Oowekyala language

Oowekyala language

Oowekyala (also Wuikala, Rivers Inlet, Wuikenukv, Oweekeno, Wikeno, Owikeno, Oowekeeno, Oweekano, Awikenox, Oowek'yala, Oweek'ala) is a dialect (or a sublanguage) of Heiltsuk-Oowekyala, a Northern Wakashan (Kwakiutlan) language spoken around Rivers Inlet in the Central Coast region of the Canadian province of British Columbia, spoken by the Wuikinuxv people, whose government is the Wuikinuxv Nation.

Sounds

Consonants

The 45 consonants of Oowekyala:

  Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral plain labial plain labial
Nasal short m n              
long              
glottalized              
Plosive voiced b d     ɡ ɡʷ ɢ ɢʷ  
voiceless p t     k q  
ejective     kʼʷ qʼʷ ʔ
Affricate voiced   ʣ            
voiceless   ʦ            
ejective   ʦʼ tɬʼ            
Fricative voiced                 ɦ
voiceless   s ɬ   x χ χʷ  
Approximant short     l j   w      
long                
glottalized            

Phonologically, affricates are treated as stops, and nasals and approximants are treated as sonorants. Additionally, /ɦ/ and /ʔ/ are treated as sonorants.

Vowels

Oowekyala has phonemic short, long, and glottalized vowels.:

  Front Central Back
short long glottalized short long glottalized short long glottalized
Close i       u
Mid       ə          
Open       a      

Syllables

Oowekyala, like Nuxálk (Bella Coola), allows long sequences of obstruents, as in the following 7-obstruent word:

[ʦʼkʼʷχttɬkʦ]  'the invisible one here-with-me will be short'   (Howe 2000: 5)

External links

Bibliography

  • Boas, Franz. (1928). Bella Bella texts. Columbia University contributions to anthropology (No. 5).
  • Boas, Franz. (1932). Bella Bella tales. Memoirs of the American Folklore Society (No. 25).
  • Hanuse, R., Sr.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (Eds.) (1983?). The Adjee and the Little Girl. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Hilton, Suzanne; & Rath, John C. (1982). Oowekeeno oral traditions. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.
  • Howe, Darin. (1998). Aspects of Heiltsuk laryngeal phonology. Ms., University of British Columbia.
  • Howe, Darin M. (2000). Oowekyala segmental phonology. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa).
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). What time is it? Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). Fishing at Rivers Inlet. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). Qaquthanugva uikala. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). Sisa'kvimas. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1983?). ’Katemxvs ’Wuik’ala. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Johnson, S.; Smith, H.; & Stevenson, D. (1984?). Oowekyala words. Rivers Inlet, BC: Oowekyala Language Project.
  • Lincoln, Neville J.; & Rath, John C. (1980). North Wakashan comparative root list. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.
  • Poser, William J. (2003). The status of documentation for British Columbia native languages. Yinka Dene Language Institute Technical Report (No. 2). Vanderhoof, British Columbia: Yinka Dene Language Institute.
  • Rath, John C. (1981). A practical Heiltsuk-English dictionary. Canadian Ethnology Service, Mercury Series paper (No. 75). Ottawa: National Museum of Man.
  • Stevenson, David. (1980). The Oowekeeno people: A cultural history. Ottawa, Ontario: National Museum of Man (now Hull, Quebec: Museum of Civilization). (Unpublished).
  • Stevenson, David. (1982). The ceremonial names of the Oowekeeno people of Rivers Inlet. Ottawa, Ontario: National Museum of Man (now Hull, Quebec: Museum of Civilization). (Unpublished).
  • Storie, Susanne. (Ed.). (1973). Oweekano Stories. (Special Collections: E99). Victoria: British Columbia Indian Advisory Committee.
  • Windsor, Evelyn W. (1982). Oowekeeno oral traditions as told by the late chief Simon Walkus, Sr. Hilton, S.; & Rath, J. C. (Eds.). Mercury series (No. 84). Ottawa: National Museum of Man.

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