karachi, in which 10 persons, including five women, were killed and 51 others injured.
Pakistan-based terrorist group, Lashkar-e-Toiba
, has survived global sanctions and is poised to move into the political realm thereby strengthening the collective religious extremist groups' move to coalesce as a formidable opposition to the re-emergent civil democratic movement in Pakistan. This coalition of extremist and terrorist elements within Pakistan and the broad trajectory of the Taliban
relationship in Afghanistan threatens the stability of Pakistan and the region, and risks fueling the export of terrorism across the world. See PSRU Brief 12. Lashkar-e-Tayyeba
, Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU)
Previously known as Anjuman Sipah-e-Sahaba
(ASS), this group is thought to be behind most of the attacks on Shiites
. It came into prominence following the Iranian Revolution
in 1980s. Incidents thought to be caused by this group are as follows:
War on Terrorism in Pakistan
The post-9/11 War on Terrorism in Pakistan has had two principal elements: the government's battle with jihad groups banned after 9/11, and the U.S. pursuit of Al-Qaeda, usually (but not always) in coordination with Pakistani forces.
In 2004, the Pakistani army launched a pursuit of Al-Qaeda members in the mountainous area of Waziristan on the Afghan border. Clashes there erupted into a low-level conflict with Islamic militants and local tribesmen, sparking the Waziristan War. A short-lived truce known as the Waziristan accord was brokered in September 2006.
List of terrorist incidents in Pakistan
This is the list of major terrorist
incidents in Pakistan
. The War on Terrorism
had a major impact on Pakistan, when terrorism inside Pakistan increased twofold. The country was already gripped with sectarian violence, but after 9/11
, it also had to face violence related to various secessionist movements, and the direct threat of Al-Qaeda
, which usually targeted high-profile political figures. Terrorists killed 907 people and injured 1,543 others in Pakistan in 2006. In the year 2007 alone, terrorist attacks resulted in 3,448 casualties from 1,503 attacks and clashes according to Pakistan Institute for Peace Studies (PIPS) security report. PIPS report shows visible increase in suicide attacks after Lal Masjid operation
- October 28 Attack on a Protestant church in southern Punjab city of Bahawalpur resulted in 16 deaths and 5 injuries. The causalities were all Christian worshipers except one police officer.
- December 21 Pakistani interior minister Lt. Gen. (retd) Moinuddin Haider's elder brother Ehteshamuddin Haider was shot dead by assailants near Soldier Bazaar in Karachi.
- June 14 A powerful car bomb exploded near the heavily-guarded US Consulate in Karachi, killing 12 people and wounding over 50 others. A portion of the outer wall of the consulate was blown apart.
- July 13 Nine foreign tourists and three Pakistani nationals were injured in an attack near an archaeological site in the district of Mansehra.
- August 5 At least six people were killed and four injured in a gun attack on a missionary school for foreign students in mountain resort of Murree. The attack was carried by four gunmen, when they started firing indiscriminately, however no pupils were among those killed, all of whom were Pakistani guards and employees at the school.
- August 9 Three nurses — and an attacker — were killed while 25 others injured in a terrorist attack on a church in the Taxila Christian Hospital, in Taxila, northern Punjab.
- October 16 More than eight people were injured in a series of parcel bomb explosions in Pakistan's largest city, Karachi.
- September 25 Gunmen stormed the offices of a Christian welfare organization in Karachi, tied seven office workers to their chairs before shooting each in the head at close range.
- November 15 An explosion on a bus in Hyderabad, Sindh killed two people and injured at least nine others.
- December 5 Three people were killed in an attack at the Macedonian Honorary consulate in the city of Karachi. The dead - all Pakistani - were tied up, gagged and killed before the explosion at the office.
- December 25 Unidentified assailants threw a grenade at a Presbyterian church in Pakistan's central Punjab province, killing three young girls. At least 12 others were injured in the attack at Daska, near Sialkot.
- February 28 Two policemen were shot dead outside the United States consulate in Karachi, the same place where 12 people were killed by a car bomb nine months ago.
- March 10 Two people were injured when a masked terrorist opened indiscriminate fire on a mosque in Gulistan Colony, Faisalabad.
- June 8 11 Pakistani police trainees were shot dead in what is believed to have been a sectarian attack on Sariab Road, Quetta, as they all belonged to Hazara Shi'a branch of Islam. Another nine were reported wounded.
- July 4 At least 47 people were killed and 150 injured in an attack on a Shia mosque in the south-western Pakistani city of Quetta.
- October 3 Six employees of Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) were killed and several others injured when their official van was fired upon on Hub River Road in Mauripur, Karachi. A Lashkar-e-Jhangvi cadre was officially charged.
- October 6 Maulana Azam Tariq, chief of the Millat-i-Islamia (formerly Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan) and MNA, was assassinated by unidentified gunmen along with four others as his car drove into the capital, Islamabad.
- December 14 President Pervez Musharraf survived an assassination attempt when a powerful bomb went off minutes after his highly-guarded convoy crossed a bridge in Rawalpindi. Musharraf was apparently saved by a jamming device in his limousine that prevented the remote controlled explosives from blowing up the bridge as his convoy passed over it.
- December 25 Another attempt was carried on the president 11 days later when two suicide bombers tried to assassinate Musharraf, but their car bombs failed to kill the president; 16 others nearby died instead. Musharraf escaped with only a cracked windscreen on his car. Militant Amjad Farooqi was apparently suspected as being the mastermind behind these attempts, and was killed by Pakistani forces in 2004 after an extensive manhunt.
- February 28 An apparent suicide bomber was killed and three worshipers were injured in an attack on Imambargah in Satellite Town, Rawalpindi.
- March 2 At least 42 persons were killed and more than 100 wounded when a procession of the Shia Muslims was attacked by rival Sunni extremists at Liaquat Bazaar in Quetta.
- May 3 A car bomb in south-western city of Gwadar killed three Chinese engineers and injured 10 other people.
- May 7 A suicide bomber attacked a crowded Shia mosque in Sindh Madrassatul Islam in Karachi, killing at least 15 worshipers. More than 100 people were also injured, 25 of them critically in the attack. One person was killed in the riots that followed the attack.
- May 14 Six members of Shia family was shot dead in Mughalpura locality of Lahore.
- May 26 Two car bombs explode within 20 minutes of each other outside the Pakistan-American Cultural Center and near the US consul general's residence in Karachi, killing two men and injuring more than 27 people, mainly policemen and journalists.
- May 30 A senior Sunni religious scholar and head of Islamic religious school Jamia Binoria, Mufti Nizamuddin Shamzai, was gunned down in his car while leaving his home in Karachi.
- May 31 A suicide bomber blew up the Imambarghah Ali Raza mosque in Karachi in the middle of evening prayers, killing 16 worshipers and injuring 35. Two people were killed in riots over the mosque attack and Shamzai's assassination.
- June 10 Gunmen opened fire on a convoy carrying the then corps commander Lt Gen Ahsan Saleem Hyat leaving 11 people dead in Karachi. The corps commander who escaped unhurt later became the vice chief of army staff under General Pervez Musharraf.
- July 30 Assassination attempt on the Prime Minister-elect Shaukat Aziz, while he was campaigning for by-election in Fateh Jang, Attock District, Punjab. Even though he survived the attempt, nine people were killed due to the suicide bombing.
- August 2 Chief Minister of Balochistan province Jam Mohammad Yousaf escaped an assassination bid when unidentified persons fired at his convoy killing one of his bodyguards and injuring two others.
- August 8 At least eight people were killed and over 40 others injured when two bombs exploded in quick succession near the Jamia Binoria Madressah, Karachi.
- August 31 Three persons were killed and three others injured in a bomb blast at a shop in the Balochi town of Kalat.
- September 21 Suspected Sipah-e-Sahaba members gunned down at least three members of a Shi'a family in a sectarian attack in Dera Ismail Khan.
- October 1 A suicide bombing left 25 people dead and dozen injured at a Shia mosque after Friday prayers in the eastern city of Sialkot.
- October 7 A powerful car bomb left 40 people dead and wounded over 100 during a Sunni rally to commemorate Maulana Azam Tariq, assassinated leader of Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan, in the central city of Multan. This was most probably the retaliation of Sialkot suicide attacks exactly a week ago.
- October 10 An explosion by a suicide bomber at a mosque used by Shia Muslims in Lahore killed at least four people and left eight people injured.
- December 10 At least 10 people were killed and 30 injured in a bomb explosion at a market in city of Quetta. The bomb exploded near an Army truck, as Balochistan Liberation Army claimed responsibilty
- January 8 At least 10 people have been killed in sectarian violence in the northern Pakistani city of Gilgit. The shooting of a Shia Muslim cleric earlier sparked clashes between his supporters and Sunni Muslims.
- March 19 At least 35 people were killed and many injured when a Sipah-e-Sahaba terrorist exploded himself in a mixed crowd of Shia and Sunni devotees at the shrine of Pir Rakhel Shah in remote village of Fatehpur in Jhal Magsi District, Balochistan.
- May 25 As many as six members of a family were killed in an explosion at village Bandkhel in Makeen Tehsil, South Waziristan.
- May 27 At least 20 people were slaughtered and 82 wounded due to a suicide bombing at the annual Shia Muslims congregation at the shrine of Bari Imam in Islamabad.
- May 31 Six bodies were recovered from a fast food outlet set ablaze by an angry mob after an attack on a Shia mosque in Karachi. It was retaliation to the suicide attack on the Shia mosque in central Karachi where five people were killed and about 20 others wounded.
- September 22 At least six people, including a woman, were killed and 27 injured in two bomb blasts in Lahore. Police said the bombs went off within an interval of one and a half hour..
- October 7 Eight members of the Ahmadiyya faith were killed inside a mosque as worshipers were performing Salah. The incident occurred in Mandi Bahauddin, Punjab, Pakistan.
- October 13 Around 12 people including students were killed in the curfew and clashes between the Rangers and civilians in Gilgit. The clashes came after the death of a student in Rangers custody.
- November 15 A car bomb exploded outside a Kentucky Fried Chicken outlet in Karachi, Pakistan. At least three people were killed and eight others wounded.
- December 8 At least 12 people were killed and 30 injured in a bomb explosion in the Jandola town of South Waziristan.
- December 22 At least seven people have been killed in what officials say was a battle between Islamic students and bandits in the Jandola town of South Waziristan.
- January 25 At least six people were killed and five others hurt after a bus ran over a landmine in Dera Bugti District, Balochistan.
- February 5 A bomb explosion killed 13 people including three army personnel and injured 18 on a Lahore-bound bus en-route from Quetta in Kolpur, Bolan District, Balochistan. No groups claimed of responsibility for the attack.
- February 9 Sectarian violence marred the holiest day of the Shiite calendar, with at least 36 people killed and more than 100 wounded in attacks and clashes in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The violence erupted with a suspected suicide attack on Shiites in Hangu, in the northwestern part of the country, as they celebrated Day of Ashura.
- March 2 A power suicide car bomb attack in the high security zone near the US Consulate, Karachi, killed four people including a US diplomat, a day before President George W. Bush was to reach Pakistan.
- March 10 At least 26 people, mostly women and children, were killed in Dera Bugti District, Balochistan after their bus hit a landmine. Both tribal rebels and security forces planted land mines in the area.
- April 11 Over 50 people, including Sunni scholars, were killed in a bomb explosion at a religious gathering celebrating the birthday of Prophet Muhammad in Nishtar Park, Karachi.
- June 12 At least five people were killed and 17 wounded in a bomb attack in Quetta hotel.
- June 15 Unidentified gunmen killed a senior prison official Amanullah Khan Niazi and four others in the southern Pakistani city of Karachi.
- June 16 Two female teachers and two children were shot dead in Khoga Chiri village in Orakzai Agency.
- July 14 Allama Hassan Turabi, a Shiite religious scholar and chief of Tehrik-e-Jafaria Pakistan, and his 12-year-old nephew were killed in a suicide attack near his Abbas Town residence. The suicide bomber was later identified as Abdul Karim, a Bangladeshi-speaking, resident of a shantytown in the central city area of Karachi.
- August 26 Tribal leader Nawab Akbar Bugti was killed in a battle between tribal militants and government forces in Balochistan. At least five soldiers and at least 30 rebels are thought to have died too.
- August 26-31 Akbar Bugti's killing sparked five days of rioting that left six people dead, dozens wounded and 700 under arrest.
- September 8 At least six people were killed and 17 injured, four of them seriously, when a powerful bomb blast hit the Rakhni bazaar area of Barkhan District, Balochistan.
- October 6 17 people were killed in fighting between Sunni and Shia Muslims over a dispute over ownership of the shrine to 18th Century figure Syed Amir Anwar Shah shrine in Pakistan's Orakzai tribal region.
- October 20 A bomb blast killed at least six people and left 21 injured in a busy shopping district of Peshawar.
- November 8 A suicide bomber killed 42 Pakistani Army soldiers and injured 20 in the northwestern town of Dargai, apparently in retaliation to the Chenagai airstrike which killed 80 people in the same Bajaur region in the previous month.
January - March 2007
- January 15 A powerful blast in the Jalozai refugee camp destroyed a mud-house, killing four people and injuring five others.
- January 26 Two people were killed and five injured in a suspected suicide attack in Pakistan. The bomber and a security guard were killed in the blast at the Marriott hotel in the capital Islamabad.
- January 27 At least 13 people, including a senior police official, were killed Saturday evening in a suicide bombing near a crowded Shiite mosque in Peshawar. About 60 people were wounded, 17 critically, in the 9:20 p.m. blast. About 2,000 Shiite Muslims were in and around the mosque, police said.
- February 6 A suicide bomber detonated his explosives in a parking area outside Islamabad International Airport injuring 5 people.
- February 17 A suicide bomber killed 15 people — including a judge — after blowing himself up inside a courtroom in Quetta, Balochistan. At least 24 people were wounded in the suicide attack.
- February 20 Punjab Minister for social welfare Zil-e-Huma Usman was shot and killed in Gujranwala. Her assassin, Mohammed Sarwar, was reported to have been motivated by her refusal to abide by the Islamic code of dress and a dislike for the involvement of women in political affairs.
- March 19-22 Clashes between pro-government forces under Maulvi Nazir and Al-Qaeda remnants in the Waziristan region kill at least 135 people on both sides. A ceasefire is declared after four days of fighting enforced by officials from both sides.
April - June 2007
- April 10-11 Up to 35 people were killed and scores of others wounded in heavy fighting between rival Shia and Sunni groups in different areas of the Kurram Agency on Tuesday night and Wednesday.
- April 28 Assassination attempt on Aftab Ahmad Sherpao, who is the Interior minister that killed 28 people in Charsadda, NWFP. This time again an attempt on a high ranking officer of Pakistani government was unsuccessful.
- May 12 As many as 50 people were killed and hundreds injured when party workers of opposing parties; MQM, ANP and PPP clash in Karachi. The riots started when rival political rallies take the same route amid lawyers protests for restoration of Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry as the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.
- May 15 A bomb blast at the local Marhaba hotel in Peshawar killed at least 24 people and injured 30. No one claimed responsibility for the suspected suicide blast in the lobby of the hotel popular with Afghans in Peshawar where militants opposed to government support for the United States have launched attacks.
- June 2 Five people, including a tribal chief, a political tehsildar and a journalist were killed, when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb in the Dara Khwar, Bajaur Agency.
- June 8 Three people were killed and seven others injured when a bomb exploded on a bus in Hub, Balochistan. The coach was heading from Lasbela to Karachi.
- June 19 At least 22 people were killed and 10 others wounded when a missile hit a cluster of compounds in Datakhel area of North Waziristan.
- June 23 A barrage of artillery and missiles fired from Afghanistan hit residential compounds and a hotel in Mangrotai area of the North Waziristan tribal region, killing 11 people and wounding 10 others, eyewitnesses and officials said. The dead included two children and a woman.
July - September 2007
- July 6 President General Pervez Musharraf escaped yet another attempt on his life on Friday morning when around 36 rounds fired at his aircraft from a submachine gun in Rawalpindi missed their target. In another incident, four Pakistan Army troops, including a major and a lieutenant, were killed in an improvised explosive device attack on a military convoy in Dir District – a stronghold of the Jamaat-e-Islami and the banned Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi.
- July 8 Unidentified gunmen killed three Chinese workers and wounded another near Peshawar in what Pakistani officials said was a terrorist attack apparently linked to the bloody siege of militants at an Islamabad mosque.
- July 12 Seven people including three policemen were killed and several others injured in two suicide attacks, two blasts and a rocket attack in three tribal regions and Swat district in the NWFP.
- July 14 At least 23 paramilitary troops died and 27 others injured when a suicide bomber rammed an explosives-packed car into their convoy in Miranshah in one of the deadliest attacks on the security forces in North Waziristan.
- July 15 At least 49 are killed and hundreds injured when suicide attack and car bombs explode throughout NWFP in an apparent retaliation for Lal Masjid operation. 11 security personnel and six civilians were killed and 47 others injured in Matta, Swat District, when suicide bombers smashed two cars packed with explosives into an army convoy, and 25 people were killed and 61 injured when a suicide bomber blew himself up in the Dera Ismail Khan police recruitment center.
- July 17 At least 17 people were killed and 50 injured as a suicide bomber blew himself up outside the venue of the district bar council convention in Islamabad killing mostly PPP political workers waiting for the arrival of Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, who was to address a lawyers convention.
- July 19 More than 40 people were killed in three separate bomb attacks. In the first incident, bomb was detonated in a mosque used by military personnel in the north-western town of Kohat, killing at least 11 people. In the second one, 26 people died and 50 were injured in the southern town of Hub, Lasbela District, Balochistan, in an attack apparently targeting Chinese workers. And in the last one, at least seven people were killed and more than 20 injured in a suicide car bombing at a police academy in the north-western town of Hangu.
- July 24 At least nine people including a woman were killed and 40 others injured when unidentified militants fired a barrage of rockets on the civilian population in the northwestern city of Bannu.
- July 27 A suspected suicide bomber killed at least 13 people at Muzaffar hotel in Aabpara, Islamabad Friday after hundreds of stone-throwing protesters clashed with police as the capital's Red Mosque reopened for the first time since a bloody army raid. The same day Raziq Bugti, former guerrilla commander turned spokesman for the Balochistan government, was shot dead by assailants in Quetta.
- August 2 The police in Sargodha shot dead a suspected suicide bomber after the man failed to detonate the explosives he was wearing. The man, who entered a police training center, killed a policeman before he was gunned down.
- August 4 Nine people were killed and 43 injured when a suicide car bomber triggered an explosion at a busy bus station in Parachinar, Kurram Agency.
- August 26 Four policemen were killed and two others wounded in a suicide attack in the Machaar area of Shangla district.
- September 4 At least 25 people were killed and 66 injured in two suicide bomb blasts in Rawalpindi cantonment’s high security areas during morning rush hour. The first blast took place near Qasim Market where a Defence Ministry bus carrying around 38 civilians and uniformed officials was hit, killing 18 people. Five minutes later, a second blast took place near RA Bazaar, behind General Headquarters. The blast was caused by explosives fixed to a motorcycle, which blew up killing seven people on the spot.
- September 11 At least 17 people, including three security personnel and a woman, were killed and 16 others injured when a 15-year-old suicide bomber blew himself up in a passenger van at Bannu Adda in Dera Ismail Khan district. The same day Omar Ayub Khan's protocol officer, Liaquat Hussain, was found shot dead near the Northern Bypass in Karachi.
- September 13 At least 20 off-duty commandos were killed and 11 injured in an apparent suicide blast at an army officers’ mess in Tarbela Ghazi, Haripur near Tarbela Dam. The targeted were the Pakistan Army's special forces unit SSG's Karar Company.
- September 15 Unidentified assailants shot dead Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam leader and Wafaqul Madaris Vice Chairman Maulana Hassan Jan in the jurisdiction of Yakatoot police station in Peshawar. Hassan, a former MNA, also issued a fatwa against suicide attacks, and he along with a group of Pakistani clerics traveled to Afghanistan in 2001 to convince Mullah Omar that he should expel Osama Bin Laden from Afghanistan to avoid American attacks.
- September 17 Militants blew up a welfare hospital in Mian Mandi bazaar, 10 kilometres northwest of the agency headquarters in Mohmand Agency. Sources said that two explosions were heard at around 2am when the Al Sehat Welfare Hospital building collapsed.
October - December 2007
- October 1 A suicide bomber disguised in a woman’s burqa blew himself up at a busy police checkpost in Bannu, NWFP killing at least 16 people including four policemen and injuring 29.
- October 9 A time bomb exploded at Nishtarabad CD-market injuring at least 16 people in Peshawar.
- October 12 Mohmand Taliban publicly behead six "criminals" and lashed three others in the name of Sharia.
- October 18 Attack on Benazir Bhutto convoy killed over 139 in Karachi and sleft more than 450 injured in one of the most deadliest terrorist attacks in Pakistan. Former PM Benazir Bhutto was returning after 8 years of self imposed exile when the bomber struck the convoy killing dozens. Karachi Bombs in Pictures
- October 20 At least eight people were killed and 28 injured when a powerful bomb planted in a pickup vehicle exploded in Dera Bugti, Balochistan.
- October 25 At least 20 people including 18 troops died and 35 others were injured in a blast aimed at a vehicle carrying Frontier Constabulary (FC) personnel in the troubled Swat district. It was suspected to be a suicide attack.
- October 30 A suicide bomber struck a police checkpoint in the high security zone of Rawalpindi, less than a kilometer from President General Pervez Musharraf’s camp office, killing seven people, three of them policemen, and injuring 31 others. The blast splattered check post of General Tariq Majid, current Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff's residence.
- November 1 A suicide bomber rammed his motorcycle into a PAF bus near Sargodha, killing seven officers of the Pakistan Air Force stationed at Mushaf Airbase and three civilians on the Faisalabad Road on Thursday morning. 28 people suffered injuries. It is significant that after this event a state of emergency was imposed on the country.
- November 9 A suicide bomber killed at least three people and injured two others when he detonated explosives at the house of Federal Political Affairs Minister and PML-Q provincial president Amir Muqam in Peshawar. The minister was unhurt, but a cousin of his was injured. The three dead were policemen guarding the house.
- November 17-19 As many as 94 people were killed and 168 injured in three days of in-fighting between the rival Sunni and Shia sects in Parachinar, Kurram Agency in Pakistani tribal areas, bordering Afghanistan. Only by the fourth day, the army gained control of the area and a ceasefire was maintained in the area.
- November 24 30 people were killed in two suicide attacks in Rawalpindi. In the first incident, a suicide bomber rammed his car into a 72-seater bus parked in front of Ojhri Camp on Murree Road carrying Inter-Services Intelligence officials to work, killing 28 officials and a bystander. The second incident occurred as a second suicide bomber attempted to enter the General Headquarters (GHQ). Upon being asked for identification at the GHQ’s check post, he blew himself up, resulting in the deaths of one security official and a bystander.
- December 9 At least 10 people including three policemen and seven civilians, including two children, perished in a car bombing near Matta, Swat District.
- December 10 A suicide attack on the school bus carrying children during the morning rush injuring seven of them. It was a PAF employees bus and the attack took place near Minhas Airbase, Kamra. It was a second major attack on the Pakistan Air Force after the Sargodha attack.
- December 13 Two suicide bombings near an army checkpost in Quetta killed seven people, including three personnel of the Pakistan Army.
- December 15 A suicide attacker rammed his explosives-laden bicycle into a military checkpost killing five people and injuring 11 others in the first-ever suicide attack in the city of Nowshera. The attack occurred at a checkpoint near the gate of an army school.
- December 17 12 security personnel were killed and five wounded in a suicide attack in the country’s restive northwestern city of Kohat. Victims were members of army’s local football team.
- December 21 On the eve of Eid ul-Adha, a suicide bomb blast again targeted Aftab Ahmad Sherpao killing at least 57 and injuring over 100 at Jamia Masjid Sherpao, in Charsadda District. Aftab Sherpao survived the blast, but his younger son Mustafa Khan Sherpao, was injured.
- December 23 At least seven people, including a soldier and six civilians, were killed and another 23 wounded as a suicide bomber targeted an army convoy near Mingora.
- December 27: Two-time Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto is assassinated in a shooting and suicide bombing in Rawalpindi's Liaquat Bagh, killing up to 20 others and injuring many. The site is notorious as the place where former Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan was also assassinated in October 1951.
- December 28 At least 33 people, including four policemen, were killed all over Pakistan in the violence that ensued after the assassination of former prime minister Benazir Bhutto. The situation grew so worse that Sindh Rangers were given orders to shoot-at-sight.
- December 28 A roadside bomb killed nine people, including former PML-Q minister Asfandyar Amirzaib, who is a grandson of Wali-e-Swat, in Swat District.
January - March 2008
- January 10 24 people were killed and 73 injured in a suicide attack when the policemen were deliberately targeted outside Lahore High Court before the scheduled lawyer's protest against the government in provincial capital of Lahore. This attack was first of its kind in Lahore since the start of War on Terrorism.
- January 14 At least 10 people were killed and over 50 wounded when a bomb exploded in Quaidabad. The bomb was planted on a bicycle and it went off during wee hours in a vegetable market in Karachi.
- January 17 At least 12 people were killed and 25 others injured, three of them critically, when a suicide bomber blew himself up at the crowded Mirza Qasim Baig Imambargah in Mohalla Janghi, Kohati in the NWFP capital city of Peshawar.
- February 4 At least 10 people were killed and 27 others injured, when a suicide bomber crashed his bike into an armed forces bus carrying students and officials of Army Medical College, near the General Headquarters in Rawalpindi.
- February 9 At least 25 people died and 35 were injured after a powerful explosion hit an opposition election rally in Charsadda in the north-western Pakistan. The attack targeted ANP, a secular party, one of whose leaders, Fazal-ur-Rehman Atakhail, was assassinated February 7 in Karachi triggering widespread protests. Possible conspirators of the latest attack could be the Islamist Taliban-al-Qaeda nexus operating in the northwestern Pakistan.
- February 11 A suicide attack on a public meeting in Miranshah, North Waziristan left at least eight people dead and a dozen wounded, including a candidate for the National Assembly. It was the second attack on ANP's election gathering in two days.
- February 16 A suicide bomber rammed his explosive-laden vehicle on the election meeting of Pakistan Peoples Party, the party of the slain former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in Parachinar, Kurram Agency in northwestern Pakistan. The attack left at least 47 people dead and 150 injured according to Interior Ministry of Pakistan. It was the fourth such attack on PPP's political workers within a year; two of them targeting the former PPP leader Benazir Bhutto.
- February 18 At least 24 people were killed and nearly 200 were injured in election-related violence across the country on the eve of Pakistani general election, Aaj TV reported.
- February 22 A roadside bomb near the town of Matta, Swat District, NWFP killed at least 13 members of a wedding party and left about a dozen injured. An army spokesman said the bomb had been detonated by remote control. Women and children were among the casualties.
- February 25 Pakistan Army's top medic Lt Gen Mushtaq Baig was killed, along with the driver and security guard, when a suicide attack ripped apart the vehicle he was traveling in at 2:45pm local time near Army General Headquarters in Rawalpindi. At least 5 other passersby were also killed and 20 injured in the incident. Gen Baig was the highest ranking officer to be killed in Pakistan since the 9/11 attacks.
- February 29 As many as 38 people were killed and 75 injured when a suicide bomber blew himself up in Mingora, Swat District on Friday during the funeral of a senior police officer who had been killed hours earlier in Lakki Marwat in southern part of NWFP. The police DSP was killed along with three other policemen when their vehicle was hit in a roadside bomb earlier in the day. Witnesses said the suicide attack took place when a police party was presenting a gun salute in honor of the slain police officer in a school ground in Mingora town at about 8pm.
- March 2 At least 42 people were killed and 58 injured in a suicide attack, when the bomber struck the meeting of tribal elders and local officials in the town of Darra Adam Khel, a few miles south of Peshawar. The town of Darra was the center of violent clashes earlier in January when the militants took over the Kohat Tunnel that connected Peshawar with Kohat. After the onslaught of security forces to take back the tunnel, the fighting resulted in the deaths of 13 troops and 70 militants.
- March 4 Eight persons were killed and 24 others injured when two suicide bombers blew themselves up in the parking area of the Pakistan Navy War College located in the city of Lahore. It was the first time a Pakistani naval institution was targeted by the militants (Army has been targeted at least eight times outside the war zone and Air Force twice) since the ongoing War on Terrorism in Pakistan in general and post-Lal Masjid siege in particular. This attack on War College was carried out by two suicide attackers, the first one to clear the way for the second one; and the second one to do the damage.
- March 11 At least 24 people were killed and more than 200 wounded in twin suicide bombings in the eastern Pakistani city of Lahore. One of the attacks ripped apart Federal Investigation Agency building killing 21, including 16 policemen. The other one hit the posh locality of Model Town, exploding close to Bilawal House, associated with PPP leaders Benazir Bhutto and her husband Asif Ali Zardari.
- March 15 An attack occurred when a bomb was hurled over a wall surrounding an Islamabad restaurant. Four of the 12 people wounded in the bombing were U.S. FBI agents. In addition to wounding the agents, the explosion killed a Turkish woman and wounded a fifth American, three Pakistanis, a person from the United Kingdom and someone from Japan.
- March 16 At least 20 people were killed in a missile strike in the tribal area of South Waziristan.
April - June 2008
- April 9 Riots in Karachi kill 9 people and wound many others with 40 vehicles getting torched after two groups of lawyers scuffle that begin after PML-Q leaders, former CM Sindh Arbab Ghulam Rahim and former federal minister Sher Afgan Niazi are maltreated ahead of government formation in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab.
- April 17 At least 20 people were killed and dozens others injured in the clashes between two belligerent factions in Khyber Agency.
- May 6 At least four people have been killed in a suspected suicide attack in Bannu, amid signs a truce with militants may be breaking down, negotiations for which was started in March.
- May 18 A bomb attack targeting the Army's Punjab Regimental Center market in the city of Mardan killed at least 13 people, including four soldiers and injured more than 20. This was the second attack in Mardan in a month after a car bomb on April 25 killed three and injured 26 people.
- May 19 At least four people were killed and another two injured in a remote-controlled bomb blast outside a mosque in the Mamond tehsil of Bajaur Agency.
- May 26 Seven people were killed and five others injured in what appeared to be incidents of sectarian violence in Dera Ismail Khan.
- June 2 The Danish embassy in Islamabad is attacked with a car bomb killing six people. A post purportedly from Al-Qaeda's Mustafa Abu al-Yazid appears on the Internet a day after the attack claiming responsibility. The statement mentions the publication of "insulting drawings" and the refusal to "apologize for publishing them" referring to the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy.
- June 9 Sufi Muhammad, leader of the TNSM, on Monday survived a remote-controlled bombing initiated by local Taliban in Peshawar, in which four policemen got injured.
- June 16 A bomb blast inside a Shia mosque killed at least four people and wounded two others in Dera Ismail Khan.
July - September 2008
- July 7 A string of small explosions, apparently from bombs, wounded at least 37 people in Karachi, rattling Pakistan a day after a deadly suicide attack in Islamabad.
- August 2 At least eight police and security workers were killed when a remote-controlled bomb exploded near their vehicle in Mingora, Swat.
- July 31 - August 4 A total of 136 people were killed in Swat Valley in a week of fighting between the security forces and pro-Taliban militants. The casualties included at least 94 militants, 14 soldiers and around 28 civilians.
- August 9 Militants stormed a police post in village Kingargalai of the Buner District on Friday night, killing eight policemen.
- August 12 A bomb targeting a Pakistani Air Force bus carrying personnel from a military base killed 13 people and wounded 11 others on Tuesday on a major road near the center of Peshawar. Taliban forces reportedly took responsibility. The attack was seen as retaliation for Pakistani airstrikes in Bajaur Agency, a militant stronghold near the border with Afghanistan. Five of the dead were air force personnel and the eight others were bystanders.
- August 13 Eight people, including two policemen, were killed and over 20, including 12 policemen, were injured after an alleged suicide bomber blew himself up n ear a police station in Lahore on the eve of Independence Day celebrations. On the same day, six people were killed and 19 others, four of them policemen, were injured in explosions in Hub and Uthal, a hand-grenade attack in Panjgur and shooting incidents in Kharan and Turbat towns in Balochistan, while leader of the banned outfit Amr Bil Maroof Wa Nahi Anil Munkar Haji Namdar was shot dead when he was delivering sermon in Bara tehsil. Haji Namdar had earlier escaped a suicide attack on 1 May, 2008 in which 17 people were injured.
- August 7 - August 18 Clashes mainly between the Toori and Bangash tribes, but which involved other local tribes, in the Kurram Agency left at least 287 people dead and 373 injured in 12 consecutive days of fighting. In the later incidents, pro-Taliban militants were involved too, after which the local tribesmen asked the government to flush out the militants.
- August 19 32 people, seven policemen and two health officials among them, were killed and 55 others injured when a suicide bomber blew himself up near the emergency ward of the District Headquarters Hospital in Dera Ismail Khan. Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan claimed responsibility for the attack.
- August 21 70 people were killed and 67 others injured when two suicide bombers blew themselves up outside the gates of the state run Pakistan Ordnance Factories, Wah Cantt near Islamabad. Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan claimed responsibility for the attack.
- August 23 20 people were killed when a suicide bomber rammed a explosive-laden car into a police station in Charbagh Tehsil of Swat valley of North West Frontier Province. Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan claimed responsibility for the attack.
- August 25 10 people were killed in a rocket attack targeting the house of a local member of provincial assembly (MPA) in Swat valley in North West Frontier Province. As a result of the attack, ANP MPA Waqar Ahmed's brother and other family members were killed.
- August 27 7 people were killed and 20 others were injured in a bomb explosion outside a street cafe in outskirts of Islamabad.
- August 28 9 people were killed and 15 others were injured in a bomb attack targeting a polive van in the Bannu area of North West Frontier Province.
- September 6 At least 30 people were killed and 70 injured when a suicide car bomb struck a paramilitary checkpoint 20km from Peshawar. The attack came during the voting to elect Asif Ali Zardari as the President of Pakistan and the marking of Defence Day.
- September 10 At least 25 worshippers were killed and 50 others injured in a grenade-and-gun attack in a mosque in the Maskanai area of Lower Dir District, northern part of NWFP.
- September 19 A bomb exploded at an Islamic religious school in Quetta killing five people and wounding at least eight. The school was run by Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, the religious party headed by Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman.
- September 20 A massive truck bomb exploded outside the Marriott Hotel in Islamabad, killing at 57 people and wounding 266 others. The suicide attack believed to be carried by a single individual left a 20 feet deep and 50 feet wide crater, and was later owned by a little known group called Fidayeen-e-Islam. It was carried at local Iftar time, when the local and foreign residents had assembled together to have the Ramadan feast. The attack was significant as all the top political, diplomatic and military top brass was also dining in the nearby Prime Ministers Secretariat after the President's first parliamentary address.
- September 22 At least nine security personnel were killed in a suicide car-bomb attack on a checkpost in Swat District.
- September 26 A bomb attack on a train killed at least three people and fifteen others near the city of Bahawalpur. The bomb, which was kept on the railway track, blew up and derailed the passenger train. No one claimed responsibility for the attack.
October - December 2008
- October 2 A suicide attack targeted the house of ANP leader Asfandyar Wali Khan in Walibagh, Charsadda killing four people. Wali Khan survived the attack, as his bodyguard shot the suicide attacker in the head before he could reach Wali Khan. The guard was later killed as the attacker managed to detonate the bomb while on the ground. This was the fourth such attack on ANP, with the first two targeting ANP political rallies in Charsadda and Miranshah before February elections and one of them targeting ANP MPA in Swat.
- October 6 A suicide attacker managed to kill 20 people and injured 60 in the Punjabi town of Bhakkar, when he targeted the political gathering of Rashid Akbar Nawani, an MNA of PML-N. Nawani, though survived the attack, was hurt. This was the first such attack on PML-N, since the start of war on terrorism. This was a sectarian attack as Mr Nawani was Shia, and most of the party workers in the gathering were from the minority Shia sect.
- Hassan Abbas. Pakistan's Drift Into Extremism: Allah, The Army, And America's War On Terror, M.E. Sharpe, 2004. ISBN 0-7656-1497-9
- Tariq Ali. Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State, Penguin Books Ltd, 1983. ISBN 0-14-022401-7
- Zahid Hussain. Frontline Pakistan: The Struggle with Militant Islam, New York: Columbia University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-231-14224-2