Definitions

Orville

Orville

[awr-vil]
Wright, Orville: see Wright brothers.

(born April 16, 1867, near Millville, Ind., U.S.—died May 30, 1912, Dayton, Ohio) (born Aug. 19, 1871, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.—died Jan. 30, 1948, Dayton) U.S. inventors who achieved the first powered, sustained, and controlled airplane flight. The brothers first worked in printing-machinery design and later in bicycle manufacturing, which financed their early experiments in airplane design. To test flight control, essential to successful powered flight, they built and flew three biplane gliders (1900–02). Propeller and engine innovations led to their first powered airplane, which Orville flew successfully for 12 seconds and Wilbur later flew for 59 seconds at Kill Devil Hills, N.C. (near the village of Kitty Hawk), on Dec. 17, 1903. Their flyer of 1905 could turn, bank, circle, and remain airborne for over 35 minutes. They demonstrated their planes in Europe and the U.S.; in 1908 Wilbur gave over 100 exhibition flights in France, setting a duration record of 2 hours and 20 minutes. They established an aircraft company and produced planes for the U.S. Army. After Wilbur's death from typhoid, Orville sold his interest in the company, which later merged with the company of Glenn H. Curtiss.

Learn more about Wright, Wilbur; and Wright, Orville with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born , Oct. 16, 1898, Maine, Minn., U.S.—died Jan. 19, 1980, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist and public official. He attended Columbia University Law School, where he edited the law review and graduated second in his class. After learning the intricacies of financial and corporate law at a Wall Street law firm, he joined the law faculty at Yale, where he taught until 1936. He became a member of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1936. As SEC chairman (1937–39) he engineered the reorganization of the country's stock exchanges, instituted measures for the protection of small investors, and began government regulation of the sale of securities (see security). In 1939 Pres. Franklin Roosevelt appointed him to the Supreme Court of the United States, on which he served until 1975. Although responsible for writing opinions in many complicated financial cases, he became most famous for his pronouncements on civil liberties (see civil liberty). He rejected government limitations on freedom of speech and was an outspoken defender of an unfettered press. He also strove to uphold the rights of the accused. He wrote numerous books on history, politics, foreign relations, and conservation, including Of Men and Mountains (1950) and A Wilderness Bill of Rights (1965).

Learn more about Douglas, William O(rville) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 19, 1827, Washington, Conn., U.S.—died April 21, 1905, Washington) U.S. politician. He served in the Connecticut legislature (1861–62, 1864, 1869) and later in the U.S. Senate (1879–1905), where he sponsored legislation concerning patents and copyrights. He was chairman of the committee on territories (1887–93), which recommended admission of six new western states. He is remembered for sponsoring the Platt Amendment (1901), which became the basis for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Cuba following the Spanish-American War of 1898.

Learn more about Platt, Orville Hitchcock with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 19, 1827, Washington, Conn., U.S.—died April 21, 1905, Washington) U.S. politician. He served in the Connecticut legislature (1861–62, 1864, 1869) and later in the U.S. Senate (1879–1905), where he sponsored legislation concerning patents and copyrights. He was chairman of the committee on territories (1887–93), which recommended admission of six new western states. He is remembered for sponsoring the Platt Amendment (1901), which became the basis for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Cuba following the Spanish-American War of 1898.

Learn more about Platt, Orville Hitchcock with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born , Oct. 16, 1898, Maine, Minn., U.S.—died Jan. 19, 1980, Washington, D.C.) U.S. jurist and public official. He attended Columbia University Law School, where he edited the law review and graduated second in his class. After learning the intricacies of financial and corporate law at a Wall Street law firm, he joined the law faculty at Yale, where he taught until 1936. He became a member of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1936. As SEC chairman (1937–39) he engineered the reorganization of the country's stock exchanges, instituted measures for the protection of small investors, and began government regulation of the sale of securities (see security). In 1939 Pres. Franklin Roosevelt appointed him to the Supreme Court of the United States, on which he served until 1975. Although responsible for writing opinions in many complicated financial cases, he became most famous for his pronouncements on civil liberties (see civil liberty). He rejected government limitations on freedom of speech and was an outspoken defender of an unfettered press. He also strove to uphold the rights of the accused. He wrote numerous books on history, politics, foreign relations, and conservation, including Of Men and Mountains (1950) and A Wilderness Bill of Rights (1965).

Learn more about Douglas, William O(rville) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Orville may refer to:

Orville is the name of several communes in France:

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