The orangespotted trevally, Carangoides bajad (also known as the gold-spotted trevally) is a species of inshore marine fish in the jack family, Carangidae. The species is fairly common in tropical to subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific, ranging from Madagascar in the west to Japan in the east, typically inhabiting inshore reefs. The species has characteristic orange-yellow spots on its sides, although counts of fin rays and scutes are needed to distinguish it from related species with similar colouring. Orangespotted trevally are powerful predators, taking a variety of small fish, nekton and crustaceans, and reach sexual maturity at around 25 cm. It is a moderately large fish, reaching a maximum known length of 55 cm. The species is occasionally taken by fishermen throughout its range, and is generally considered to be bycatch. The exception to this is in the southern Persian Gulf, where it makes up a large proportion of the fishery.
The species was first scientifically described by the Swedish naturalist Peter Forsskål in 1775 based on a specimen taken from the Red Sea which he designated to be the holotype. The specific epithet is an Arabic name of the fish (although it is now usually applied to a catfish, Bagrus bajad, which Forsskål also named), with the letter "j" transcribing a /j/ sound; Forsskål used this technique to name a number of Red Sea fish species. Forsskål at first gave the new taxon subspecies status as Scomber ferdau bajad, relating it to the mackerels, and especially Scomber ferdau, which would later also be transferred to Carangoides. The taxon was later given a species rank, becoming Scomber bajad, then Caranx bajad, before being transferred to its current position as Carangoides bajad.
The species was also independently renamed three times after Forsskål's description, the first coming from Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, who named the species Caranx immaculatus, although he did not accurately publish the name, leading Georges Cuvier to rename the fish as Caranx auroguttatus in 1833, which was later transferred to Carangoides. In 1871, Carl Benjamin Klunzinger once again proposed a new subspecies (or variety) name for the fish, Caranx fulvoguttatus var. flava. All names except Carangoides bajad are considered to be junior synonyms under the ICZN rules, and are rendered invalid and not used.
The orangespotted trevally has a silvery grey to brassy coloured body, becoming paler to a silvery white ventrally. There are many conspicuous orange to yellow spots on the sides of the fish, giving the species its name, and make for an easy way to identify the fish in the field. There have been records of a variant which is entirely yellow, although it is thought the fish can rapidly change between its normal colour configuration and this entirely orange-yellow colour. The colour of the fins range from hyaline to lemon yellow, and there is no dark opercular spot.
The orangespotted trevally is a coastal species, most common in inshore waters over rocky and coral reefs, where it is found both solitary and in schools at depths of 2 to 50 m. They are often observed patrolling the edges of seaward reefs, and have been known to mingle with Parupeneus cyclostomus.
The orangespotted trevally is occasionally taken throughout its range by hook and line, gill nets, and other artisanal gear, although in most areas is bycatch and does not form a large part of these fisheries. There is one fishery that is highly dependent on the species that exists in the southern Persian Gulf. Here the orangespotted trevally is one of the most common fish found just above the sea floor, and is taken by wire traps and sold fresh at local markets. The combined catch of C. bajad and Gnathanodon speciosus totals around 1100 tonnes per year. The development of the fishing fleet of the United Arab Emirates has caused a number of species to be overexploited, but the orangespotted trevally is still being taken at sustainable levels.