Ordine Nuovo (Italian for "New Order"), complete name Centro Studi Ordine Nuovo, "New Order Scholarship Center") was an Italian far right cultural and extraparliamentary political organization founded by Pino Rauti in 1956. It had been the most important extraparliamentary far right organization of the post-war Italian republic. A significant number of Ordine Nuovo followers and leaders, including Rauti himself, were also implicated in terrorist attacks.
The real break with MSI happened at the MSI congress in Milan in 1956. Pino Rauti then declared that, being disappointed to the moderate drift of MSI, his movement would have abandoned the political scene, creating the Centro Studi Ordine Nuovo, an association dedicated to political studies and analysis. This wanted to be a literal application of the thesis of Julius Evola, that is an aristocratic refusal of contemporary, materialist society. Ordine Nuovo nonetheless had a capillary and hierarchical organization in the Italian territory, and often behaved more like an extraparliamentary political organization than a simple "scholarship center".
In the '70s Rauti, along with most of Ordine Nuovo, came back in the MSI party now led by Giorgio Almirante. The remaining hard-line members founded Movimento Politico Ordine Nuovo ("New Order Political Movement").
The motto of Ordine Nuovo was Il nostro onore si chiama fedeltà - that is: "Our honour is called loyalty", also the motto of the Waffen SS (Meine Ehre heißt Treue). The symbol of the organization was a doublehead axe.
Historians have credited Ordine Nuovo with creating a strategy of tension in the years between 1960 and 1980.
On 12 December 1969, people belonging to or sympathizing for Ordine Nuovo bombed the Piazza Fontana in Milan, killing 16 and wounding 90. This bombing marked the beginning of the "strategy of tension" in the Italian peninsula. Ordine Nuovo member Delfo Zorzi was among those convicted for the crime on June 20, 2001, together with Carlo Maria Maggi and Giancarlo Rognoni.
In July 1970 people belonging to Ordine Nuovo bombed the Rome-Messina train, killing 6 and wounding 100.
In May 1974 eight activists were killed in Brescia when an anti-fascist march was hand-grenaded by Ordine Nuovo. On May 19, 2005, the Court of Cassation confirmed the arrest warrant against Delfo Zorzi, a former Ordine Nuovo member, whom was also suspected of being the material executor of the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing. Alongside Delfo Zorzi, his neo-fascist comrades Carlo Maria Maggi and Maurizio Tramonte, all members of Ordine Nuovo, are also suspected of having organized the Piazza della Loggia bombing in Brescia.